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• Risk assessment scenario and approaches for nuclearpower ..Project Structuring• Challenges and issues in control and mon...
Nuclear capacity additions are on the rise againSource: World Nuclear Association, Ernst & Young analysis, May            ...
Asia Pacific region sustained nuclear                                               new build through the 1990s           ...
Name             Location         Type   Rating   Status                                         MWeTarapur Atomic   Tarap...
Uncertainty in Lifecycle Nuclear Project Costs                  Spent Fuel and DecommissioningTo enable an expansion of nu...
Impact of construction delay on levelised cost (6.7% WACC)     Source: own calculations based on IEA(2006)Compared to othe...
COST INDEX                 SAFETY INDEX             Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd             Annual Nuclear Power ...
Stakeholders in Nuclear Power ProjectGovernment - which is responsible for overall energy policy and, in somecases, financ...
Focus areas for project owners to maximize their chances of success.Robust Business Plans                                 ...
Risk Management FrameworkThis integrated risk management (RM) approach generates benefits thatinclude the following:•Clear...
Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to       24th 2011 Singapore             12
Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to       24th 2011 Singapore             13
Table 2: Risk control and monitoring in nuclear power projects                                        Presented by Dr. Him...
Small is BeautifulSTRATEGY OF DISPERSION OF SMALL REACTORS          Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd          Annual N...
There are eight primary sources of nuclear costs whichpose major project risks:  The cost of the land upon which the nucle...
The cost of the land upon which the                  nuclear power plant (NPP) is builtLand related costs can be lowered i...
Costs related to designing the NPPSmall reactors, especially advanced technology small reactors, offeradvancements in siti...
Costs related to designing the NPP                        Clusters of Small Reactors                         Presented by ...
Costs related to designing the NPPFinally, design simplification can lower nuclear costs.The Generation IV Molten Salt Rea...
Cost related to the materials from which the NPP is builtThe material input into a NPP per watt of output typically decrea...
Cost related to the materials from which the NPP is builtFor example:The greater thermal efficiency of a reactor of simila...
Cost related to the materials from which the NPP is builtA more compact reactor core may lower material requirements.Thus ...
Cost related to the materials from which the NPP is builtSmall generation components can lower material requirements.Thus ...
Reactor Design Lowers Manufacturing CostsIn addition manufacturing costs can be lowered by simplifying reactordesign. Pass...
mPower Reactors from B&WThe B&W mPower reactor, with its scalable, modular design, has thecapacity to provide 125 MWe to 7...
Labour costs related to manufacture and construction.Labour costs can be lowered by shifting work from the field to afacto...
The cost of obtaining regulatory approval and permits like for                               waterThe current nuclear regu...
The cost of obtaining regulatory approval and permits like for waterIn addition to NRC license requirements, other license...
Investment related costs (interest, etc.)Interest accrues as nuclear power plant construction, and accrued interest mayamo...
Investment related costs (interest, etc.)Interest charges may reflect the markets assessment of project risks.The greater ...
Transportation and Access Related Costs Small, factory manufactured reactors offer advantages in transportation costs. Con...
The cost of the electrical transmission system that connects the NPP                                 to the gridSmall reac...
Small reactor clusters located at recycled coal fire power plant                   Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd   ...
Lost Opportunities for Combining Cycles and Improving EfficienciesIn addition to the above savings, and potential savings ...
Benefits in Risk Management By shifting to Small ReactorsShifts from conventional nuclear technology, to some advanced nuc...
State of DevelopmentThree main options are being pursued:1.Light water reactors,2.Fast neutron reactors and also3.Graphite...
A 2009 assessment by the IAEA under its Innovative NuclearPower Reactors & Fuel Cycle (INPRO) program concluded thatThere ...
Status of Development of Small Reactors           Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd           Annual Nuclear Power June...
Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to       24th 2011 Singapore             40
Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to       24th 2011 Singapore             41
Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to       24th 2011 Singapore             42
Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to       24th 2011 Singapore             43
Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to       24th 2011 Singapore             44
Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to       24th 2011 Singapore             45
Permananece of Nuclear Power: Strategies for Managing Safety Risks Post Fukushima
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Permananece of Nuclear Power: Strategies for Managing Safety Risks Post Fukushima

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Permananece of Nuclear Power: Strategies for Managing Safety Risks Post Fukushima

  1. 1. • Risk assessment scenario and approaches for nuclearpower ..Project Structuring• Challenges and issues in control and monitoringexisting proposed reactor designs for project structuring• Consideration of high level uncertainties in the riskstudy of a nuclear power plant: Project Cost Risks• Small reactors and risk dispersion, Small ReactorAdvantagesHimadri Banerji, Former CEO, Reliance Energy –Chairman & Managing Director, EcoUrja, India Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 1
  2. 2. Nuclear capacity additions are on the rise againSource: World Nuclear Association, Ernst & Young analysis, May Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd2010 Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 3
  3. 3. Asia Pacific region sustained nuclear new build through the 1990s and leads current construction plansSource: World Nuclear Association, Ernst & Young analysis, May 2010 Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 4
  4. 4. Name Location Type Rating Status MWeTarapur Atomic Tarapur BWR 2X160 Oct 1969 PHWR 2X540 Jun 2005-06Rajasthan Rawalbhatta PHWR 1x90 Apr 1973Atomic PHWR 1x187 Apr 1981 PHWR 2x202 June 2000 PHWR 2x202 Dec 2009-Feb 2010Madras Atomic Kalpakkam PHWR 1X170 Jan 1984 PHWR 1X202 Mar 1986Narora Atomic Narora PHWR 1X220 Jan 1991 PHWR 1X220 Jul 1992Kakrapar Kakrapar PHWR 1x220 May 93Atomic PHWR 1x220 Sep 1995 PHWR 1x700 Under Construction PHWR 1x700 Under ConstructionKaiga Atomic Kaiga PHWR 4X220 2000-2011Koodanakullam Koodanakullam, VVER 1X1000 Under construction 1X1000 Feb 2011Prototype Fast Kalkappam FBVR 1X500 Under Construction
  5. 5. Uncertainty in Lifecycle Nuclear Project Costs Spent Fuel and DecommissioningTo enable an expansion of nuclear power, it must overcome criticalchallenges in cost, waste disposal, and proliferation concerns whilemaintaining its currently excellent safety and reliability record.In the relatively near term, important decisions may be taken with farreaching long-term implications about the evolution of the nuclear fuelcycle—what type of fuel is used, what types of reactors, what happens toirradiated fuel, and what method of disposal for long term nuclear wastes.Immediate concerns are nevertheless the inherent uncertainty in fixing thecost of the project for Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and fixing theDecommissioning Budget and thus closures of financing of nuclear projectspose great risks to investors. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 6
  6. 6. Impact of construction delay on levelised cost (6.7% WACC) Source: own calculations based on IEA(2006)Compared to other power generation technologies, new nuclear build ischaracterised by long lead times (3 years for project preparation, 5 to 6 years forconstruction), and high front end cash outflows ( € 3 to € 4 bn for a first-of-a-kindplant of 1500MW, €2 bn for a standard plant, to compare to an investment cost of€200 millions for a large CCGT of 600 MW).It is also likely to have high cost estimation and schedule risk around the forecastbaseline lead time, based on past experience construction cost and time overruns.Besides, the scale of the proposed investment in a nuclear plant represents a projectof considerable scale on both a stand-alone basis as well as in comparison withconstruction costs of an average power plant. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 7
  7. 7. COST INDEX SAFETY INDEX Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 8
  8. 8. Stakeholders in Nuclear Power ProjectGovernment - which is responsible for overall energy policy and, in somecases, financingMarket - formed by electricity customers wanting electricity at a competitivepriceUtility (generator) - which is ultimately responsible for developing the completeprojectEPC contractors - engineering, procurement and construction companieswhich are responsible to the owner for delivery according to schedule and budgetVendors - which are responsible for supplying equipment and technology toeither the owner, the EPC contractor or as part of a joint venture or consortium,according to schedule and budgetSafety Authority - which is responsible for addressing all matters related toprotecting public safety and the environment, from the design stage to plantoperation and fuel management. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 9 24th 2011 Singapore
