World Class Manufacturing:Plant Start Up and Commissioning Procedure

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Essential Ingredient of World Class Manufactring is a procedure for plant start up and commissioning. It is observed that the maximm damage in the life of a plant occurs at start up and the remnant effect of this damage to life an be significant. This presentation 0f 180 slides takes the reader through a step by step procedure which if followed strictly can give a safe and risk free plant start up.

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World Class Manufacturing:Plant Start Up and Commissioning Procedure

  1. 1. Workshop on “Plant Commissioning and Start-Up Procedures” Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja Ex Reliance and Tata Organized By :
  2. 2. Standard Implementation Path is show here
  3. 3. The Commissioning Process Key State Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning
  4. 4. The Commissioning Process Detail - 1 Preparation and • Appointment of Commissioning planning Manager or Lead Commissioning Engineer Mechanical • Appointment of Commissioning Team Completion Members and Support Staff and Integrity checking • Training Pre-commissioning & • Information Compilation Operational Testing • Safety and Risk Assessment Start Up & Initial • Commissioning Strategy Operation Development; • Procedures and Checklist Performance and Development Acceptance testing • Post Commissioning Post Commissioning • Detailed Plan and Budget Preparation;
  5. 5. The Commissioning Process Details – 1Facility Commissioning Issues Time phasing construction and commissioning activities Time phasing the commissioning of the various parts of the plant relative to each other Relationships and timings determining when various systems need to be available: Electrical, Steam, Water, Instrumentation Sequencing of the overall plant startup and shutdown to ensure we do not create unsafe conditions Initial start up Process Control and Shutdown Performance testing
  6. 6. Developing Startup Procedures Engineering and construction companies generally follow a systematic procedure where by their startup engineers review the process design several times as it is developed After the first review, a preliminary start-up and operations procedure is written Decide what must be added to the design to make the process capable of being started up and operated; By the time the final engineering flow-sheets have been released a complete startup and operating instructions manual should have been completed.
  7. 7. Issues Considered Are various part of the process too depend on one another Is there enough surge capacity Are there provisions to prevent abnormal pressures, temperatures and rates of reaction Where are additional valves and bypass lines needed Special lines to allow equipment to be started up and rerun product/raw materials.
  8. 8. System Level Activities Utilities systems - steam, instrument air, process water, fire water, drainage, condensate return Electrical systems Instrumentation and instrumentation systems; Cleaning and flushing Purging Initial start up and shutdowns Performance testing
  9. 9. Equipment Level Activities Pressure testing & mechanical integrity testing of vessel, columns and pipe work. Heat Echanger, condensers, coolers etc. Mechanical equipment and machinery. Control Systems and Instrumentation. Operational testing. Proof testing and acceptance.
  10. 10. What can be done before mechanicalcompletion Utilities commissioning Lube and Seal-Oil Systems Cleaned Instrumentation and Control Loops Proven Piping, Towers and Vessels Cleaned Boil-Out, Dry-Out and Acid Cleaning Turbine, Motor and Pump Run-Ins Nitrogen Purge and Tightness Testing
  11. 11. Building Organisational Learning Best Practice Benchmarking Improvement Industry Processes Standards Corporate Procedures and Knowledge Base Check sheets Legislation Experience Process Design Specific Machinery &Equipment
  12. 12. Procedures Procedures are written routines/instructions that describe the logical sequence of activities required to perform a work process and the specific actions required to perform each activity. If there are no written procedures, there is no basis for monitoring performance, focus for improvement or mechanism by which to capture learning. The establishment of procedures and routines allow more time and mental energy to deal with the unexpected, which always happen during commissioning.
  13. 13. Commissioning / Startup Logic A Critical Path Network (Plan) with written procedures with related documents are required. These should define for the facility, each plant system: • The order in which the systems will be started up. • Individual activities at each stage. • Operation testing requirements. • Durations, waiting times, cooling times. • Total duration for starting up each system. • Resources required - labour, materials, equipment services • Temperatures, pressures, fluid flows used.
  14. 14. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJAEX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 15
  15. 15. Commissioning / Startup and Shutdown Issues At the facility, system and equipment level, we want to avoid: • Creation/existence of explosive mixtures, usually because of the presence of air. • Water hammer and water based explosion effects, due to contact between water and hot substances (steam, oil, etc.) In particular, during commissioning hot fluids and gases will be coming into contact with cold surfaces in places that would be hot under normal operations.
  16. 16. Mechanical Completion and Integrity Checking
  17. 17. Mechanical Completion and Integrity Inspection Preparation and planning • Inspection Mechanical Completion • Pressure testing and Integrity checking • Cleaning and Flushing • Machinery checkout Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning
  18. 18. Categories of Process Equipment Distillation Towers / Fractionation Towers Re-boilers & Other Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers Boilers and Fired Heaters Pressure Vessels and Pipe-work Fin-Fan Coolers Condensers Machinery/Rotating Equipment Valves Instrumentation Electrical Equipment
  19. 19. Machinery / Rotating Equipment Pumps Steam Turbines Gas Turbines Compressors Gas Engines Electric Motors
  20. 20. Mechanical Completion and IntegrityInspection Involves checking that everything has been built and it there as per specification. Refer: • Piping Plan Drawings • Layout and construction drawings • P & ID’s Electrical systems, Instrumentation and control systems checkout done by appropriately qualified personnel (Electricians and Instrumentation technicians). General commissioning engineers generally do not get involved in this in a hands-on manner.
  21. 21. Mechanical Completion and IntegrityInspection Procedure Divide plant into manageable areas; In a large plant, assign individuals or teams to specific areas; Establish a master set of piping plan drawings and P&ID’s, mark up areas: Individual commissioning engineers or teams walk every line and mark up every item that can be confirmed as present on master set of drawings. Use different colored “highlighter” pens to indicate different services.
  22. 22. Mechanical Completion and Integrity InspectionEvery line must be walked! Physically see every
  23. 23. Mechanical Completion and IntegrityInspection Procedure Hints / Tips Ensure pipes, vessels, valves etc. are all in the right place. Valves are correct type - globe, gate, control; Vents, drains, steam traps etc. Flanges, bolts, types of bolts. Blind flanges and swing able blinds in place, correct rating. Check all tag numbers. Punch list any non-conformances.
  24. 24. Pipe Stressing Piping should provide adequately for expansion and contraction due to temperature changes, without placing excessive stresses on equipment; Misalignment between matching flanges on pipe work particular where there are changes indirection (elbows) can cause stressing; Misalignments where pipe-work connects to machinery, vessels and other process equipment; Can often be seen visually, or checked with gauges using the same procedures we use to align rotating equipment.
  25. 25. Piping and Equipment Supports
  26. 26. Piping and equipment support Mobile supports permit and guide the thermal growth of equipment undergoing temperature change; If they do not function correctly, vessels, equipment, pipe work, nozzles heat exchangers etc. may be damaged.
