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Pick-and-Drop: A Direct Manipulation Technique for Multiple Computer Environments


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Pick-and-Drop: A Direct Manipulation Technique for Multiple Computer Environments

  1. 1. Pick-and-Drop: A Direct Manipulation Technique for Multiple Computer Environments Jun Rekimoto Sony Computer Science Laboratory Inc Oct.15.1997
  2. 2. From Single Device UI to multi-Device UI Computer PC PDA PDA Kiosk Wall PC PDA PDA Current PC/GUIs are designed for One-user -- One-computer environment Future Computing Environment must be designed for Multi-user -- Multi-computer environments PDA
  3. 3. Limitations of Single-Device GUIs <ul><li>One-to-One dogma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse and Keyboard are connected to one computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cf. Paper and Pencil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Direct-Manipulation technique that can interrelate two or more computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Drag-and-drop between two computers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Mouse Jungle
  5. 5. Data Copying through Human Body Note: These computers are connected to the Network
  6. 6. How people transfer information between nearby computers? % % % % % % A survey conducted on 40 engineers in Sony’s Software Labs.
  7. 7. Multi-Computer (Device) UIs <ul><li>No cognitive overload as the number of devices increases </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual / Physical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number, size, orientation, and location of devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective combination of a variety of devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries between computers/devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Seamful but beautifully designed seams” [M.Weiser, Invited Talk at UIST94] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>An Example: Pick-and-Drop </li></ul>
  8. 8. Drag&Drop Pick-and-Drop Inter Computer Pick-and-Drop
  9. 9. Information transition between virtual and physical spaces Computer Space 1 Physical Space Computer Space 2 Display Surface Pen virtually Carries the data Pick Drop
  10. 10. Data Shadow <ul><li>Visual feedback for pen carrying data </li></ul>Display Surface
  11. 11. Applications of Pick-and-Drop Information exchange between PDAs Picking up information from Kiosk (push media) terminal
  12. 12. Wall-sized Display + Palmtop Computer
  13. 13. Video
  14. 14. System Configuration Network Pen ID = 1 Wall Size Display (or Physical Wall) Desktop Display PDA (Nomadic PCs) ID Data 1 xx.gif Pen ID = 2 Pen Manager
  15. 15. Pick-and-Drop between Paper and Computer Tablet Printed Objects Page ID Camera Object ID Page Code Pick Position
  16. 16. Discussions <ul><li>Traditional Data Transfer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy data from C:/ My Document of Machine A to /user/local …. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pick-and-Drop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy data from here to there </li></ul></ul>Symbolic Spatial
  17. 17. Summary <ul><li>Multi-Computer (Multi-Device) UI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as a new paradigm of direct-manipulation techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pick-and-Drop: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information transfer technique for multi-device environment </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Future Work <ul><li>Generalized Pick-and-Drop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information exchange between electronic appliance (e.g., VCR), ubiquitous computers, and physical objects (paper, wall, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pick-and-Drop of active objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., JavaBeans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application to distributed environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick-and-drop over video conferencing </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Pick-and-Drop over ClearBoard ENVISIONMENT
  20. 21. State Transition Diagram PEN-DOWN DRAG PEN-UP MOVE Time Out DRAG PEN-UP MOVE DOWN Time Out DRAG MOVE PICK DROP PEN-UP Time Out
  21. 22. Pick-Move, Pick-Copy Move Copy
  22. 23. Related Work (1/2) <ul><li>DigitalDesk [Wellner 93] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data transfer from paper to the desk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LiveBoard + PARC TAB [Want 95] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PARC Tab as a remote pointer for the LiveBoard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graspable UIs [Fitzmaurice 95] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using physical handles (bricks) to manipulate computer objects </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Related Work (2/2) <ul><li>PDA-ITV [Robertson 96] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDA as a remote controller for the interactive TV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PaperLink [Arai 97] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Picking up information from paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultra Magic Key (UMK) [Usuda 97] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TV manipulation using a paper booklet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tangible Bits [Ishii 97] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical artifact for “Bits” (phicons) </li></ul></ul>