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1www.exploreHR.org
Developing EffectiveDeveloping Effective
Communication SkillsCommunication Skills
2www.exploreHR.org
ContentsContents
1. Basic Communication Principles
2. Communication Trilogy : Giving Good Information,
Gathering Good Information, and Building Mutual
Trust
3. Developing Assertive Communication Skills
4. Seven Positive Principles for Cooperative
Communication
5. Developing Active Listening Skills
If you find this presentation useful, please consider telling others
about our site (www.exploreHR.org)
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EffectiveEffective
CommunicationCommunication
Effective CommunicationEffective Communication
ProductiveProductive
RelationshipRelationship
4www.exploreHR.org
Our valuesOur values
The Success SequenceThe Success Sequence
Our BeliefsOur Beliefs
(self esteem(self esteem
and self image)and self image)
Our thoughtsOur thoughts
EffectiveEffective
CommunicationCommunication
5www.exploreHR.org
Our values,
beliefs, and
thoughts
The Success SequenceThe Success Sequence
What we say
and do
Results
Self-
fulfilling
prophecy
6www.exploreHR.org
We communicate to……We communicate to……
• Get information
• Motivate
• Cheat
• Praise
• Make arrangements
• Give advice
• Sell
• Greet
• Abuse
• Etc
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Verbal, vocal and visualVerbal, vocal and visual
Verbal :Verbal :
The message that
we deliver
Vocal :Vocal :
The voice that we
convey
Visual :Visual :
Our body language
CommunicationCommunication
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Studies tell 70 % of mistakes in theStudies tell 70 % of mistakes in the
workplace are a direct result of poorworkplace are a direct result of poor
communication…..communication…..
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Causes of Communication Difficulties:Causes of Communication Difficulties:
• Lack of information and knowledge
• Not explaining priorities or goals properly
• Not listening
• Not understanding fully and fail to ask questions
• Mind made up, preconceived ideas
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Causes of Communication Difficulties:Causes of Communication Difficulties:
• Not understanding others’ needs
• Not thinking clearly, jumping to conclusions
• Bad mood
• Failure to explore alternatives
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Communication failures can cause…..Communication failures can cause…..
• Loss of business
• Mistakes, inefficiencies
• Lowered productivity
• Poor coordination and cooperation
• Damaged personal or company image
• Frustration, hostility
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Communication failures can cause…..Communication failures can cause…..
• Dissatisfaction with others
• Lowered morale
• Loss of team spirit
• High employee turnover
• Conflict and arguments
• Drop in self esteem and confidence
• Loss of friendship
13www.exploreHR.org
• Premature evaluation
• Prejudice
• Inattention
• Stereotyping
• Assumption
• Generalizing
• Poor listening skills
• Fixed ideas
• Preconceptions
• Ignoring or distorting information contrary to our beliefs
Some Common Communication FiltersSome Common Communication Filters
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Everything we do is communicationEverything we do is communication
The way we begin our message often determinesThe way we begin our message often determines
the outcome of the communicationthe outcome of the communication
The way message is delivered always effects theThe way message is delivered always effects the
way message is receivedway message is received
Basic Communication PrinciplesBasic Communication Principles
15www.exploreHR.org
The real communication is the message received,The real communication is the message received,
not the message intendednot the message intended
Communication is two way street – we have toCommunication is two way street – we have to
give as well as gathergive as well as gather
Basic Communication PrinciplesBasic Communication Principles
16www.exploreHR.org
Give goodGive good
informationinformation
Gather goodGather good
informationinformation
MutualMutual
respectrespect
Communication TrilogyCommunication Trilogy
17www.exploreHR.org
Six C of giving good informationSix C of giving good information
Give Good InformationGive Good Information
ClearClear ConciseConcise
CourteousCourteousCompleteComplete
CorrectCorrect
ConcreteConcrete
18www.exploreHR.org
Give Good InformationGive Good Information
• Use precise, memorable and powerful wordsUse precise, memorable and powerful words
• Support your words with visual aidsSupport your words with visual aids
• Give demonstrationGive demonstration
• Provide examples/metaphors/analogiesProvide examples/metaphors/analogies
• Use the other person “language”Use the other person “language”
When giving information………When giving information………
19www.exploreHR.org
7 Positive Principles for7 Positive Principles for
Cooperative CommunicationCooperative Communication
1. Soften the ‘you’s or change the into “I” to avoid soundingavoid sounding
pushypushy
• Instead of : ‘You’ll have to….’, say ‘Could you….’ Or
‘Would you be able to….’
