Types of fractures

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Types of fractures

  1. 1.  Types of fractures Shaft – diaphysis and 2 extremities , epiphysis Marrow cavity
  2. 2.  Def : fracture Complete/ incomplete break – continuity – bone / cartilage or both, with or without displacement of fracture fragments Assoc. soft tissue damage
  3. 3.  Type of Fracture:2. Cause, mild/ severe3. Bone involved: Young / old / cortical / cancellous4. Site of fracture5. Temperament of animal
  4. 4. Etiology:• Extrinsic – trauma and forces – act on bonec. Direct trauma: Automobile accident (80 %) Fall from a height Usually comminuted/ multiple type
  5. 5. a. Indirect : arises during running , jumping or falling of an animal Forces like bending , torsional , compressive and shearing are transmitted – weak link within the bone
  6. 6. Bending forces  When it overcomes – elastic limit of a bone- cortex opposite to force – breaks – additional force- complete fracture  Oblique or transverse fractures  Steps into a hole while running
  7. 7. Torsional force Bone is twisted along its ling axis. Result – one end is fixed and other is forced to rotate Long / short spiral fracture
  8. 8. Compressive forces One end is fixed – other is forced towards fixed end – compacted / compression fracture
  9. 9. Shearing Force transmitted along long axis – transferred to a portion of the same bone – peripheral to the axis Fracture line – parallel to direction of applied force Eg: fracture of bony prominences
  10. 10. Intrinsic causes Cause Inside body Related to violent m. contraction/ local or systemic diseasesc. Muscular contraction: Skeletal m. – violently – chip off – bone – attachment insertion/ origin)Avulsion fracturesImmature animals – commonAcromion , greater trochanter, tibial tuberosity, calcaneal of fibular tarsal
  11. 11.  B. Pathological: local / systemic dis. – bones – abnormal/ weak – fracture with wt. Bone tumours, cysts, osteoporosis, bone infections, rickets , osteoporosis by prolonged fixations
  12. 12. Classification1. Basis of comminucation of the site to the environment: Simple (closed) Compound (open)Simple: no wound at surface no communicationCompound: open wound communication prone to infection
  13. 13.  2. Extent of fracture: complete Incomplete Incomplete: 1. green stick – cortex opp. To bending breaks and under the force remains intact Immature animals – elastic nature of bone
  14. 14.  2. Fissure fracture; Direct trauma – incomplete fracture 3. Depression fracture; A small portion of cortex – depressed into its parent bone – Maxilla and frontal bones
  15. 15. Complete fractures Complete loss of bone continuity and bone – div. – 2 or more fragments On the basis of direction of the fracture lines:3. Transverse- result of bending force
  16. 16. 2.Oblique – Bending + axial compression – diagonal to long axis3. Spiral : Frac. Line spirals the long axis of bone(torsion, twisting/ rotational forces)
  17. 17. 4. Comminuted: 2 or more fracture lines interconnect each other at one point.(butterfly fracture)5. Multiple fracture: 2 or more – frac. Lines – donot interconnect – div. the bone into 3 or more fracture fragments. – severe soft tissue injuries- healing time is more
  18. 18. 6. Impacted fracture: cortical end is impacted into cancellous – usually at junction of diaphysis and metaphysis of a long bone
  19. 19. 7. Compression fracture: Cancellous bone collapses – compresses upon itself- eg. Frac. Of vertebral bodies – spine trauma
  20. 20. 8. Avulsion fracture: Part of the bone is torn away
  21. 21. Basis of anatomicallocationn Diaphyseal fracture: 1/3rd, 2/3rd or distal 3rdn Metaphyseal fracture: Distal / proximaln Epiphyseal: Distal / proximal
  22. 22. 4. Condylar : frac. Lines pass through condyles or between condylesEg; distal end of humerus / femurFurther classified as medial/ lateral /.intercondylar/ supracondylar
  23. 23.  5. Articular: frac. Of subchondral bone 6. fracture dislocation: results into a joint instability – luxation of joint eg: Montegia fracture of olecranon process and dislocation of elbow joint.

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