Mammary glands power point by Dr. Rekha Pathak senior scientist IVRI


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Mammary glands power point by Dr. Rekha Pathak senior scientist IVRI

  1. 1. Mammary glands surgery The mammary glandsMG – Modified skin glands –female functional•Glandular tissue – divided into 2 main halves•separated by a complete septum.•The suspensory apparatus and blood and nervesupply – independent of each other.
  2. 2. Suspensory ligament
  3. 3. Section of mammary glands
  4. 4. Nervous stimulation on udder
  5. 5. Anatomy So one half can be easily removed in diseased condition without affecting the other. Each half---------- Cranial quarter ---------- Caudal quarter
  6. 6. Anatomy of mammary glands 2 quarters of each half- independent glandular tissue but common blood and nerve supply and lymph drainage.( B.S.-ext. pudic and perineal)- inguinal nerve
  7. 7. Structure of MG From outside to inside – teat consist of 1.Skin(E,D) 2.Muscular layer-M- (outer longitudinal and inner circular which extends distally – spincter of the teat canal-S.)
  8. 8.  3. fibrous layer- binding layer for muscle with mucosa.- C 4. mucus mem- longitudinal and transverse folds- intersect – form pockets or recess-Mc Bacteria resides
  9. 9. Structure of MG
  10. 10.  At distal- mucosa-rose flower like folds pattern- rosette of Furstenberg.----- R Duct system – 2 parts 1.teat sinus/cistern 2. streak canal.(pappilary duct)
  11. 11. Structure of MG  Teat cistern – separated from gland cistern – annular fold-A  Ventrally the rostte of Furstenberg separates teat cistern from the streak canal.  Closing mechanism – rostte of Furstenberg- sphincter muscle- prevents milk leakage and entry of microbes.
  12. 12. Anaesthesia Surgery of MG- ring block- 10-12 ml lignocaine 2% Posterior epidural block. Spinal anaesthetics
  13. 13. Supernumery teats Supernumery teats – teats in between normal teats Removed for – cosmetic- interfere with milking procedure. - unfit character for breeding 2 elliptical incisions- close with non-absorbable. FUSED TEATS- skin are fused- without involving teat canal or muscles. Divided surgically and cutaneous wound sutured
  14. 14. Teat laceration Teat lacerations Higher in goats(pendulous udder and long teats) Etio-Direct injury Superficial wounds – general principles
  15. 15. Teat laceration Large wounds – involving skin and muscularis but not mucosa. suture Deep lacerations – involve mucosa, a complete longitudinal tearing.
  16. 16. Teat laceration Ring block – tourniquet – check haemorhage and milk inflow into cistern. Teat siphon inserted – debridement is properly done Close the mucosa – simple continuous- atraumatic needle. Finally skin
  17. 17. Teat lacerations Check leakage to ensure a proper sealing –fistula may form later. Antibiotic preparation into teat. Polyethy- catheter – mastitis.
  18. 18. Teat Fistula Teat cistern and teat surface- milk flows in lactating animals. Aquired and rarely congenital. Best treated during dry period.
  19. 19. Teat Fistula If very small- mild chemical cauterization. If large- reconstructive surgery. If inflamed delay the operation since chance of recurrence. Repair-2 elliptical incisions – debridement and undermining- close.
  20. 20. Papilloma/warts Papilloma/warts- finger-like Isolated or multiple projections Ligate at the base – drops off.-if not surgical.
  21. 21. LACTOLITHS: LACTOLITHS: Teat cistern liths due to mineral deposits. Concretions and rarely as organized calculi.- obstruction to milking. Lodged at teat orifice. If small removed by teat orifice by milking. Mosquito forceps if large.or use teat bistoury to slit the contracted sphincter.
  22. 22. Polyp Polyp: Pea sized growth- attached to wall of teat cistern-clamped and removed by alligator forceps.
  23. 23. Teat spider :(memberanous obstruction) Congenital Aquired Teat spider : Improper Injury, (memberanous development tumour or obstruction) of teat infection Congenital or aquired Milk pocket present usually not Symptom: present Obstruction to milk Treatment Rewarding flow not and rewarding prognosis is good
  24. 24. Teat spider :(memberanous obstruction) Milk pocket-fluctuating milk above the obstruction. In congenital- milk pocket is absent. Treatment is not rewarding. If the milk pocket is palpated prognosis is good. Hudson ‘s teat spiral is introduced with 3-4 revolutions. Milk also prevents the stricture not milk it completely.
  25. 25. Reference Reference: RPS Tyagi, Ruminant surgery
  26. 26. Questions???