  27. 27. Typical Piping Support Methods
  28. 28. Piping and Equipment Supports Inspection prior to start up: • Check that installed according to specification and not jammed; Inspection during warm up: • Check thermal growth is occurring and supports are responding as per design; • Check that there is no surface buckling or crimping - this needs to be corrected; • Check expansion joints; • Check long straight runs of piping for bowing or support shoe that may have slipped; • Rule of thumb - bowing is excessive if you can see it.
  29. 29. Piping and Equipment Supports Inspection after cool-down: • Check that sliding supports have returned to original positions; • Establish that equipment can expand and contract as required.
  30. 30. Inspection of Spring Supports Before hydro-testing: • Check that spring stops are installed. (If not, the weight of water in pipe will deform the spring). After hydro-testing but before heating: • Check that stops are removed; • Check that spring pointer is positioned to cold setting;
  31. 31. Inspection of Spring Supports During and at end of heating: • Check pointer has not exceeded hot setting; After cool down: • check to establish piping can expand and • establish that springs can absorb loads.
  32. 32. Vessels and Columns
  33. 33. Inspection of Vessels and Columns The inspection of vessels, columns and reactors should be scheduled to be completed before construction has closed them up; Other inspections - e.g. for completeness or piping, insulation, safety etc. can be scheduled later; If a vessel has been sealed up by construction, it is your duty to inspect it, even it construction resist.
  34. 34. Inspection of Vessels and Columns Check that distributors have been installed correctly; De-misters installed correctly and of correct materials, design, type; Vortex breakers in place; Trays - packed or “bubble-cap” are correct: • Bubble caps not jammed or damaged, down comers clear, supports all OK.
  35. 35. Pressure Testing
  36. 36. Pressure Testing - Objectives The objective of pressure testing is to confirm the mechanical integrity of the plant; Verifying capability of containing the pressures it has been designed to hold; Ensure there are no leaks and verify that the plant can be reliably made leak free; Identify any vulnerabilities well before the plant is placed into service; Meet the requirements of legislation, local, international and industry standards.
  37. 37. Pressure Testing – Responsibilities Pressure tests of tanks, reactors and piping for mechanical strength and tightness of joints is usually done by the construction team; Commissioning team representatives should witness and certify the tests; Need to verify that all necessary safety precautions have been taken;
  38. 38. Pressure Testing - Procedures Water for testing and flushing should contain a rust inhibitor - one low in chloride content for stainless steel lines; After testing, water should be drained completely from all lines that do not normally carry water, steam or steam condensate; All low points should be checked for presence of water; Lines should be dried by blowing hot air, dry inert gas or instrument air.
  39. 39. Pressure Testing – Vacuum Systems Final checks of vacuum systems are best performed by pulling a vacuum and observing the rate of pressure rise in the blocked in system; Excessive leaks can then be located by applying a mild positive pressure and testing each flange with bubble solution.
  40. 40. Pressure Testing – Procedures 2 Isometric drawings of all systems to be tested should be displayed on a board and marked up as each section is tested; Hydro testing of piping and equipment according to code requirements to confirm mechanical strength should be carried out on groups of equipment naturally suggested by design pressure and function; All water, steam, condensate, oil, gas and process steam piping should be hydro tested; Major equipment that has already been tested as part of manufacturing may be isolated by blanks.
  41. 41. Cleaning and Flushing
  42. 42. Cleaning and Flushing Need to ensure no construction debris is left in pipes of vessels - welding rods, bolts, gloves, rags etc. Large debris (lumber, cable, packaging) should have been removed during mechanical integrity inspections; Small debris (rags, nuts, dirt) must be flushed out of all pipe and vessels; Where oil coatings must be removed, chemical cleaning is necessary.
  43. 43. Cleaning and Flushing Before flushing is started, check the process thoroughly to ensure: • Screens have been installed in front of pump suctions. • Blinds in front of equipment such as compressors and turbines; • “Jumper” spool pieces to allow for continuity of flow.
  44. 44. Flushing Can be handled by geographic plant area; Sections too large for water flushing: • Pipes greater than 30 in diameter (0.75 m), or • Pipes that should not be touched with water; Should all be blown out with air or inert gas.
  45. 45. Flushing Regardless of whether pipes are cleaned with water, steam, air or nitrogen, flow velocities should be high enough to ensure that pipes will be suitably scoured; Need to ensure that the debris from one piece of equipment will not simply be flushed into another; Water velocities should be at least 12 ft/sec (approx. 3.75 m/sec); Air velocities a minimum of 200 ft/sec (approx.65 m/sec).
  46. 46. Pre-Commissioning and Operational Testing
  47. 47. The Commissioning Process Detail - 3 Preparation and planning Mechanical • Steam and other utilities Completion commissioned and introduced; and Integrity checking • Dry running trials; • Hot running trials; Pre-commissioning & • Safe-fluid dynamic testing; Operational Testing • Solvent dynamic testing; • Process fluid tests. Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning
  48. 48. Commissioning Utilities
  49. 49. Commissioning Utilities Utilities commissioning usually represents the first phase of commissioning, as these usually need to operational first, before the rest of the plant can be commissioned; The steps for commissioning each utility should be planned in detail; Provides planning practice for planning the startup of the main plant.
  50. 50. Commissioning Utilities – Broad Guidelines Check supply pressures of all services - steam, cooling water, instrument air, nitrogen etc. At the most distant points, open drains, vent valves or pipe flanges and purge until fluids come out clean and rust free; Purge/blow out lines to each piece of equipment; Check that instrument air is clean and dry, and at correct pressure; Circulate water to waste water system until water lines clear and clean; Flush waste water and drain systems to ensure no blockages; Check operation of steam traps; Drain condensate to waste water until is clean.
  51. 51. Commissioning UtilitiesIntroducing Steam Steam usually represents the first “hazardous” fluid introduced into the “new” system; Admit steam slowly into the distribution system with atmospheric bleeds open: • Cold pipes will condense steam in places where it would not under normal operation; • Can lead to “water hammer”- can distort and rupture lines; After system has been warmed, slowly raise pressure and blow down the system with traps bypassed, until clean; Then place steam traps into service and check operation.
  52. 52. High Pressure Steam SystemsSpecific Issues The cleanliness and purity of high pressure steam systems - particularly where the steam is used to drive a steam turbine should be checked by use of a “target”; For new boilers, or new sections added to steam system - blow down at full pressure; When steam appears clean, fit a target with a “mirrored” surface (ie. Small steel plate which has been polished, so that it is in the steam blow down stream; Blow down the boiler or system so that the target is impinged upon for a few minutes; Check target - ensure there are no small “pock marks” left on the target. If pock marked - repeat process.