  9. 9. Focus areas for project owners to maximize their chances of success.Robust Business Plans Risks Mitigated or transferred away from theDifferent Scenarios and Contingencies plant investor through different contractual and organisational arrangements.Use of State Guarantees and Significant risk transfers from plant investors onto governments, consumers, and for the firstRisk Sharing Agreements new reactors, onto vendors are likely to be needed to make nuclear power attractive toSustainability Assurance to Stake holders investors in liberalised markets.Commitment of FundsPresence of Strong GovernanceUse Risk Management Tools Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 10Project Management Practice
  10. 10. Risk Management FrameworkThis integrated risk management (RM) approach generates benefits thatinclude the following:•Clearer criteria for decision making.• Making effective use of investments already made in probabilistic safetyanalysis (PSA) programs by applying these analyses to other areas andcontexts.• Cost consciousness and innovation in achieving nuclear safety andproduction goals.• Communication improvement — more effective internal communicationamong all levels of the NPP operating organization, and clearer communicationbetween the organization and its stakeholders.• Focus on safety — ensuring an integrated focus on safety, production, andeconomics during times of change in the energy environment Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 11
  11. 11. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 12
  12. 12. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 13
  13. 13. Table 2: Risk control and monitoring in nuclear power projects Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndTable 2 shows ways in which the risks of Annual Nuclear Powerbe monitored and controlled, to match Table 1. nuclear projects can June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 14
  14. 14. Small is BeautifulSTRATEGY OF DISPERSION OF SMALL REACTORS Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 15
  15. 15. There are eight primary sources of nuclear costs whichpose major project risks: The cost of the land upon which the nuclear power plant (NPP) is built. Costs related to designing the NPP Cost related to the materials from which the NPP is built. Labour costs related to manufacture and construction. The cost of obtaining regulatory approval AND PERMITS LIKE WATER ETC Investment related costs (interest, etc.) Transportation and Access related costs The cost of the electrical transmission system that connects the NPP to thegrid Lost Opportunities for CombiningDr. Himadri Banerji Improving Efficiencies Presented by Cycles and 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 16
  16. 16. The cost of the land upon which the nuclear power plant (NPP) is builtLand related costs can be lowered if the investor already owns the land. In thecase of NPPs, land costs can be lowered if the NPP is built on a pre-existing NPPsite.Other, for example transportation related investments may not be required, andaccess to water is very likely to be available.NPPs can also be located on the site of obsolete coal fired power plants slatedto be shut down for technological or environmental reasons.The same advantages of the NPP location would apply to the coal powered site,and additional facilities – for example the turbine hall, parking lots,administrative buildings, workshops, transformer farms, etc. - can potentially berecycled.The layout and size of an existing coal fired power plant may not beappropriate for adaptation for a large nuclear plant, but a cluster of smallreactor approach would allow for far greater flexibility in facility layout,and would be far more easy to accommodate. 2nd Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 17
  17. 17. Costs related to designing the NPPSmall reactors, especially advanced technology small reactors, offeradvancements in siting flexibility.For example, clusters of small reactors can be located in former salt mines.Serial production lowers design costs. Design costs are largely fixed. Design costs can be divided among all of the units produced.If one reactor of a particular design is produced, then the recovery of thecost of that design would be through sale of that unit.If hundreds of units are produced, the recovery of the design cost can bedivided between all of the units. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 18
  18. 18. Costs related to designing the NPP Clusters of Small Reactors Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 19
  19. 19. Costs related to designing the NPPFinally, design simplification can lower nuclear costs.The Generation IV Molten Salt Reactor design offers revolutionary designsimplification. In the Molten Salt Reactor the fuel is dissolved in thecoolant.Thus much of the core structure is eliminated. Because the Molten SaltReactor features a negative coefficient of reactivity, the reactor is highlystable without operator control input.Control rods can be partially or completely eliminated.These simple features lower manufacturing costs. And lessenmanufacturing time. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 20
  20. 20. Cost related to the materials from which the NPP is builtThe material input into a NPP per watt of output typically decreases astotal reactor output rises.Traditionally this has lead to the economies of scales argument, whichmaintains that the larger the reactor output, the lower the per watt cost.There are, however, problems with this assessment.While it is true that larger size usually means lower material costs per unitof electrical output, there are exceptions to this rule, especially withrespect to advanced nuclear technology. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 21
