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Mineral mapping and applications of imaging spectroscopy

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Roger N. Clark,
Joe Boardman,
Jack Mustard, Fred Kruse,
Cindy Ong, Carle Pieters,
And Gregg Swayze
IGARSS
August 1, 2006
Mineral Mapping
and Applications of
Imaging Spectroscopy
Mars
Cuprite 1-um 3d
This talk is like a drink from a fire hose………
Illustrating diverse mineral mapping
being done with Imaging Spectroscopy.
Cuprite 2um 3d
We honor Alex Goetz with (yet) another look at Cuprite
Mineral deposits.
Provide resources for
modern society.
Possible sources of
life.
Possible sources of
acidic water.
Cuprite, Nevada is
an ancient
hydrothermal
alteration system
(like yellowstone.)
A real-world example
Let’s look for
well-crystallized
kaolinite at Cuprite.
Mineral mapping and applications of imaging spectroscopy
Mineral mapping and applications of imaging spectroscopy

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Mineral mapping and applications of imaging spectroscopy

  • 1. Roger N. Clark, Joe Boardman, Jack Mustard, Fred Kruse, Cindy Ong, Carle Pieters, And Gregg Swayze IGARSS August 1, 2006 Mineral Mapping and Applications of Imaging Spectroscopy Mars
  • 2. Cuprite 1-um 3d This talk is like a drink from a fire hose……… Illustrating diverse mineral mapping being done with Imaging Spectroscopy.
  • 3. Cuprite 2um 3d We honor Alex Goetz with (yet) another look at Cuprite
  • 4. Mineral deposits. Provide resources for modern society. Possible sources of life. Possible sources of acidic water. Cuprite, Nevada is an ancient hydrothermal alteration system (like yellowstone.) A real-world example Let’s look for well-crystallized kaolinite at Cuprite.
  • 7. AVIRIS Kaolinite Hyperion Kaolinite Very similar results despite Very different methods Kruse analysis for Kaolinite Group minerals (above): ACORN, MNF transform. Pixel Purity Index, n-D Visualizer, Spectral Analyst, Classification and subpixel analysis, Mixture-Tuned-Matched- Filtering (MTMF) Clark et al. JGR 2003 Tetracorder analysis (left)
  • 10. March 1, 2001 EO-1 Hyperion Mineral Map Kruse analysis: ACORN, MNF transform. Pixel Purity Index, n-D Visualizer, Spectral Analyst, Classification and subpixel analysis, Mixture-Tuned-Matched- Filtering (MTMF) 19 June 1997 AVIRIS Spectrally Predominant Mineral Map Clark et al. JGR 2003 Tetracorder analysis
  • 11. But How Better to Honor Alex Than to Find Something New at Good Old Cuprite? Buddingtonite, Even! •MTMF applied to 1999 HyMap AIG Cuprite data •Finds NEW Buddingtonite! •Better algorithms + better data = better geologic results New! Alex’s Buddingtonite From Joe Boardman
  • 12. MTMF Finds Buddingtonite at ~1% Abundance (New location verified by Gregg Swayze) purest detection weakest detection buddingtonite feature New discovery after how many years as a test site? If Cuprite still has secrets, we have only just begun! From Joe Boardman
  • 13. Yellowstone Yellowstone thermal pool. Colors indicate life living at different temperatures. Yellowstone
  • 14. Major distinctive mineralogy from TES/THEMIS: Olivine (Hoefen et al. (2003); Hamilton and Christensen (2005) Hoefen et al. (2003) Hamilton and Christensen (2005 Olivine Mineral Mapping on Mars Hoefen et al. (2003)
  • 15. Regional map of Syrtis Major region showing regions enriched in olivine, High Calcium Pyroxene (HCP) and Low Calcium Pyroxene (LCP). Results draped over MOLA shaded relief Mustard et al., Science, 2005 Mars: Mineral Mapping with OMEGA
  • 16. 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 Basalt HCP-enriched Olivine-rich LCP-enriched Phyllosilicate Wavelength (µm) RelativeReflectance Local map of Nili Fossae region showing regions enriched in olivine (red), LCP (green) and Phyllosilcate (blue). Results draped over HRSC imaging Mustard et al., 2006