  53. 53. Electrical Systems
  54. 54. Machinery and System Check-Out Check-out A crew of specialized individuals need to be mobilized to do the check-out and pre-commissioning in a plant: • All control loops, settings of PID loops, stroking of valves, transmitter calibration, etc… • P&ID conformity; is the plant built according the P&ID, is all instrumentation correctly installed, are they connected, are all valves correctly installed, etc… • Mechanical installation of all (major) equipment; levelling correct, alignments done, oil flushing satisfactory, etc… • Analyzer calibration, checking of tubing, problem assessment and identification. • Control systems functional check, communications check, integrity check, safety features checking, emergency stops check, critical operating parameters checking, etc… • Electrical check-out; check-out of MCC’s, switchgears, selectivity studies, protection systems, functional checks, etc…
  55. 55. Commissioning Electrical SystemsThe following checks are typical of what is required Open circuit breakers and switches; Check that all bus-bars are free of dirt and foreign matter; Check grounding systems for continuity and resistance. Make sure all electrical equipment, vessels, structures are connected to the grounding system in accordance with drawings and specifications; Check that all sealed fittings are filled with proper sealants, all explosion proof, vapour-tight, dust-tight and weather tight enclosures are properly closed and secured; Check motor control and power circuitry for correct hookup.
  56. 56. Commissioning Electrical Systems – 2The Following checks are typical of what is required Check all nameplates and panel directories to ensure that each circuit breaker and switch does control the proper circuit. Label all switches even though their application may seem obvious; Close main transformer primary disconnect switch and switch-gear main circuit breaker; Check voltmeter at switch-gear for proper voltage; Close first switch-gear circuit breaker, second, third etc. Close first motor control centre main circuit breaker, then each motor starter circuit breaker. Repeat for each MCC. Check overload breakers and heaters to ensure that the correct capacity units have been installed.
  57. 57. Commissioning Electrical Systems – 3The following checks are typical of what is required Check that all lighting and power circuits are functioning correctly; Check motor bearings for proper lubrication; Remove motor power fuses and check main contractor, interlock and sequencing devices; Uncouple each motor, replace fuses and check direction of rotation by momentarily pressing the start button, then stop; Check manual, then automatic operation. Replace all couplings, check drive belts and make sure guards are installed.
  58. 58. Electric Motor Driven Pumps
  59. 59. Operational Testing
  60. 60. Operational Testing Progresses through several stages; Dry runs of individual items of equipment Hot testing of individual items of equipment and systems; Several stages of Dynamic Testing of: • Individual items of equipment; • Individual Systems/processes in isolation; • The whole new process plant installation.
  61. 61. Dry Runs and Hot Tests Check that motors are connected correctly and turn in the right direction; Shafts and impellers move freely; Equipment that is to be operated at temperature, raise to temperature and check; These tests should be performed by the manufacturer’s representative but witnessed by members of the client’s operating/commissioning personnel.
  62. 62. Hot Testing Equipment Applies to equipment whose leak-tightness must be tested at operating temperatures and after temperature reversals; Fixed-bed catalytic reactors that in normal conditions are heated by heat transfer fluids where leakage would contaminate the catalyst; Critical exchangers whose steam or cooling water is at a high pressure than the process fluid; Any equipment having complicated seals through which leakage could occur; Rotating machinery which must be able to rotate freely at temperature eg. Steam turbines, etc.
  63. 63. Hot Testing Procedures The thermal shock tolerance of equipment must be determined beforehand; To avoid thermal shock, the temperature of the heating medium may have to be raised gradually; Time required for a hot test must be established in advance; Establish a uniform temperature in all parts of equipment that are supposed to be uniformly hot during operation to avoid setting up stresses;
  64. 64. Dynamic Testing
  65. 65. Dynamic Testing Involves operating the equipment, before introducing “live” process fluid; During dynamic testing, we progress through: • Safe-fluid dynamic testing; • Dynamic testing with solvent; • Closed loop testing with process fluid. Once process fluid is introduced, normal plant safety procedures must come into effect as if it were a live operating plant.
  66. 66. Safe-Fluid Dynamic Testing Closed loop dynamic testing with safe fluids consists of operating equipment systems with air, water, inert gases etc. This permits flow testing of equipment; Gives first indication of how control loops work; Establishes performance while there is still time to modify the plant; Familiarizes operators with the operation of the equipment before hazardous materials are introduced; Gets rid of a lot of dirt which would be more difficult to Clear once the process fluid has been introduced.
  67. 67. General Principles for Testing For most plants, a period of 2-3 weeks is usually sufficient for operational testing, after the mechanical dry running of individual pieces of equipment and hot testing complete; Air and water tests should be set up in a closed loop with fluids continuously recycled, with loops as large as possible; The loop should ideally be the same loop that will be subject to solvent testing; Tests should continue for several days in order to give all shifts a chance to conduct the same tests; All shifts should be given the opportunity to start up and shutdown each closed loop test.
  68. 68. General Principles for Testing A rough flow-sheet should be developed for air and water tests, predicting all information that normally appears on a process flow sheet - flow, temperature, pressure, heat transfer, power etc. will assist in alerting commissioning team for risks from over- pressuring, over loading temperature-shocking and stressing equipment;
  69. 69. Cautions During Testing Dynamic testing may lead to: • Unusual or unforeseen differential expansions; • Corrosion • Excessive weight of liquid into parts of the system; Care must be taken not to collapse or burst pressure vessels and tanks: • ensure there is always adequate venting; • avoid pulling a vacuum.
  70. 70. Dynamic Testing – Simulated OperationsSafe Fluid Testing Auxiliary services must be brought into operation first: • water cooling, inert gas generators, boiler feed water, firewater, steam production, etc. Water is pumped through the process (except where special conditions do not permit it) and boiled up in columns; Compressors and blowers should be operated on air or inert gas.
  71. 71. The Value of Dynamic Testing –Simulated Operations Value of simulated operations will be to allow operator to become familiar with the operation of the process, before hazardous fluids are introduced; Equipment deficiencies can become apparent during dynamic testing; Failures and problems more easily corrected with safe fluids present Leaks should be found and tightened; Instruments can be placed into service - although selection of set-points will have to be deferred; Inspect the plant for evidence of design and construction errors.
  72. 72. Dynamic Testing – Simulated Operations
  73. 73. Dynamic Testing with a Solvent After safe fluid testing and subsequent repairs and modifications, we are ready for dynamic closed loop testing with a solvent; The “solvent” is a relatively safe fluid whose properties are close to that of the process fluid, or the process fluid itself; In order to allow for continuous re-circulation of the solvent and the use of different solvents in different parts of the plant, temporary lines will need to be installed.
  74. 74. Dynamic Testing with Process Solvent Introduce the process solvent. (if there is more than one, introduce only one at this stage); The dynamic testing procedure used for the safe fluid test is repeated for the process solvent dynamic testing; After operations with the first solvent have been brought completely under control, should the second solvent be introduced (if there is one).
  75. 75. Dynamic Testing with a Solvent The purpose of dynamic testing with a solvent is to check out equipment and instrument loops at, or near design conditions prior to the introduction of more hazardous process fluid; No reactions should be allowed to occur during these tests, so as to ensure that test fluids remain predictable in composition and properties; Guidelines used for safe-testing apply; Need to plan how solvent will be fed into the system and later removed.
