AVIRISKaoliniteHyperionKaoliniteVery similar results despiteVery different methodsKruse analysis for KaoliniteGroup minerals (above):ACORN, MNF transform.Pixel Purity Index,n-D Visualizer,Spectral Analyst,Classification andsubpixel analysis,Mixture-Tuned-Matched-Filtering (MTMF)Clark et al. JGR 2003Tetracorder analysis (left)
March 1, 2001EO-1 HyperionMineral MapKruse analysis:ACORN, MNF transform.Pixel Purity Index,n-D Visualizer,Spectral Analyst,Classification andsubpixel analysis,Mixture-Tuned-Matched-Filtering (MTMF)19 June 1997 AVIRISSpectrally PredominantMineral MapClark et al. JGR 2003 Tetracorder analysis
But How Better to Honor Alex Than to FindSomething New at Good Old Cuprite?Buddingtonite, Even!•MTMF applied to1999 HyMap AIGCuprite data•Finds NEWBuddingtonite!•Better algorithms +better data = bettergeologic resultsNew!Alex’sBuddingtoniteFrom Joe Boardman
MTMF Finds Buddingtonite at ~1% Abundance(New location verified by Gregg Swayze)purestdetectionweakestdetectionbuddingtonitefeatureNew discoveryafter how manyyears as a testsite?If Cuprite still has secrets, we have only just begun!From Joe Boardman
YellowstoneYellowstone thermal pool.Colors indicate life living atdifferent temperatures.Yellowstone
Major distinctive mineralogy from TES/THEMIS: Olivine(Hoefen et al. (2003); Hamilton and Christensen (2005)Hoefen et al. (2003)Hamilton and Christensen (2005OlivineMineral Mapping on MarsHoefen et al. (2003)
Regional map of Syrtis Majorregion showing regionsenriched in olivine, HighCalcium Pyroxene (HCP) andLow Calcium Pyroxene (LCP).Results draped over MOLAshaded reliefMustard et al.,Science, 2005Mars:MineralMappingwithOMEGA
00.10.20.30.22.214.171.12400 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000ReflectanceWavelength nmLunar Mineral SeparatesSoilsAdsorbedWaterOlivinePyroxenesPlagioclaseMelt-GCr-SpinelMelt-CMoon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)Chandrayaan-1 launches in early 2008from India– 100 km circular polar Orbit– Two year mission duration– PI: C. Pieters, Brown U.; Built by JPLM3 is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer– 40 km FOV, contiguous orbits– 0.43 to 3.0 µm, high SNR– 1 Gbyte/orbitTargeted Mode: Optimum– Resolution (100 km orbit):• 70 m/pixel spatial• 10 nm spectral [261 bands]– 3 optical periods [10 - 30% coverage]• 12 to 15 deg latitude/orbitGlobal Mode: Full Coverage– Resolution (100 km orbit):• 140 m/pixel spatial• 20 & 40 nm selected (87 bands,~3x spectral averaging)– 1 optical period [100%]
Clark et al., JGR (2003)Ice shows a largerange of spectralproperties as afunction ofgrain size. Phasechange shiftsbands. This allowsice grain size andmelting snow to bemapped.
Cassini VIMS Enceladus Ice MapBrown et al., Science, 311, p. 1425-1428, 2006.Cassini ISS Imageof active plumesEnceladus:260 km in radiusOrbital radius:4 Saturn radiiActive plumescontribute to E-ringVery bright surface.Porco et al., Science,2006.
Environmental Studies of the World Trade Centerarea after the September 11, 2001 attack.Roger N. Clark, Robert O. Green,Gregg A. Swayze, Greg Meeker,Steve Sutley, Todd M. Hoefen,K. Eric Livo, Geoff Plumlee,Betina Pavri, Chuck Sarture,Steve Wilson, Phil Hageman,Paul Lamothe, J. Sam Vance, JoeBoardman, Isabelle Brownfield,Carol Gent, Laurie C. Morath,Joseph Taggart,Peter M. Theodorakos, andMonique AdamsUSGS NASA/JPL USEPA
AVIRIS sees the fires throughthe smoke, making repeatobservations• Sept 16th fire images were deliveredto the White House where agencieswere briefed on the results andimplications.• Tuesday evening, Sept. 18: firefighting methods were changed.CNN announces the firefighters arechanging from a rescue operation toa recovery effort.• Flights occur Sept 16, 18, 22, and23, 2001.• The fire fighting strategy helped.• Spectral shape was used todetermine fire temperatures;intensity the area of the fires.• Analysis of fire temperaturesIndicated over 800o C on 9/16, butmostly out by 9/23.
The debris has the samecomposition as the restof the city• The similarities incomposition makes mappingWTC materials a challenge.• The same materials can beseen throughout the city.• But one can use context tosee the debris cloud.
Orange pixels indicate possibleserpentines.Clark et al., American ChemicalSociety, 2005.Green to yellow: WTC dust.Spectroscopy was done on each WTCsample then each sample was chemicallyand physically analyzed(Swayze et al., ACS, 2005).Synthesis of Results:AVIRIS + Sample Analysis
Spectrometers: evolution in sizeAVIRISMoon MineralMapperASD Spectrometer
• Imaging Spectroscopy has maturedin the last few years showing abilitiesto map materials in environmentaland disaster situations. As well asgeology and ecosystems.• As reference reflectance spectrallibraries become mature, moreapplications could be developed,including screening methods, realtime monitoring, and post eventassessment.• Applications could include detectionand mapping of minerals, organics,mineral fibers, biota, fires and theirtemperatures and many othermaterials.• Operational imaging spectrometersare working throughout the SolarSystemConclusions
A field spectrometer is used to measure the compositionof a mud pit in Yellowstone National Park (it is kaolinite).Imaging Spectroscopy:A powerful ToolThankYouAlex!