  • 17. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Reflectance Wavelength nm Lunar Mineral Separates Soils Adsorbed Water Olivine Pyroxenes Plagioclase Melt-G Cr-Spinel Melt-C Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Chandrayaan-1 launches in early 2008 from India – 100 km circular polar Orbit – Two year mission duration – PI: C. Pieters, Brown U.; Built by JPL M3 is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer – 40 km FOV, contiguous orbits – 0.43 to 3.0 µm, high SNR – 1 Gbyte/orbit Targeted Mode: Optimum – Resolution (100 km orbit): • 70 m/pixel spatial • 10 nm spectral [261 bands] – 3 optical periods [10 - 30% coverage] • 12 to 15 deg latitude/orbit Global Mode: Full Coverage – Resolution (100 km orbit): • 140 m/pixel spatial • 20 & 40 nm selected (87 bands, ~3x spectral averaging) – 1 optical period [100%]
  • 18. Clark et al., JGR (2003) Ice shows a large range of spectral properties as a function of grain size. Phase change shifts bands. This allows ice grain size and melting snow to be mapped.
  • 19. Cassini VIMS Enceladus Ice Map Brown et al., Science, 311, p. 1425-1428, 2006. Cassini ISS Image of active plumes Enceladus: 260 km in radius Orbital radius: 4 Saturn radii Active plumes contribute to E-ring Very bright surface. Porco et al., Science, 2006.
  • 21. Environmental Studies of the World Trade Center area after the September 11, 2001 attack. Roger N. Clark, Robert O. Green, Gregg A. Swayze, Greg Meeker, Steve Sutley, Todd M. Hoefen, K. Eric Livo, Geoff Plumlee, Betina Pavri, Chuck Sarture, Steve Wilson, Phil Hageman, Paul Lamothe, J. Sam Vance, Joe Boardman, Isabelle Brownfield, Carol Gent, Laurie C. Morath, Joseph Taggart, Peter M. Theodorakos, and Monique Adams USGS NASA/JPL USEPA
  • 22. AVIRIS sees the fires through the smoke, making repeat observations • Sept 16th fire images were delivered to the White House where agencies were briefed on the results and implications. • Tuesday evening, Sept. 18: fire fighting methods were changed. CNN announces the firefighters are changing from a rescue operation to a recovery effort. • Flights occur Sept 16, 18, 22, and 23, 2001. • The fire fighting strategy helped. • Spectral shape was used to determine fire temperatures; intensity the area of the fires. • Analysis of fire temperatures Indicated over 800o C on 9/16, but mostly out by 9/23.
  • 23. The debris has the same composition as the rest of the city • The similarities in composition makes mapping WTC materials a challenge. • The same materials can be seen throughout the city. • But one can use context to see the debris cloud.
  • 25. Orange pixels indicate possible serpentines. Clark et al., American Chemical Society, 2005. Green to yellow: WTC dust. Spectroscopy was done on each WTC sample then each sample was chemically and physically analyzed (Swayze et al., ACS, 2005). Synthesis of Results: AVIRIS + Sample Analysis
  • 26. Spectrometers: evolution in size AVIRIS Moon Mineral Mapper ASD Spectrometer
  • 27. • Imaging Spectroscopy has matured in the last few years showing abilities to map materials in environmental and disaster situations. As well as geology and ecosystems. • As reference reflectance spectral libraries become mature, more applications could be developed, including screening methods, real time monitoring, and post event assessment. • Applications could include detection and mapping of minerals, organics, mineral fibers, biota, fires and their temperatures and many other materials. • Operational imaging spectrometers are working throughout the Solar System Conclusions
  • 28. A field spectrometer is used to measure the composition of a mud pit in Yellowstone National Park (it is kaolinite). Imaging Spectroscopy: A powerful Tool Thank You Alex!