  76. 76. Stages of Dynamic Testing with a “Solvent” Drain safe fluid and purge air used in the previous test from the system; Dry out equipment where safe fluid was water. Check flow sheets for where water is likely to accumulate. Fill systems with the solvent. Ensure provisions made for venting and drains closed; When adequate levels established, place pumps and compressors online to complete filling; Start closed loop circulation; Heat up the systems to simulate operating conditions by placing reflux, re-boiler and condensation systems into operation
  77. 77. Stages of Dynamic Testing with a “Solvent” Systematically check out instrumentation and control loops; After instruments have checked out, place as many as possible on automatic control; All shifts should go through starting and stopping equipment, heating and cooling closed loop systems; Dynamic “solvent "testing offers the best opportunity for operator training before the “real thing”; Operate equipment as near as possible to design capacities; Reliability of emergency shutdown systems and alarms must be proven; Critical instruments must be calibrated over their full range.
  78. 78. Stages of Dynamic Testing with a “Solvent” Deliberately operate equipment near its limits: Flood columns; Ease compressors into mild surges and plot surge curves; Overload condensers; Do not fear blowing a relief valve or two! After tests have been completed, plant should be ready for initial operation.
  79. 79. Closed Loop Dynamic Testing with Process Fluid Finally, introduce process fluid; During this step, instruments should be calibrated to cover their full range of flow, temperature and pressure; Ensure that instruments, process analysers and safety devices are kept work properly during these processes; After operations with process fluid are brought completely under control should the final stage of start-up be attempted.
  80. 80. Preparing to Introduce Process Fluid Before introducing hazardous liquids into the plant, we complete additional pressure testing and purging; Need to check that the stresses and strains of dynamic testing has not caused any leaks – these must be found and fixed;
  81. 81. Pressure Testing and Purging Consists of pressuring and de-pressuring with nitrogen several times, until at least <3% oxygen is reached; Vacuum systems should be evacuated and then re-pressured with nitrogen; Long runs of piping are swept with nitrogen; While under pressure, rate of pressure loss of the “blocked in "system is monitored as a check for leaks and that no vents or drains have been left open.
  82. 82. Dehydrating by Circulation It is usually not possible to water-free equipment simply by draining; Only positive method to water-free process equipment is oil circulation followed by repeated draining of low points; Ensure sufficient low point drains are provided on piping, control valve loops, vessels and process machinery; Startup lines - deliver oil to upper part (trays) of distillation towers (size for 20% of net distillate product rate);
  83. 83. Start Up and Initial Operation
  84. 84. Preparation and planningMechanical Completionand Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing • Introduction of process fluid • Start-up and initial operation • Trouble-shooting and Start Up & Initial Operation problem correction. • Plant taken to full operations. Performance and Acceptance testingPost Commissioning
  85. 85. Most plants in petrochemical/chemical industry have the following “general ”form. Feed Reaction Recovery Product Preparation refiningStart Up from the End of the Process and Work back
  86. 86. Start Up Logic It is common practice to buy in product and start up the last past of the process first and work backwards to the front. E.g. • Start up refining, get this working and in control; • Then possibly start up reaction and recovery; • Finally, feed preparation.
  87. 87. Into the Initial Operation Once raw materials are fed into the plant – usually at reduced rate until reaction conditions have been established; As each section is started up, establish as quickly as possible that process conditions are as expected; If potentially serious problems develop, there should be no hesitation on going into an emergency shutdown.
  88. 88. Ramping up the Plant Plant is brought slowly to design feed-rates and operating conditions; Usually done in steps with operating data evaluated and verified as OK at each step; Plant and laboratory data are now being collected and should be being evaluated promptly;
  89. 89. Coordination and SupervisionDuring Start Up Additional personnel, both supervisory and “on the- ground” are required at this stage; Cooperation between startup personnel and plant supervisory personnel is critical at this stage: • Need a daily meeting at least; • Often, a briefing each shift.
  90. 90. Trouble Shooting At this stage, many problem with equipment of the process itself may become apparent; The commissioning process goes through what is often an intense (and hopefully short) period of problem trouble shooting, problem solving, engineering correction and plant modification;
  91. 91. Performance and Acceptance Trails
  92. 92. Preparation and planning Mechanical Completionand Integrity checkingPre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and • Performance trails; Acceptance testing • Formal Acceptance testPost Commissioning
  93. 93. The Performance Trials Once the plant is fully operational, the final “proving trial” or performance run is performed in order to prove the plant can do what it is supposed to do; The values or range of values for each independent variable - flow, temperature, pressure, level, concentrations, etc. to which the plant must be operated to are determined; The plant is brought up to those conditions and the pre- agreed trial period begins.
  94. 94. Before the Trails of Performance RunNeed to Ensure that… Control of plant operating conditions has been achieved. I.e. temperature, pressures, levels and analyses are reasonably constant or in the case of a batch process, there is repeatability; Daily material and energy balanced can be performed and that these agree with “official” production figures; Product specifications are being achieved consistently.
  95. 95. Need to Verify … Physical operation, capability and capacity of plant and equipment; Energy and mass balance; Process chemistry; Efficiencies, yields and quality; All to specification.
  96. 96. Acceptance When the plant has met the Performance and Acceptance test requirements designed by the commissioning team there is usually a formal acceptance process involving signing of acceptance certificates; Once the plant is accepted it is officially part of the normal operations - the responsibility of operations and maintenance; Commissioning is officially over; The may still be outstanding punchlist items
  97. 97. Acceptance Testing It is common practice to prove performance repeatability and plant integrity as part of the performance test. That is: • Shutdown and Start Up the plant on several occasions and bring it up to test conditions to prove repeatability. Also ramp down and ramp up while online; • Re-inspection of critical process equipment - particularly columns to ensure they have not been damaged by the performance run.
  98. 98. Commercial Significant of Acceptance Formal Acceptance represents formal acknowledgment that the: • Contractor has full-filled their contractual obligations; • Commissioning team have full-filled their obligations; Completion of the Capital Project and transfer to Operations; Expenses and costs from acceptance onwards are now operating expenses not capital project costs; All subject to agreed punch-list items.
  99. 99. Post-Commissioning
  100. 100. Preparation and planning Mechanical Completionand Integrity checkingPre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial • From plant on-stream to settled down Operation and in regular production; Performance and • Adjustments, modifications and fault Acceptance testing correction; • Completion of outstanding punch listPost Commissioning items
  101. 101. Post Commissioning Covers the period immediately after Acceptance; Outstanding punch-list items are completed; The first routine maintenance checks are performed, findings evaluated and reported; Process equipment and items covered by warranty are scrutinized for signs of premature wear-out or problems; Operating data is collected and evaluated to ensure consistent plant operations are maintained and sustainable.