2.2. Focus on the solutionFocus on the solution, not the problem
• Instead of ‘We’re out of mild….’, say ‘I will pop down
the shop for some milk’.
20www.exploreHR.org
7 Positive Principles for7 Positive Principles for
Cooperative CommunicationCooperative Communication
3. Turn can’ts into canscan’ts into cans
• Instead of ‘We can’t do that until next week’, say ‘We’ll
be able to do that next week’.
4.4. Take responsibilityTake responsibility – don’t lay blame
• Instead if ‘It’s not my fault’, say ‘Here’s what I can do to
fox that’.
21www.exploreHR.org
7 Positive Principles for7 Positive Principles for
Cooperative CommunicationCooperative Communication
5.5. Say what do you wantSay what do you want, not what you don’t want
• Instead of ‘Don’t; drive too fast’, say ‘Drive carefully’
5.5. Focus on the futureFocus on the future, not the past
• Instead of “I’ve told you before not to……, say ‘From
now on…….”
5.5. Share informationShare information rather than argue or accuse
• Instead of ‘No, you’re wrong’, say ‘I see it like this….’
22www.exploreHR.org
Assertive CommunicationAssertive Communication
• Make statements that are honest, clear,
brief, and to the point
• Use “I” statement : I’d like, I appreciate,
I think
• Distinguish between fact and opinion
• Ask, don’t tell
• Offer improvement suggestions, not
advice and commands
Verbally,Verbally,
assertiveassertive
people :people :
23www.exploreHR.org
Assertive CommunicationAssertive Communication
Verbally,Verbally,
assertiveassertive
people :people :
• Offer constructive criticism, free of blame,
assumptions, and ‘shoulds’
• Ask questions to find out the thoughts
and feelings of others
• Respect the rights of others as well as
their own rights
• Communicate mutual respect where the
needs of two people conflict, and look for
mutually acceptable solutions
24www.exploreHR.org
Assertive CommunicationAssertive Communication
NonNon
Verbally,Verbally,
assertiveassertive
people :people :
• Make appropriate eye contact
• Sit or stand firmly and comfortably erect
• Gesture openly to support their
comments
• Speak in a clear, steady, firm tone of
voice
25www.exploreHR.org
Assertive CommunicationAssertive Communication
NonNon
Verbally,Verbally,
assertiveassertive
people :people :
• Maintain open, steady, relaxed facial
expressions, smiling when pleased,
frowning when angry
• Speak a steady, even pace,
emphasizing key words, with few
awkward hesitations
26www.exploreHR.org
Manage your body languageManage your body language
• Sit or stand at right angles and on the same level, and
respect people’s personal space zones
• Use open gestures and body language
• Center your attention exclusively on the other person
• Lean slightly forward to show interest; a bit further forward
to apply pressure, slightly back to reduce pressure
27www.exploreHR.org
Manage your body languageManage your body language
• Maintain appropriate eye contact while listening to
encourage the speaker; increase eye contact to apply
pressure; reduce it to lower pressure
• Respond appropriately by basing your responses on what
the other person has just said
• Be relaxed and balanced to make relaxed and open
communication easier
28www.exploreHR.org
Gather Good Information withGather Good Information with
your EARsyour EARs
EE – explore by asking questions
AA – affirm to show you’re listening
RR – reflect your understanding
SS – silence, listen some more
29www.exploreHR.org
Exploring QuestionsExploring Questions
Open
Questions
Open questions yield lots of information
because they allow a person to explain what is
most important or interesting and encourage
elaboration.
Probing
Questions
Probing questions are those that relate to the
topic we want to explore further. They
encourage the speaker to flesh out the details.
30www.exploreHR.org
Closed vs. Open QuestionsClosed vs. Open Questions
When did that happen? What led up to that?
Was your trip successful? What did you manage to
accomplish on your trip?
Did you like the candidate? In what ways do you think that
candidate meets our need?
Did you have a good meeting? What happened at the meeting?