  21. 21. Cost related to the materials from which the NPP is builtFor example:The greater thermal efficiency of a reactor of similar core size might lower outputcost per unit of heat, compared to that of a similar sized, but less efficient design.Reactor safety issues may effect materials input.Light Water Reactor cores and heat exchanges operate under very high pressure.They require significant amounts of material to prevent steam explosions.LWR outer containment structures are typically massive, and thus require large Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 22
  22. 22. Cost related to the materials from which the NPP is builtA more compact reactor core may lower material requirements.Thus if two reactors have the same output, the one with the smaller coreis likely to require fewer materials.Underground reactor siting could potentially lower reactor structuralcosts, by offering protection against terrorist attacks from aircraft and atsurface levels with lower materials inputs.. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 23
  23. 23. Cost related to the materials from which the NPP is builtSmall generation components can lower material requirements.Thus supercritical carbon dioxide turbines are much smaller than steamturbines used in conventional reactors.Small turbines require fewer materials, and can be housed in smallerturbine halls, which in turn require less material and labour input tobuild.Thus a small advanced technology reactor with a compact core andhigh thermal efficiency, that operates at a one atmosphere pressurelevel, and can be sited underground might require fewer materialsinputs per unit of electrical output than a much larger conventionalreactor Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 24
  24. 24. Reactor Design Lowers Manufacturing CostsIn addition manufacturing costs can be lowered by simplifying reactordesign. Passive safety features can in some instances lower nuclearcosts.For example thermo-siphoning of reactor coolant, may save the cost ofmanufacturing and installing coolant pumps.Gravity feed emergency coolant systems save on manufacturing costsin several ways,They do not require backup generators or pumps, thus many of theexpenses of older emergency coolant systems can be saved. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 25
  25. 25. mPower Reactors from B&WThe B&W mPower reactor, with its scalable, modular design, has thecapacity to provide 125 MWe to 750 MWe or more for a 4.5-year operatingcycle without refuelling, and is designed to produce clean, zero-emissionoperations.Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Energy, Inc. will lead the development, licensingand delivery of B&W mPower reactor projects.Features of the B&W mPower reactor include: Integral nuclear system design Passive safety systems Underground containment 4.5-year operating cycle between refueling Scalable, modular design is flexible for local needs Multi-unit (1 to 10+) plant Used fuel stored in spent fuel pool for life of the reactor (60 years) Country shop-manufactured Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 26
  26. 26. Labour costs related to manufacture and construction.Labour costs can be lowered by shifting work from the field to afactory. The more labor which can be performed in a factory, the lowerthe over all costs.Modular production is consistent with factory manufacture. Factorymanufacture lowers labor costs in several ways.First serial production leads to the division of labor, which in turntypically increases labor productivity.The division of labor decreases the skill set required from individualworkers.Decreased labor skill sets decrease labor wage expectations.Factory work settings, as opposed to field work settings also decreasewage expectations. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 27
  27. 27. The cost of obtaining regulatory approval and permits like for waterThe current nuclear regulatory environment favour serialmanufacture.Once an example of a particular nuclear design is approved by theNRC is approved, the approval of all subsequent reactors using thedesign is automatic.Environmental aspects of subsequent application, however, receivethe same attention, since they vary from facility to facility. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 28
  28. 28. The cost of obtaining regulatory approval and permits like for waterIn addition to NRC license requirements, other licenses or permits may berequired.For example, the use of cooling water from rivers and lakes is not automatic,and usually requires regulatory approval.One of the advantages of recycling coal fired power plant sites, is that wateraccess permits may already exist, and potentially can be transferred.But what if obtaining a water use permit is not possible?With small reactor designs air rather water cooling is practical, withrelatively modest efficiency penalties.With efficient advanced reactors, the efficiency benefits may far outweighthe efficiency losses related to air cooling. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 29
  29. 29. Investment related costs (interest, etc.)Interest accrues as nuclear power plant construction, and accrued interest mayamount to a significant percentage of NPP capital costs, especially if theconstruction project stretches to half a decade or more.Small factory built reactors are expected to have shortened construction times,compared to large conventional reactors.Simplified advanced reactor designs are also expected to shorten NPPconstruction time.These shortening construction time can decrease the interest component ofcapital costs significantly. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 30