  102. 102. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJAEX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 103
  103. 103. WORKSHOP ON PLANT START UP AND COMMISSIONINGSEQUENTIAL START UPAUTOMATION IN PLANT START UP AND COMISSIONINGBY DR. HIMADRI BANERJI(EX RELIANCE AND TATA)www.ecourja.com BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 104
  104. 104. Automation for Controlled Start Up To advocate the usage of process integration in industrial practice, it is important to be able to guarantee not only robust control during near steady state operation, but also to provide procedures for generating fast and reliable start-up sequences. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 105
  105. 105. Sequential Start Up and Shutdown UsingAutomation in Plant…Burner Management System1. Burner Management System in Power Plants General The Burner Management System must be designed to ensure a safe, orderly operating sequence in the start-up and shutdown of fuel firing equipment and to reduce possible errors by following the operating procedure. The system is intended to protect against malfunction of fuel firing equipment and associated systems. The safety features of the system shall be designed to provide protection in most common emergency situations, however, the system cannot replace an intelligent operators reasonable judgment in all situations. In some phases of operation, the BMS shall provide permissive interlocks only to insure safe start-up of equipment. Once the equipment is in service, the operator must follow acceptable safe operating practices. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 106
  106. 106. Sequential Start Up…BMS FunctionsThe BMS shall be designed to perform the following functions:1.Prevent firing unless a satisfactory furnace purge has first been completed.2. Prohibit start-up of the equipment unless certain permissive interlocks have first been completed.3. Monitor and control the correct component sequencing during start-up and shut- down of the equipment.4. Conditionally allow the continued operation of the equipment only while certain safety interlocks remaining satisfied.5. Provide component condition feedback to the operator and, if so equipped, to the plant control systems and/or data loggers.6. Provide automatic supervision when the equipment is in service and provide means to make a Master Fuel Trip (MFT) should certain unacceptable firing conditions occur.7. Execute a MFT upon certain adverse unit operating conditions. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 107
  107. 107. Furnace Explosions A common cause of furnace explosions is “Fuel leakage into an idle furnace and the ignition of the accumulation by a spark or other source of ignition”. Proper attention to the design of the interlocks and trip system to provide a safe light up of the boiler furnace is required. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 108
  108. 108. Furnace Purge…Permissives Before any fuel firing is permitted, either initially or after a boiler trip, a satisfactory furnace purge cycle must be completed. Prior to starting a furnace purge cycle, the operator must ensure that the following purge requirements are satisfied[i]: 1. Drum level within operating range (not high, not low) 2. Instrument air header pressure within operating range 3. Fan is in service 4. Purge airflow capable of a minimum of 70% of the full load airflow established through the unit[ii]. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 109
  109. 109. Furnace Purge…Permissives 5. All flame scanners reading "No Flame“ 6. Natural gas block valves are proven closed 7. Fuel oil block valves are proven closed 8. Air dampers are in the fully open position 9. Natural gas, or fuel oil, header pressure upstream of block valve is satisfactory 10. Pilot gas header pressure is satisfactory 11. Burner Control System is energized 12. A "No Master Fuel Trip condition" condition is established BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 110
  110. 110. Pre Purge Permissives Pre purge permissive condition checks and furnace purge are to be initiated by the operator from the local BMS panel (you may see detailed guidelines on cold starting using fuel oil, cold starting using natural gas from operating manuals). Purge air flow: The total furnace airflow shall not be reduced below the purge rate airflow (70% of the maximum continuous airflow capacity). Reducing airflow below these limits will lead to a MFT, and a new furnace purge will be required. Suggested color design: Purge Permissives indicating lights: white Purge Available indicating light: green Purge in progress indicating light: amber Purge complete indicating light: white MFT reset indicating light: red BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 111
  111. 111. Main Flame Start-Up Sequence The main flame start-up sequence, from the lighting the of the pilot flame through main flame light-off, is an automated sequence. Once the start-up sequence has begun, only the “BOILER STOP” switch and the “EMERGENCY STOP” will interrupt the start-up sequence. Any interruption of the start-up sequence requires a post-fire purge prior to attempting to start the boiler again. To initiate the start-up sequence, the operator activates the “START BOILER” switch. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 112
  112. 112. Pilot Flame Light-Off Before the burner can be started, satisfactory light-off conditions for the pilot and main burners must be met. This is accomplished when the following conditions are satisfied: For the pilot igniter: 1. MFT relay reset 2. Pilot gas header pressure normal For natural gas: 1. All of the above mentioned for the pilot igniter 2. Natural gas pressure normal 3. Natural gas control valve is in light-off position BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 113
  113. 113. Pilot Flame Light-Off For fuel oil: 1. All of the above mentioned for the pilot igniter 2. Oil gun is in place in the burner 3. Oil pressure is normal 4. Fuel oil atomizing interlocks are satisfied 5. Fuel oil atomizing medium is provided to the burner 6. Oil control valve is in light-off position Other Conditions: 1. No MFT condition after purge 2. All flame scanners report no flame 3. All natural gas, or all fuel oil, block valves shown closed 4. All air dampers are in light-off position BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 114
  114. 114. Pilot Flame Light-Off Failure to meet any of these conditions shall prevent the burner light-off operation. To light the pilot flame, the pilot header vent valve, and, for natural gas fuel, the natural gas vent valve shall be closed by the boiler control system. Then, sequentially, the igniter transformer is energized, the pilot gas block valves are open and a 10 second pilot ignition timer starts counting down. When ignition timer cycle is completed, the igniter transformer is de-energized and the pilot flame scanner is checked by the control system. If the pilot flame is present, the main flame light-off sequence continues. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 115
  115. 115. Pilot Flame Light-Off If the pilot flame fails, the boiler control system initiates a pilot flame failure shutdown. Additional attempts of pilot light-off are permissible provided a successful pilot light-off is made within 10 minutes after the furnace purge. Note that if the pilot flame continues to fail after several attempts, the boiler should be inspected to determine the fault and the condition corrected. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 116
  116. 116. Main Flame Light-Off Once the pilot flame is made, the boiler control system opens the header block valves for the selected fuel. A main flame light-off timer begins a 15 second countdown for natural gas, or 20 seconds for fuel oil, to establish and stabilize the main flame. At 5 seconds before time out, the boiler control system closes the pilot block valves and opens the pilot vent valve. The remaining 5 seconds are used to detect the main flame. For the typical dual flame scanner design, a main flame failure shutdown is initiated if both flame scanners return a “no flame” signal to the burner control system. This will generate a boiler trip, and another furnace purge will be required. Once the burner is lit, the system is in the NORMAL RUN CONDITION and combustion controls should be released to modulation control BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 117