31www.exploreHR.org
Some Probing QuestionsSome Probing Questions
• Can you be more specifics?
• Can you give me an example of that?
• What happened then?
• For instance?
• How does this affect you?
• What might cause that, do you think?
• Can you fill me in on the details?
32www.exploreHR.org
Active ListeningActive Listening
Giving undivided attention to a speaker in a
genuine effort to understand the speaker's
point of view.
This involves giving them your full attention
and the use of verbal encouragers such as
“Yes”, “Aha” and “Mmm”.
It also includes non-verbal acknowledgements
such as nodding, smiling and body language.
Active
Listening
33www.exploreHR.org
Benefits of Active ListeningBenefits of Active Listening
1. It forces people to listen attentively to others
2. It avoids misunderstandings, as people have to
confirm that they do really understand what another
person has said
3. It tends to open people up, to get them to say more
34www.exploreHR.org
5 Active Listening Skills5 Active Listening Skills
• Paraphrasing meanings:Paraphrasing meanings: Translate into your own words
what the speaker has said
• Reflecting feelings:Reflecting feelings: when someone is expressing emotion
or feelings or looks emotional (upset, angry, excited),
convey your empathy and encourage the speaker to
continue
• Reflecting factsReflecting facts: briefly summarize the content, or factual
aspects, of what the speaker has said.
35www.exploreHR.org
5 Active Listening Skills5 Active Listening Skills
• Synthesizing:Synthesizing: blend several ideas of the speaker into one
theme or idea.
• Imagining out loud:Imagining out loud: imagine what it must be like to be in
the speaker’s place
36www.exploreHR.org
To listen more effectively…..To listen more effectively…..
Attend physicallyAttend physically – the right body language helps us to
focus on the speaker and encourages the speaker to give
us more information.
Attend mentallyAttend mentally – follow the speaker’s flow of thought,
listen to understand, not evaluate; listen first, then assess
Check it verballyCheck it verbally – paraphrase, clarify, probe further,
summarize your understanding
37www.exploreHR.org
Bad Habits of Poor ListenersBad Habits of Poor Listeners
• Interrupting
• Jumping to conclusions
• Finishing others’ sentences for them
• Frequently (and often abruptly) changing the subject
• Inattentive body language
• Not responding to what others have said
• Failing to ask questions and give feedback
38www.exploreHR.org
Good Habits of Effective ListenersGood Habits of Effective Listeners
• Looking at the speaker in order to observe body language and
pick up subtle nuances of speech
• Asking questions
• Giving speakers time to articulate their thoughts
• Letting people finish what they are saying before giving their
opinion
• Remaining poised, calm, and emotionally controlled
• Looking alert and interested
• Responding with nods and ‘uh-uhms’.
39www.exploreHR.org
When receiving/listening feedbackWhen receiving/listening feedback
• Listen, don’t resistListen, don’t resist
• Keep calmKeep calm and keep breathing
• Let your body language show you areyou are
receptivereceptive
• Ask questionsAsk questions to make sure you’ve
understood
• Don’t be overlyDon’t be overly sensitivesensitive, self
protective or cavalier
Receiving
feedback
40www.exploreHR.org
When receiving/listening feedbackWhen receiving/listening feedback
Receiving
feedback
• Does the person offering feedback
know what they’re talking aboutknow what they’re talking about?
• What other information do you haveother information do you have
that supports the feedback?
• If you’re tempted to ignore it, do you
have evidence that contradicts theevidence that contradicts the
feedbackfeedback?
41www.exploreHR.org
When receiving/listening criticismWhen receiving/listening criticism
• Make sure your self image stays positiveself image stays positive.
• Mentally examine your critic’s intentions so you will know howhow
best to deal with the informationbest to deal with the information.
• Filter the criticismFilter the criticism. Strain out emotion and find the facts. Then
you can respond to the useful information.
• Ask questionsAsk questions until you understand what the speaker is trying to
tell you.
• Don’t make excuseDon’t make excuse. Listen to understand.
• Focus on the futureFocus on the future : what can you do to improve?
42www.exploreHR.org
Recommended Further Readings:
1. Kris Cole, Crystal Clear Communication : Skills for Understanding and
Being Understood, Synergy Books International
2. David A. Whetten and Kim S. Cameron, Developing Management Skills,
Harpers Collins Publisher.
