Mammary glands power point by Dr. Rekha Pathak senior scientist IVRI
Mammary glands surgery The mammary glandsMG – Modified skin glands –female functional•Glandular tissue – divided into 2 main halves•separated by a complete septum.•The suspensory apparatus and blood and nervesupply – independent of each other.
At distal- mucosa-rose flower like folds pattern- rosette of Furstenberg.----- R Duct system – 2 parts 1.teat sinus/cistern 2. streak canal.(pappilary duct)
Structure of MG Teat cistern – separated from gland cistern – annular fold-A Ventrally the rostte of Furstenberg separates teat cistern from the streak canal. Closing mechanism – rostte of Furstenberg- sphincter muscle- prevents milk leakage and entry of microbes.
Anaesthesia Surgery of MG- ring block- 10-12 ml lignocaine 2% Posterior epidural block. Spinal anaesthetics
Supernumery teats Supernumery teats – teats in between normal teats Removed for – cosmetic- interfere with milking procedure. - unfit character for breeding 2 elliptical incisions- close with non-absorbable. FUSED TEATS- skin are fused- without involving teat canal or muscles. Divided surgically and cutaneous wound sutured
Teat laceration Teat lacerations Higher in goats(pendulous udder and long teats) Etio-Direct injury Superficial wounds – general principles
Teat laceration Large wounds – involving skin and muscularis but not mucosa. suture Deep lacerations – involve mucosa, a complete longitudinal tearing.
Teat laceration Ring block – tourniquet – check haemorhage and milk inflow into cistern. Teat siphon inserted – debridement is properly done Close the mucosa – simple continuous- atraumatic needle. Finally skin
Teat lacerations Check leakage to ensure a proper sealing –fistula may form later. Antibiotic preparation into teat. Polyethy- catheter – mastitis.
Teat Fistula Teat cistern and teat surface- milk flows in lactating animals. Aquired and rarely congenital. Best treated during dry period.
Teat Fistula If very small- mild chemical cauterization. If large- reconstructive surgery. If inflamed delay the operation since chance of recurrence. Repair-2 elliptical incisions – debridement and undermining- close.
Papilloma/warts Papilloma/warts- finger-like Isolated or multiple projections Ligate at the base – drops off.-if not surgical.
LACTOLITHS: LACTOLITHS: Teat cistern liths due to mineral deposits. Concretions and rarely as organized calculi.- obstruction to milking. Lodged at teat orifice. If small removed by teat orifice by milking. Mosquito forceps if large.or use teat bistoury to slit the contracted sphincter.
Polyp Polyp: Pea sized growth- attached to wall of teat cistern-clamped and removed by alligator forceps.
Teat spider :(memberanous obstruction) Congenital Aquired Teat spider : Improper Injury, (memberanous development tumour or obstruction) of teat infection Congenital or aquired Milk pocket present usually not Symptom: present Obstruction to milk Treatment Rewarding flow not and rewarding prognosis is good
Teat spider :(memberanous obstruction) Milk pocket-fluctuating milk above the obstruction. In congenital- milk pocket is absent. Treatment is not rewarding. If the milk pocket is palpated prognosis is good. Hudson ‘s teat spiral is introduced with 3-4 revolutions. Milk also prevents the stricture formation.do not milk it completely.
Reference Reference: RPS Tyagi, Ruminant surgery