  117. 117. Shutdown Shutdown Per NFPA 8501, section 6-2.4.5, “The normal shutdown cycle for the boiler shall accomplish the following in the order listed: (a) Shut off fuel supply to the main burner. (b) Interrupt spark and shut off fuel supply to igniters, if in operation. (c) For oil: 1. Where used, open the recirculating valve. 2. Shut off atomizing medium, if desired. (d) For gas, vent piping between safety shutoff valves to atmosphere. (e) Perform a post purge of the boiler furnace enclosure. (f) Shut down fan, if desired.” For a safety shutdown, a manual reset is also required. Normal Boiler Shutdown A normal shutdown is initiated by operating BOILER SHUTDOWN switch. This will initiate the shut down sequence listed above. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 118
  118. 118. Boiler Master Fuel Trip Any of the following conditions shall cause a boiler trip to occur. This results in the shutdown of all fuel and requires another furnace purge cycle before any attempt at re-lighting. For fuel oil: 1. Excessive steam pressure. 2. Low water level. 3. Low fuel pressure. 4. Low oil temperature. 5. Loss of combustion air supply. 6. Loss of flame. 7. Loss of control system power. 8. Loss of atomizing medium, if used. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 119
  119. 119. Boiler Master Fuel Trip For natural gas: 1. Excessive steam pressure or water temperature. 2. Low water level. 3. High or low gas pressure. 4. Loss of combustion air supply. 5. Loss of flame. 6. Loss of control system power. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 120
  120. 120. Boiler Master Fuel Trip In the event of an MFT, the control system shall initiate the following: 1. Execute a shut down as listed above. 2. Illuminate the appropriate indicator lights and alarms. 3. Return the system to the pre-purge state Boiler restart will be inhibited until all pre-purge requirements are satisfied. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 121
  121. 121. Alarms The following is a list of recommended alarm conditions: 1. Any boiler or burner trip signal 2. High or low water level 3. High furnace pressure 4. Partial Loss of flame (For the typical two scanner system, one indicates “no flame”) 5. Main fuel shutoff valves closed 6. Loss of control system power 7. Unsuccessful burner shutdown BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 122
  122. 122. Interface with the CombustionControl System (CCS) The following list, at a minimum, of signals should be sent to the Combustion Control System: 1. Controls to purge position 2. Controls to light-off position 3. Normal run condition: release controls to modulation 4. Main natural gas block valve open: permissive to place gas control valve in automatic. 5. Master fuel trip: run boiler load to zero and place combustion controls in manual. 6. Oil recirculation signal Under the provisions of NFPA 8501, section 6-5.2.3, for a single burner boiler, the BMS and CCS may reside in the same processor. This option can reduce the integration complexity and increase the BMS to CCS interface reliability. BY DR.HIMADRI BANERJI MD ECOURJA EX. RELIANCE AND TATA Copyright www.ecouja.com 123
  123. 123. Operator Interface The above describes a traditional operator interface using discrete switches and indicator lights. The control designer is encouraged to incorporate a graphical user interface or similar options in order to enhance the ease of use and readability of the boiler control system operator interface Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  124. 124. SEQUENTIAL START UP AUTOMATION DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF BURNER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  125. 125. Design Principles of Sequential Start-Up…Case Study in Burner Management System Design Introduction Burner Management System Objectives BMS Design Standards and Definitions BMS Logic BMS Strategies and Hardware ◦ Types of Burner Management Systems BMS Interface to SCADA Systems Summary Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  126. 126. IntroductionBurnerManagementSystems....a starting point. Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  127. 127. Introduction What is a BMS? A Burner Management System is defined as the following: ◦ A Control System that is dedicated to boiler safety, operator assistance in the sequential safe starting and stopping of fuel preparation and burning equipment, and the prevention of mis-operation of and damage to fuel preparation and fuel burning equipment. 1 1. From NFPA 8501 “Standard for Single Burner Boiler Operation” Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  128. 128. Burner Management Objective Sequence burner through safe start-up Insure a complete pre-purge of boiler Supervise safety limits during operation Supervise the flame presence during operation Sequence a safe shutdown at end of cycle Integrate with combustion control system for proper fuel and air flows Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  129. 129. BMS Design Standards Each Burner Management System should be designed in accordance with the below listed guidelines to control and monitor all sequences of the start-up and shutdown of the burner ◦ National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 8501 /8502 or others) ◦ Industrial Risk Insurers (IRI) ◦ Factory Mutual loss prevention guidelines o Each burner management system should be designed to accomplish a safety shutdown in the event of an unsafe condition. (FAIL SAFE) Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  130. 130. BMS Design Standards U.S. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) ◦ Governs safety system design on virtually all boilers (regardless of the process to be used to combust the fuel) ◦ Requires the separation of the Burner Management System from any other control system ◦ Requires the use of a hardwired backup tripping scheme for microprocessor based systems ◦ Requires that a single failure NOT prevent an appropriate shutdown ◦ Factory Mutual loss prevention guidelines. Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  131. 131. NFPA 8501 NFPA 8501 Standard for Single Burner Boiler Operation ◦ Single Burner Boilers with fuel input greater than 12.5 mBTU/Hr (Approx. 250 BHP) ◦ Single Fuel or Combination of Fuels (Common being Natural Gas / No.2 Oil / No. 6 Oil) ◦ Simultaneous Firing Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  132. 132. NFPA 8502 NFPA 8502 Standard for Prevention of Furnace Explosions / Implosions in Multiple Burner Boilers ◦ Multiple Burner Boilers with fuel input greater than 12.5 mBTU/Hr ◦ Single Fuel or Combination of Fuels including Pulverized Coal ◦ Emphasis on implosion protection (larger boilers with induced draft systems) Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  133. 133. BMS Definitions Furnace Explosions ◦ “Ignition of accumulated combustible mixture within the confined space of a furnace or associated boiler passes, ducts, and fans that convey gases of combustion to the stack”1 ◦ Magnitude and intensity of explosion depends on relative quantity of combustibles and the proportion of air at the time of ignition 1. From NFPA 8502 “Prevention of Furnace Explosions / Implosions in Multiple Burner Boilers” Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  134. 134. BMS Definitions Furnace Explosions can occur with any or a combination of the following:1 ◦ Momentary loss of flame followed by delayed re-ignition ◦ Fuel leakage into an idle furnace ignited by source of ignition (such as a welding spark) ◦ Repeated Light-off attempts without proper purging ◦ Loss of Flame on one Burner while others are in operation ◦ Complete Furnace Flame-out followed by an attempt to light a burner 1. From NFPA 8502 “Prevention of Furnace Explosions / Implosions in Multiple Burner Boilers” Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  135. 