43www.exploreHR.org
End of Material

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Communication skills

  • 2. 2www.exploreHR.org ContentsContents 1. Basic Communication Principles 2. Communication Trilogy : Giving Good Information, Gathering Good Information, and Building Mutual Trust 3. Developing Assertive Communication Skills 4. Seven Positive Principles for Cooperative Communication 5. Developing Active Listening Skills If you find this presentation useful, please consider telling others about our site (www.exploreHR.org)
  • 4. 4www.exploreHR.org Our valuesOur values The Success SequenceThe Success Sequence Our BeliefsOur Beliefs (self esteem(self esteem and self image)and self image) Our thoughtsOur thoughts EffectiveEffective CommunicationCommunication
  • 5. 5www.exploreHR.org Our values, beliefs, and thoughts The Success SequenceThe Success Sequence What we say and do Results Self- fulfilling prophecy
  • 6. 6www.exploreHR.org We communicate to……We communicate to…… • Get information • Motivate • Cheat • Praise • Make arrangements • Give advice • Sell • Greet • Abuse • Etc
  • 7. 7www.exploreHR.org Verbal, vocal and visualVerbal, vocal and visual Verbal :Verbal : The message that we deliver Vocal :Vocal : The voice that we convey Visual :Visual : Our body language CommunicationCommunication
  • 8. 8www.exploreHR.org Studies tell 70 % of mistakes in theStudies tell 70 % of mistakes in the workplace are a direct result of poorworkplace are a direct result of poor communication…..communication…..
  • 9. 9www.exploreHR.org Causes of Communication Difficulties:Causes of Communication Difficulties: • Lack of information and knowledge • Not explaining priorities or goals properly • Not listening • Not understanding fully and fail to ask questions • Mind made up, preconceived ideas
  • 10. 10www.exploreHR.org Causes of Communication Difficulties:Causes of Communication Difficulties: • Not understanding others’ needs • Not thinking clearly, jumping to conclusions • Bad mood • Failure to explore alternatives
  • 11. 11www.exploreHR.org Communication failures can cause…..Communication failures can cause….. • Loss of business • Mistakes, inefficiencies • Lowered productivity • Poor coordination and cooperation • Damaged personal or company image • Frustration, hostility
  • 12. 12www.exploreHR.org Communication failures can cause…..Communication failures can cause….. • Dissatisfaction with others • Lowered morale • Loss of team spirit • High employee turnover • Conflict and arguments • Drop in self esteem and confidence • Loss of friendship
  • 13. 13www.exploreHR.org • Premature evaluation • Prejudice • Inattention • Stereotyping • Assumption • Generalizing • Poor listening skills • Fixed ideas • Preconceptions • Ignoring or distorting information contrary to our beliefs Some Common Communication FiltersSome Common Communication Filters
  • 14. 14www.exploreHR.org Everything we do is communicationEverything we do is communication The way we begin our message often determinesThe way we begin our message often determines the outcome of the communicationthe outcome of the communication The way message is delivered always effects theThe way message is delivered always effects the way message is receivedway message is received Basic Communication PrinciplesBasic Communication Principles
  • 15. 15www.exploreHR.org The real communication is the message received,The real communication is the message received, not the message intendednot the message intended Communication is two way street – we have toCommunication is two way street – we have to give as well as gathergive as well as gather Basic Communication PrinciplesBasic Communication Principles
  • 16. 16www.exploreHR.org Give goodGive good informationinformation Gather goodGather good informationinformation MutualMutual respectrespect Communication TrilogyCommunication Trilogy
  • 17. 17www.exploreHR.org Six C of giving good informationSix C of giving good information Give Good InformationGive Good Information ClearClear ConciseConcise CourteousCourteousCompleteComplete CorrectCorrect ConcreteConcrete
  • 18. 18www.exploreHR.org Give Good InformationGive Good Information • Use precise, memorable and powerful wordsUse precise, memorable and powerful words • Support your words with visual aidsSupport your words with visual aids • Give demonstrationGive demonstration • Provide examples/metaphors/analogiesProvide examples/metaphors/analogies • Use the other person “language”Use the other person “language” When giving information………When giving information………
  • 19. 19www.exploreHR.org 7 Positive Principles for7 Positive Principles for Cooperative CommunicationCooperative Communication 1. Soften the ‘you’s or change the into “I” to avoid soundingavoid sounding pushypushy • Instead of : ‘You’ll have to….’, say ‘Could you….’ Or ‘Would you be able to….’ 2.2. Focus on the solutionFocus on the solution, not the problem • Instead of ‘We’re out of mild….’, say ‘I will pop down the shop for some milk’.