  30. 30. Investment related costs (interest, etc.)Interest charges may reflect the markets assessment of project risks.The greater a projects assumed risk, the higher the interest premium themarket will assess.By decreasing a projects size, and lowering projectedmanufacturing/construction time, nuclear project builders can offer themarket lower perceived risks.Lower perceived risks, will lead to interest discounts compared to higher risklarge nuclear projects. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 31
  31. 31. Transportation and Access Related Costs Small, factory manufactured reactors offer advantages in transportation costs. Conventional reactors include a number of very large and heavy components, that present transportation challenges. Components such as pressure vessels and steam generators may require special and highly unusual transportation arrangements if they are transported overland. Special huge road transportation vehicles, some capable of moving no more than three miles an hour may disrupt highway uses in large areas over several weeks as they transported conventional reactor steam generators and pressure vessels to reactor sites. In contrast, small reactor cores may be moved by trucks or by rail as ordinary freight.In areas where water shortages represent acute problems, small reactor access toreliable water supplies is unnecessary. Air cooling will enable small reactors tooperate with out a reliable water supply. Himadri Banerji 2nd Presented by Dr. Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 32
  32. 32. The cost of the electrical transmission system that connects the NPP to the gridSmall reactor clusters located at recycled coal fire power plant locationspotentially have greatly simplified grid connections.Not only can they be located near to the cities they are intended to serve, butgrid hook-up is facilitated by existing transformer farms, and gridconnections.Because they can be located close to served cities new transmission lines willnot cover long distances, thus lowering grid expansion costs.Large reactors may require new transmission lines that are hundreds of mileslong, in order to move surplus electricity to market. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 33
  33. 33. Small reactor clusters located at recycled coal fire power plant Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 34
  34. 34. Lost Opportunities for Combining Cycles and Improving EfficienciesIn addition to the above savings, and potential savings mentioned above thereare other potential savings that may be available with small reactors.For example, with advanced nuclear technology, for example molten saltreactors, combined Rankine (steam) and Brayton (gas) cycles are possible.A bottoming desalinization cycle could be offered to the system, thus offeringformidable efficiency from small reactor packages.A high temperature reactor can provide top cycle heat for industrial processes,as well as producing middle cycle electricity generation, and bottom cycle heatfor electrical generation.By adding a second generating cycle, small reactors can lower their electricalgeneration costs.Desalination would add a further revenue stream from the reactors operationthrough the sale of portable water.Nuclear Power June 21st2nd Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji Annual to 24th 2011 Singapore 35
  35. 35. Benefits in Risk Management By shifting to Small ReactorsShifts from conventional nuclear technology, to some advanced nucleartechnologies, also offer significant potential savings.‘Some advanced technology savings are available to both large and smallnuclear power plants, but the flexibility of small NPPs may mean that atleast in certain situationsSmall advanced nuclear power plants may offer very significant potentialsavings in comparison to large conventional NPPs. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 36
  36. 36. State of DevelopmentThree main options are being pursued:1.Light water reactors,2.Fast neutron reactors and also3.Graphite-moderated high temperature reactors.The first has the lowest technological risk,but the second (FNR) can be smaller, simpler andwith longer operation before refuelling. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 37
  37. 37. A 2009 assessment by the IAEA under its Innovative NuclearPower Reactors & Fuel Cycle (INPRO) program concluded thatThere could be 96 small modular reactors (SMRs) in operationaround the world by 2030 in its high case, and 43 units in thelow case, none of them in the USA. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 38
  38. 38. Status of Development of Small Reactors Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2nd Annual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 39
  39. 39. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 40
  40. 40. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 41
  41. 41. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 42
  42. 42. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 43
  43. 43. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 44
  44. 44. Presented by Dr. Himadri Banerji 2ndAnnual Nuclear Power June 21st to 24th 2011 Singapore 45

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