135. BMS Definitions Furnace Implosions ◦ More common in large Utility Boilers ◦ Caused by any of the following: Malfunction of equipment regulating boiler gas flow resulting in furnace exposure to excessive induced draft fan head capability Rapid decay for furnace gas temperature and pressure due to furnace trip 1. From NFPA 8502 “Prevention of Furnace Explosions / Implosions in Multiple Burner Boilers” Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  136. 136. BMS Basic Definitions Common Terminology ◦ Supervised Manual Manual Burner Light-off with Interlocks ◦ Automatic Recycling (Single Burner Only) Automatic Burner Start and Stop based on preset operating range (ie.. Drum pressure) ◦ Automatic Non Recycling (Single Burner Only) Automatic Burner Start and Stop based on Manual command to start. Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  137. 137. Types of Flame Scanners Infrared (IR) Detectors ◦ Single Burner Applications ◦ More Suitable with Oil Burning Flames Ultra-Violet (UV) Detectors ◦ Multiple Burner Applications ◦ More Suitable for Gas Burners and Combination Gas / Oil Burners Self Check Scanners ◦ Flame Signal is interrupted at set intervals to verify proper operation of scanner Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  138. 138. Single Burner BMS Inputs Low Low Drum Level (D) High Steam Pressure (D) (D) Purge Purge Air Flow Minimum Air Flow (D) (D) Limits Made Flame / No Flame Hold to Purge SCRL RESET MO DE BURNER FUEL SELECT FD FAN OFF ON GAS OIL HAND OFF AUTO (D) Fuel Oil Temp Low Fuel Oil Temp High (D) (D) Fuel Oil Press Low Fuel Oil Flow (A) (D) Atomizing Medium Flow > Min Atomizing AE TE (D) Medium Common Alarm Output Press Low (D) Remote Annunciator (By Others) FEEDWATER PSH PSL STEAM PT PSH FT IGNITER Safety Shut Off GAS LSLL & Vent Valves LSLL Fuel Fuel Gas Gas FT PSL TSH TSL FS Press Press Low High (D) (D) PSL PSL OIL Safety Shut Off Control Valves Valve ATOMIZING Control Valve & MEDIUM Shut Off Valve (D) - Descrete Signal Used By Flame Safeguard System FT PSL PSH GAS Safety Shut Off & Control Vent Valves Valve Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  139. 139. BMS Logic Burner Management Systems can be broken down into “Interlock Groups” Typical BMS Interlock Groups: ◦ Boiler Purge ◦ Igniter Header Valve Management ◦ Main Fuel Header Valve Management ◦ MFT (Master Fuel Trip) Logic Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  140. 140. Purge Interlocks BOILER TRIPPED AND PURGE / RESET PB START-UP TIMER START FD FAN PERMISSIVES SATISFIED: - MAIN FUEL VALVES CLOSED - NO FLAME PRESENT - FD FAN RUNNING AND - MINIMUM AIR FLOW SWITCH MADE - WATER LEVEL SATISFACTORY - ATOMIZING MEDIUM ON - FUEL SUPPLY PRESSURE NOT LOW ENERGIZE FUEL RELAY NOT AND PURGE SIGNAL TO CCS PURGE AIR FD DAMPER IN FLOW SWITCH AND FULL OPEN MADE POSITION PURGE TIMER SET PURGE COMPLETE NO YES REMOVE PURGE TO CCS SYSTEM TRIP Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  141. 141. Igniter Interlocks PURGE COMPLETE AIR DAMPER IN LOW FIRE FUEL VALVE IN LOW FIRE AND POSITION POSITION ENERGIZE IGNITER AND IGNITER HEADER VALVES 10 SECOND DELAY 10 SEC PILOT TRIAL FOR IGNITION TIMER COMPLETE FLAME PROVEN NOT AND SYSTEM TRIP PERMIT FOR MAIN FLAME Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  142. 142. Main Flame Interlocks IGNITER TIMER COMPLETE FLAME AND PROVEN ENERGIZE MAIN FUEL VALVES 10 SEC MAIN FLAME TRIAL TIMER COMPLETE NOT AND DE-ENERGIZE IGNITION COMPONENTS RELEASE TO MODULATE TO CCS SYSTEM TRIP Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  143. 143. Single Burner Main Fuel Trip FOR OIL: FOR GAS: - LOWFUEL PRESSURE - LOWFUEL GAS PRESSURE - LOWTEM PERATURE (HEATED OILS) - HIGH GAS PRESSURE - LOSS OF COM BUSTION AIR - LOSS OF COM BUSTION AIR - LOSS OF FLAM OR FAIL TO ESTABLISH E - LOSS OF FLAM OR FAIL TO ESTABLISH E - LOSS OF CONTROL SYSTEMENERGY - LOSS OF CONTROL SYSTEMENERGY - POWER FAILURE - POWER FAILURE - LOWWATER LEVEL (AUXLEVEL CONTACT) - LOWWATER LEVEL (AUXLEVEL CONTACT) - LOSS OF ATOM IZING MEDIUM - EXCESSIVE STEAMDRUMPRESSURE - EXCESSIVE STEAMDRUMPRESSURE - HIGH OIL TEMPERATURE (HEATED OILS) OR OR TRIP BOILER TRIP IGNITER, TRIP MAIN FUEL FUEL CONTROL IGNITER VALVES, VALVES, OPEN VALVE TO TRIP MFT RELAY OPEN IGNITER VENT VALVE CLOSED VENT (GAS ONLY) POSITION Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  144. 144. BMS System Types Early Burner Management Systems ◦ Hardwired Systems ◦ Solid State Systems Microprocessor Based Systems ◦ Honeywell 7800 series with fixed Logic. PLC Based Systems ◦ Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Based ◦ Powerful, versatile, expandable, more reliable. Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  145. 145. Early Burner Management Systems Hardwired Systems ◦ Relay and Timer Driven. Found on older installations ◦ Typical of Late 50’s, 60’s Solid State Systems ◦ Solid State Processors and Relays ◦ Found on Systems provided in the 70’s and 80’s ◦ Proprietary Hardware (ie.. Forney and Peabody) ◦ Spare Parts are extremely hard to find. Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  146. 146. MicroProcessor Based Systems Microprocessor Based System providing: ◦ Burner Sequencing ◦ Ignition ◦ Flame Monitoring Fixed Program with Limited Configuration Changes Components Selected Based on Requirements ◦ Programmers, Flame Amplifiers, Message Displays Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  147. 147. Typical BMS Layout AMPLIFIER EP PROGRAMMER AUTOMATIC PRIMARY SAFETY CONTROL FIELD WIRING FIELD WIRING FLAME SCANNER Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  148. 148. Micro Processor Capabilities Simple, Cost Effective Features ◦ Selectable Flame Amplifiers / Scanners ◦ Remote Display ◦ Remote Data Communications via Modbus Port ◦ Modernization kits are available to integrate with older systems ◦ Spare Parts Normally Readily Available Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  149. 149. When These Systems are Used “Simple” Boiler Installations ◦ Packaged Fire tube / Water tube Boilers (Steam / Hot Water) ◦ Single Burner ◦ One Fuel at a Time ◦ No Flue Gas Re-Circulation ◦ Upgrades from Previous MicroProcessor Based Systems Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  150. 150. PLC Based Burner Management Systems PLC Based Features ◦ NFPA 8501, 8502 ◦ Watchdog timer ◦ UL 508 Certification Redundant Scanners Logic+ Message Center ◦ Shows program status ◦ Displays alarms ◦ Prompts operator Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  151. 151. PLC System Basic Design Features Each PLC based burner management system should incorporate a number of design techniques which help detect and act upon unsafe failure modes which can occur in any microprocessor based system. These design features include the following: ◦ Critical Input Checking ◦ Critical output channel monitoring ◦ Electro-mechanical Master Fuel Trip (MFT) Relay ◦ Redundant Watchdog Timers ◦ Low Water Cut-out Monitoring During Blow Down Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  152. 152. PLC Based System Capabilities Provision for Multiple Fuel Firing ◦ Capped gas input during curtailment ◦ Changeover from gas to oil at any load ◦ Simultaneous firing of waste and fossil fuels Redundant Scanners, change scanner with fuel Single or Multiple Burner Applications Integration of BMS with SCADA Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  153. 153. PLC Based Operator Interfaces Features ◦ Clear Written Messages to indicate status, required operator interaction, trip/alarm indication ◦ High Visibility through two lines of display ◦ Messages reduce time consuming troubleshooting ◦ Prioritizes Messages First Out Alarms Warning / Alarm Messages Status Messages / Prompts Operator Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  154. 154. PLC System Layout Door Mounted Lights / Pushbuttons Logic+ Message SWITCH SILENCE LIGHT Display PLC CPU I/O I/O I/O I/O COMBUSTION CONTROL SYSTEM FLAME AMPLIFIER (SINGLE / REDUNDANT) I/O EXPANSION I/O FIELD DEVICES Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  155. 