  • 20. 20www.exploreHR.org 7 Positive Principles for7 Positive Principles for Cooperative CommunicationCooperative Communication 3. Turn can’ts into canscan’ts into cans • Instead of ‘We can’t do that until next week’, say ‘We’ll be able to do that next week’. 4.4. Take responsibilityTake responsibility – don’t lay blame • Instead if ‘It’s not my fault’, say ‘Here’s what I can do to fox that’.
  • 21. 21www.exploreHR.org 7 Positive Principles for7 Positive Principles for Cooperative CommunicationCooperative Communication 5.5. Say what do you wantSay what do you want, not what you don’t want • Instead of ‘Don’t; drive too fast’, say ‘Drive carefully’ 5.5. Focus on the futureFocus on the future, not the past • Instead of “I’ve told you before not to……, say ‘From now on…….” 5.5. Share informationShare information rather than argue or accuse • Instead of ‘No, you’re wrong’, say ‘I see it like this….’
  • 22. 22www.exploreHR.org Assertive CommunicationAssertive Communication • Make statements that are honest, clear, brief, and to the point • Use “I” statement : I’d like, I appreciate, I think • Distinguish between fact and opinion • Ask, don’t tell • Offer improvement suggestions, not advice and commands Verbally,Verbally, assertiveassertive people :people :
  • 23. 23www.exploreHR.org Assertive CommunicationAssertive Communication Verbally,Verbally, assertiveassertive people :people : • Offer constructive criticism, free of blame, assumptions, and ‘shoulds’ • Ask questions to find out the thoughts and feelings of others • Respect the rights of others as well as their own rights • Communicate mutual respect where the needs of two people conflict, and look for mutually acceptable solutions
  • 24. 24www.exploreHR.org Assertive CommunicationAssertive Communication NonNon Verbally,Verbally, assertiveassertive people :people : • Make appropriate eye contact • Sit or stand firmly and comfortably erect • Gesture openly to support their comments • Speak in a clear, steady, firm tone of voice
  • 25. 25www.exploreHR.org Assertive CommunicationAssertive Communication NonNon Verbally,Verbally, assertiveassertive people :people : • Maintain open, steady, relaxed facial expressions, smiling when pleased, frowning when angry • Speak a steady, even pace, emphasizing key words, with few awkward hesitations
  • 26. 26www.exploreHR.org Manage your body languageManage your body language • Sit or stand at right angles and on the same level, and respect people’s personal space zones • Use open gestures and body language • Center your attention exclusively on the other person • Lean slightly forward to show interest; a bit further forward to apply pressure, slightly back to reduce pressure
  • 27. 27www.exploreHR.org Manage your body languageManage your body language • Maintain appropriate eye contact while listening to encourage the speaker; increase eye contact to apply pressure; reduce it to lower pressure • Respond appropriately by basing your responses on what the other person has just said • Be relaxed and balanced to make relaxed and open communication easier
  • 28. 28www.exploreHR.org Gather Good Information withGather Good Information with your EARsyour EARs EE – explore by asking questions AA – affirm to show you’re listening RR – reflect your understanding SS – silence, listen some more
  • 29. 29www.exploreHR.org Exploring QuestionsExploring Questions Open Questions Open questions yield lots of information because they allow a person to explain what is most important or interesting and encourage elaboration. Probing Questions Probing questions are those that relate to the topic we want to explore further. They encourage the speaker to flesh out the details.
  • 30. 30www.exploreHR.org Closed vs. Open QuestionsClosed vs. Open Questions When did that happen? What led up to that? Was your trip successful? What did you manage to accomplish on your trip? Did you like the candidate? In what ways do you think that candidate meets our need? Did you have a good meeting? What happened at the meeting?
  • 31. 31www.exploreHR.org Some Probing QuestionsSome Probing Questions • Can you be more specifics? • Can you give me an example of that? • What happened then? • For instance? • How does this affect you? • What might cause that, do you think? • Can you fill me in on the details?
  • 32. 32www.exploreHR.org Active ListeningActive Listening Giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker's point of view. This involves giving them your full attention and the use of verbal encouragers such as “Yes”, “Aha” and “Mmm”. It also includes non-verbal acknowledgements such as nodding, smiling and body language. Active Listening
  • 33. 33www.exploreHR.org Benefits of Active ListeningBenefits of Active Listening 1. It forces people to listen attentively to others 2. It avoids misunderstandings, as people have to confirm that they do really understand what another person has said 3. It tends to open people up, to get them to say more
  • 34. 34www.exploreHR.org 5 Active Listening Skills5 Active Listening Skills • Paraphrasing meanings:Paraphrasing meanings: Translate into your own words what the speaker has said • Reflecting feelings:Reflecting feelings: when someone is expressing emotion or feelings or looks emotional (upset, angry, excited), convey your empathy and encourage the speaker to continue • Reflecting factsReflecting facts: briefly summarize the content, or factual aspects, of what the speaker has said.
  • 35. 35www.exploreHR.org 5 Active Listening Skills5 Active Listening Skills • Synthesizing:Synthesizing: blend several ideas of the speaker into one theme or idea. • Imagining out loud:Imagining out loud: imagine what it must be like to be in the speaker’s place
  • 36. 36www.exploreHR.org To listen more effectively…..To listen more effectively….. Attend physicallyAttend physically – the right body language helps us to focus on the speaker and encourages the speaker to give us more information. Attend mentallyAttend mentally – follow the speaker’s flow of thought, listen to understand, not evaluate; listen first, then assess Check it verballyCheck it verbally – paraphrase, clarify, probe further, summarize your understanding
  • 37. 37www.exploreHR.org Bad Habits of Poor ListenersBad Habits of Poor Listeners • Interrupting • Jumping to conclusions • Finishing others’ sentences for them • Frequently (and often abruptly) changing the subject • Inattentive body language • Not responding to what others have said • Failing to ask questions and give feedback
  • 38. 38www.exploreHR.org Good Habits of Effective ListenersGood Habits of Effective Listeners • Looking at the speaker in order to observe body language and pick up subtle nuances of speech • Asking questions • Giving speakers time to articulate their thoughts • Letting people finish what they are saying before giving their opinion • Remaining poised, calm, and emotionally controlled • Looking alert and interested • Responding with nods and ‘uh-uhms’.
  • 39. 39www.exploreHR.org When receiving/listening feedbackWhen receiving/listening feedback • Listen, don’t resistListen, don’t resist • Keep calmKeep calm and keep breathing • Let your body language show you areyou are receptivereceptive • Ask questionsAsk questions to make sure you’ve understood • Don’t be overlyDon’t be overly sensitivesensitive, self protective or cavalier Receiving feedback
  • 40. 40www.exploreHR.org When receiving/listening feedbackWhen receiving/listening feedback Receiving feedback • Does the person offering feedback know what they’re talking aboutknow what they’re talking about? • What other information do you haveother information do you have that supports the feedback? • If you’re tempted to ignore it, do you have evidence that contradicts theevidence that contradicts the feedbackfeedback?
  • 41. 41www.exploreHR.org When receiving/listening criticismWhen receiving/listening criticism • Make sure your self image stays positiveself image stays positive. • Mentally examine your critic’s intentions so you will know howhow best to deal with the informationbest to deal with the information. • Filter the criticismFilter the criticism. Strain out emotion and find the facts. Then you can respond to the useful information. • Ask questionsAsk questions until you understand what the speaker is trying to tell you. • Don’t make excuseDon’t make excuse. Listen to understand. • Focus on the futureFocus on the future : what can you do to improve?
  • 42. 42www.exploreHR.org Recommended Further Readings: 1. Kris Cole, Crystal Clear Communication : Skills for Understanding and Being Understood, Synergy Books International 2. David A. Whetten and Kim S. Cameron, Developing Management Skills, Harpers Collins Publisher.