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Kinds of research


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Kinds of research

  2. 2. 1.According to purpose • Predictive or prognostic research • Directive research • Illuminative research
  3. 3. Predictive or prognostic research • Refers to any scientific investigation in which the main and stated purpose is to predict the future operation of the factors investigated, so that inevitable things that must be done maybe controlled intelligently on the basis of knowledge about the analyzed trend of their occurrence over a definitely selected period of time
  4. 4. Directive research • It determines what should be done based on the findings. This is to remedy an unsatisfactory condition if there is any
  5. 5. Illuminative research • It is concerned with the interaction of the components of the variables being investigated.
  6. 6. 2.Research according to goal •Basic or pure research •Applied research
  7. 7. Basic or Pure research • It is done for the development of theories or principles. • It is conducted for the intellectual pleasure of learning • Much has been done in psychology and sociology
  8. 8. Applied research •It is the application of pure research •This is testing the efficacy of theories and principles
  9. 9. 3.Research according to the level of investigation •Exploratory research •Descriptive research •Experimental research
  10. 10. Exploratory research •The researcher studies the variables pertinent to the specific situation
  11. 11. Descriptive research •The researcher studies the relationship of the variables
  12. 12. Experimental Research •The researcher studies the effects of the variables on each other.
  13. 13. 4. Research according to the type of analysis • Analitic • Holistic
  14. 14. Analytic Approach • An analytic paper demands that you perform many tasks: formulate a thesis, gather sources, evaluate them, use them to support your original ideas, meticulously document everything you've done.
  15. 15. Holistic Approach • It begins with the total situation, focussing attention on the system first and then on the internal relationship.
  16. 16. 5.According to the scope • Action research. Is a research initiated to solve an immediate problem or a reflective process of progressive problem solving
  17. 17. 6. According to the choice of answers to the problem • Evaluation research • Developmental research
  18. 18. Evaluation research • All possible courses of action are specified and identified and the researcher tries to find the most advantageous.
  19. 19. Developmental research • The focus is on finding or developing a more suitable instrument or process
  20. 20. 7. Research according to statistical content • Quantitative • Non-quantitative
  21. 21. Quantitative research • Inferential statistics are utilized to determine the results of the study. Inferential statistics such as correlation, chi-square, analysis of variance, etc. are used to test the hypothesis. • This type of research usually includes comparison studies, cause and effect relationship, etc.
  22. 22. Non-quantitative • Descriptive data are gathered rather than quantitative data.
  23. 23. 8. According to time element • Historical research(what was) • Descriptive research(what is) • Experimental research( what will be)
  24. 24. Historical Research • Research that interprets past trends of attitude, event and fact.
  25. 25. Descriptive research • Fact finding with adequate interpretation. It is something more and beyond data gathering • Descriptive studies, primarily concerned with finding out "what is," might be applied to investigate the following questions: Do teachers hold favorable attitudes toward using computers in schools? What kinds of activities that involve technology occur in sixth-grade classrooms and how frequently do they occur? What have been the reactions of school administrators to technological innovations in teaching the social sciences? How have high school computing courses changed over the last 10 years? How do the new multimediated textbooks compare to the print-based textbooks?
  26. 26. Experimental research • Is a systematic and scientific approach to research in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables, and controls and measures any change in other variables. Experimental research is commonly used in sciences such as sociology and psychology, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine .