TO WHAT EXTENT WAS IT
IMPORTANT FOR THE
METROPOLE TO ADHERE TO THE
By Lewis Horne
Background: British and French Societies (1870-1914)
Imperialism and politics in the metropoles
Culture in the metropoles: Art & Propaganda
Education and imperialism
BRITISH AND FRENCH SOCIETIES (1870-
Age of New Imperialism- fuelled by industrial revolution and colonialism
Growing nationalism- influenced all colonizers
Minimalists- M. K. Booker, F. Madden, B. Porter
Maximalists- A. Burton, C. Hall, J. M. Mackenzie, J. Richards
Debate over ‘popular imperialism’ within France
Clash between imperialist advocates and colonialist oppositionists
Jameson: Split between ‘modernism’ and ‘popular culture’
Literature used as a means of spreading imperialism in the late 19th century
IMPERIALISM AND POLITICS IN THE METROPOLES
Politics in Britain
W. E. Gladstone (1868-74)- Liberal
Benjamin Disraeli (1874-1880)- Conservative
W. E. Gladstone- (1880-1885)- Liberal
Lord Salisbury (1885, 1886-1892, 1895-1902)- Conservative
Herbert Asquith (1908-1916)- Liberal
Britain acted as the model that most liberals throughout Europe sought to copy
Enoch Powell (Conservative)- ‘The British empire had been a ‘myth’ , a ‘deception’, an ‘invention’, all along’.
Parliamentary Reform Acts of 1867 and 1884
Politics in France
Opportunist Republicans: Jules Grevy (1879-1887), Armand Fallieres (1906-1913)
Political debate over African intervention
Clashes between pro- and anti-expansionists
‘Colonial group’- led by Eugene Etienne
CULTURE IN THE METROPOLES- ART
British imperialist art
Captured British imagination through: ‘hero-worship and sensational glory, adventure and the
Largely dictated by class
Artists 1880’s and 1890’s: (Artists) Lady Elizabeth Butler, Richard Woodville, (War Artists) Melton
Prior and Frederic Villiers
Utilized alongside propaganda and the news
Provided a heroic and romanticised vision of Empire
French imperialist art
Artists: Gustave Guillaumet, Etienne Dinet, Auguste Renoir, Jean Geiser
Imperial locations as sources of inspiration
Algeria, Bou Saâda
French public opinion was not systematically enthusiastic about new imperial acquisitions
Colonialism still heavily influenced a notable amount of cultural producers
CULTURE IN THE METROPOLES- PROPAGANDA
Promoted using: postcards, textbooks, toys and games, popular music, religious tracts and consumer
Empire sold to British public in terms of John Hobson’s view
Ideological Cluster: renewed militarism, a devotion to royalty, an identification and worship of
national heroes, a contemporary cult of personality and racial ideas associated with Social Darwinism
Exhibitions- use of imperial themes
‘Scramble for Africa’ caused an increase in pro- and anti-imperialist propaganda
‘colonial exhibitions’ in the metropole
EDUCATION AND IMPERIALISM
Propaganda utilized to encourage imperialism amongst younger generations
Particularly evident in public schools towards the end of the 19th century
Propagandists usually targeted the tertiary sector- universities
Royal Colonial Institute
Dramatic expansion of literacy between 1871-1900
history teaching in schools justified imperialism
Books about the Orient used as school prizes
Colonial developments and discoveries were integrated into medicine schools and universities
Britain- Imperialism Important
The imperialist mentality was unquestionably evident in the metropoles
Agree with Mackenzie- ‘governmental imperial support’, ‘imperial cluster’
‘popular imperialism’ constituted a large holding in British culture during the age of new
imperialism- yet consciousness of this is debateable
1870’s and 1880’s the empire and society began to need each other
Education was vital for the development of imperialism
France- Imperialism Less important
Berny Sebe- highlights the visibility of the colonial theme in the metropole
James. R. Akerman – The new French empire created after 1870 was not a manifestation of the
popular will, as public opinion was deeply sceptical about the benefits of overseas colonies until at
least the 1920’s’.
1890’s new popular imperialism in France was merely old popular nationalism in disguise
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