155. Benefits of PLC Based Systems Flexibility / Reliability ◦ Programming Software allows changes to system Choice of PLCs ◦ GE / Modicon / Allen Bradley / Koyo Choice of Flame Scanners ◦ PPC / Fireye / Honeywell / Iris / Coen Application Specific Quantity of Burners / Fuels is not restricted Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  156. 156. When to Use PLC Based Systems “Complex” Boiler Installations ◦ Larger Packaged Units / Field Erected Units ◦ Multiple Burners ◦ Multiple Fuels, On-line Fuel Changeovers ◦ Flue Gas Re-Circulation ◦ Replace Existing Relay Logic Systems ◦ Requirement to maintain consistent control platform (spare parts, etc..) Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  157. 157. BMS SCADA Interface BMS Systems can be integrated into a SCADA System ◦ Allows Remote Monitoring of Flame Status ◦ Allows Remote Control of BMS ◦ Events (ie.. Burner trip) can be routed to Historical Portion of SCADA for fault evaluation ◦ Burner Operation can be trended over time Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  158. 158. BMS SCADA Interface Interface Methods: SCADA PC MODBUS COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL MODBUS COMMUNICATION Communication PROTOCOL Interface (If Necessary) PLC CPU I/O I/O I/O I/O BMS LOGIC+ SYSTEM FIREYE E110 SYSTEM Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  159. 159. BMS SCADA Interface Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  160. 160. SummaryBenefits Associated with Sequential Start Up Automationand Burner Management Systems ◦ Help Improve plant safety ◦ Help qualify for reduced insurance cost ◦ Reduce Startup and Down Time with comprehensive alarming and diagnostics Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  161. 161. Summary Review of Topics Discussed ◦ Sequential Start Up Automation, ◦ Objectives of Burner Management Systems ◦ BMS Design Considerations ◦ Basic BMS Logic ◦ Types of Burner Management Systems ◦ How BMS Systems can be integrated with Plant Wide SCADA Systems Workshop on Start Up and Commissioning Dr. Himadri Banerji MD EcoUrja, Ex Reliance and Tata www.ecourja.com
  162. 162. SAFETY ISSUES THE WORK PERMIT SYSTEM (Reference Document : <<AIGA 011/04 >>)Presented by Dr Himadri Banerji EcoUrja www.ecourja.com
  163. 163. Summary Acknowledgement This document is adopted from the European Industrial Gases Association document TP 10/04 – The Work Permit System, and acknowledgement and thanks are hereby given to EIGA for permission granted for the use of their documentPresented by Dr Himadri Banerji EcoUrja www/ecourja.com
  164. 164. The Work Permit System. What is it? A work permit system consists primarily of a standard procedure designed to ensure that potentially hazardous routine and non routine work on industrial installations can be carried out safely. The procedure should define the need for the following essential steps: Details of the necessary preparatory work Clear definition of responsibilities Appropriate training of the work force Provision of adequate safety equipment A formal work permit with or without attached specific checklists. This work permit: specifies the work to be accomplished and authorizes it to be started under the strict observance of consigned work and safety procedures After information and agreement of all other concerned parties (process, safety, customers, suppliers,…)
  165. 165. The Work Permit System :When? For all non-routine works, For hazardous routine works not covered by procedures, When work is performed: by your employees and/or third parties
  166. 166. The Work Permit System (1/2):For what kind of work? A work permit is required in case of: Potential oxygen deficiency or enrichment Potential flammable/explosive atmosphere Potential high temperature/pressure Potential hazardous chemicals, e.g.: toxic substances Confined space entry, e.g.: tanks, cold box, pit, normally closed vessels Bypassing or removing/altering safety devices or equipment Elevated works Introduction of ignited sources where not permanently allowed (fire permit), e.g.: open flame, welding, grinding, Electrical troubleshooting or repair on live circuits Maintenance or repairs in areas or to equipment or lines, containing or supposed to contain hazardous materials or conditions,
  167. 167. The Work Permit System (2/2):For what kind of work? Or also in case of: Manual or powered excavations Use of mobile cranes Insulation or catalysts handling Use of adapters Product conversion of stationary or mobile or portable vessels and containers Temporary or permanent changes, alterations, modification of equipment or processes, Exposure to traffic, Exposure to moving/rotating machinery In proximity of vents, liquid of gas On process lines with gas release Etc..
  168. 168. The Work Permit System : Why?1. Because: In charge of the work, you don’t know everything about the site and the process around about the work Safety measures have to be prepared You cannot start the work without the OK of the production personnel or the customer or the supplier The production needs your OK in order to re-start the plant after your work is achieved2. To obtain a safe as well as a quick and cost effective work
  169. 169. The Work Permit System : Why? In order to define the scope of work for everyone concerned/involved by and during the work, the Work Permit must be prepared with: The person responsible for the work The person(s) in charge of the production, the customer or supplier, who will release the process before the work starts The other work bodies The person in charge of HSE measures
  170. 170. The Work Permit System : How? Before issuing the Work Permit, you must: Describe the work to be done List all the specifications and drawings which are required Issue detailed planning with all involved entities Determine the logging and tagging procedures Fill-in together the work permit and sign, The start of the work must be authorized by production and/or user, The re-start of the process must take place after the work is finished.
  171. 171. The Work Permit System :Review of Flowsheets, Drawings andSpecification Purpose of the review is to ensure all key persons involved in jobplanning have a thorough understanding of the job. It shouldinclude: Process fluids and materials involved, Degree of isolation, Effect of other processes, Power supply isolation, Specialist advice, Location of underground services and pipes, Location of elevated power cables, Location of elevated pipelines and walkways, Purging and lock-out requirements, Pressure, Temperature, Valve identification, Equipment specification, Operating and maintenance instructions, Materials of construction and compatibilities
  172. 172. The Work Permit System :Work site inspection Anyone involved and signing the Safe Work Permit must visit the work place in order: •To inspect the work area Neighbouring activities, site rules, overhead, underground, access, natural hazards (flood, rain, snow…), etc,.. •To identify potential hazards Flammable, oxygen, toxic substances, confined spaces, electricity, pressure, temperature, moving objects, traffic, falls/trips/slips, etc,..
  173. 173. The Work Permit System :Development of Work ProceduresPreparation of a detailed work procedure is essential to ensure the work willproceed safely in a planned and logical manner: Following requirements to be considered: Reference drawings, Timing of various operations, Details of any special equipment, Needs to inform local authorities, safety precautions and equipment, Emergency procedures, etc,.. The procedure should include: Logging and tagging procedures: Electricity, process fluids Instrumentation, utilities (water, air, oil,…) Depressurising, Draining, Venting, Purging, Flushing, Isolating, Atmosphere checking, Disassembly of equipment, Method of repair, Reassembly and installation, Quality control, Pressure and leak testing, Reinstatement of equipment, Hand-back procedure, etc..

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