Republic of the Philippines
Commission on Higher Education
DON HONORIO VENTURA TECHNOLOGICAL STATE UNIVERSITY
REMY C. DATU
FINAL EXAMINATION: Research Methodology
2nd Trimester( S.Y. 2013-2014 )
PROFESSOR: Dr. Yolanda Crisostomo
Discussion of the parts of research.
The body of quantitative research generally consists of four main parts. (Manual of
Standards for Research, Legamia et.al.,2012) These are:
Chapter I. The Problem and Review of Related Literature and Studies
Chapter 2. Method
Chapter 3. Results and discussion
Chapter 4. Summary, Conclusions and recommendations
Chapter I: The Problem and Review of Related Literature and Studies
This chapter includes the following:
1. Introduction. It contains the discussion of certain observations which give evidence
of the existence of the problem. Statements of the factors leading to the choice of the problem,
the purpose of the study, the value and significance attached to the problem must be cited in this
part. Furthermore, problem under investigation, specific context where the problem prevails,
and primary aim of the study should be concisely described.
2. Review of related literature and Studies. This provide the researcher with the
theoretical background of information on what is already known on the area of interest and what
still needs to be done for his research undertaking. This will established a link between existing
literature and the current investigation. A summary of the review should be presented in a
synthesis, pointing out how the reviewed literature and studies are similar or different from the
3. Conceptual Framework. This section indicates all the constructs ( concepts),
definitions and propositions that relate to a research problem. It becomes the basis of the research
problem. It explains what has been done and what has been said on the problem being
investigated; and how the objective of the study may be attained.
4. Statement of the Problem. The onset of mind bugling exertion, the research problem.
Indentifying a problem to study can be challenging, not because there is a lack of issues that
could be investigated, but due to pursuing a goal of formulating a socially relevant and
researchable problem statement that is unique and does not simply duplicate the work of others.
The main problem generally expressed in declarative statement. The sub problems follow the
main problem and are usually stated in interrogative forms. Accordingly, the sub problems
should be able to answer the questions “who”, ” what”, “why”, “when”, “where”, and “ how”
of the main problem.
5. Hypothesis/Hypotheses. “Hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the expected
relationship between an independent and dependent variable.”(Creswell, 1994)
6. Significance of the Study. This is the section where it describes the importance of
the study to the society, country, government, institution or agency concerned.
7. Scope and limitation. It sets the boundaries of the study in terms of the problem, the
population and respondents and the setting.
8. Definition of terms. Important terms or variables in the title and unusual technical
terms in the study should be defined conceptually.
CHAPTER 2. METHODOLOGY
According to the materials I have used, this chapter explains the research design.
Among the topics included in the research design are the following:
1. METHOD OF RESEARCH USED … It indicates whether the study is experimental,
historical, descriptive research or may be a case study.
2. RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY…Population and the number of respondents
3. SAMPLING DESIGN…Describe the procedure of sampling in detail by stating the
size of sample to be used, from what population the sample will be drawn , how participants will
be selected and what are the criteria for inclusion of participants in the sample.
4. INSTRUMENT/S…Identifies the instruments to be used in gathering data( Tests,
questionnaires, interviews scales, observation, interviews, etc.)
5. DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE… Contains the step- by- step procedure used in
the conduct of research.
4. DATA ANALYSES/STATISTICAL TREATMENT… Identify what statistical tools
or data analysis technique will be used.
CHAPTER 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of findings in relation to the research
questions and hypotheses.
CHAPTER 4. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND
1. Summary of findings… It presents the highlights of the study. A bulk of this section
presents the most significant findings of the study, presenting mainly facts without explanation.
No new materials should be introduced and its contents must be based entirely on the text of the
thesis report(Gregorio, 2000).
2. Conclusion… This contains the most significant findings of the study.It provides
answer to the specific objectives and definite answer to the general problem. It should be briefly
written, specific, and simply worded.
3. Recommendations… These are statements found at the end of the report that
essentially suggest what to do with the findings obtained. They are usually divided into two
parts: the recommendations for the utilization of the research findings and those intended for