Webinar vi 1


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About reading - schema theory - bottom-up/ top-down processes

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Webinar vi 1

  1. 1. WEBINAR VI Group: Carla Gilberto Roberto
  2. 2. <ul><li>&quot; THERE IS MORE TREASURE IN BOOKS THAN IN ALL THE PIRATES´S LOOT ON TREASURE ISLAND&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>                                              WALT DISNEY </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is reading? <ul><li>“ Reading is about understanding written texts. It is a complex activity that involves both perception and thought”. </li></ul><ul><li>(Dhakal, 2010:01) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reasons to read <ul><li>Reading improves all languages skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading exposes people to the accumulated wisdom of human civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Mature readers bring to the text their experiences, abilities, and interests; the text, in turn, allows them to expand those experiences and abilities and to find new interests. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why do we read? <ul><li>Do we read simply because we have to sit an exam and pass through with good marks or grade? </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Maybe yes, especially for the very young learners, but this obviously is not the sole purpose of reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading for pleasure (extensive reading) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading for information </li></ul>Why do we read?
  7. 7. Some assumptions <ul><li>Is not necessary to understand every single word in a text. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Top Down Processing <ul><li>According to Christine Nuttal (1996, pp. 16-17) “ It is an eagle’s-eye view of a landscape below.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bottom Up Processing <ul><li>Through the details (linguistic signals) the reader decode the message (the text). </li></ul>
  10. 10. The interactive model of reading <ul><li>In this model reading involves both bottom-up and top-down process </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of textual information with the information the reader brings to text </li></ul><ul><li>Readers cultural background and values are important </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of schema </li></ul>
  11. 11. Schema Theory and Background Knowledge <ul><li>The text does not bring the information itself. </li></ul><ul><li>(Anderson, 2004). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Schema Theory and Background Knowledge <ul><li>The reader brings information, knowledge, emotion, experience and culture. </li></ul><ul><li>(Anderson, 2004). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reading is a skill which entails a series of sub-skills. The main sub-skills of reading are: <ul><li>- Recognizing the script of a language (word recognition) </li></ul><ul><li>- Deducing the meaning and use of unfamiliar lexical items </li></ul><ul><li>- Understanding explicitly or implicitly stated information (making inferences) </li></ul><ul><li>- Skimming for main theme of the text </li></ul><ul><li>- Scanning for specific information </li></ul><ul><li>- Understanding information from diagrammatic display </li></ul><ul><li>- Distinguishing main ideas from supporting details </li></ul><ul><li>- Deducing meaning from context </li></ul><ul><li>- Interpreting text by going outside the text </li></ul><ul><li>- Recognizing function and discourse patterns or indicators in discourse </li></ul><ul><li>- Predicting what is going to be read (making prediction), etc. </li></ul><ul><li>(PAG. 2) </li></ul><ul><li>http://dc224.4shared.com/download/mW-YSdg2/_2__Making_Sense_of_Nonsense__.pdf?tsid=20110531-130100-cc50c4cc </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reading instructions <ul><li>Pre-reading : setting the stage for understanding and response </li></ul><ul><li>Reading : engaging in text </li></ul><ul><li>Post-reading : making connections and extending understanding </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>ACTIVITIES </li></ul>
  16. 16. Activity 1 <ul><li>Use pictures to stimulate interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting what is going to be read (making prediction – “pre-reading”) . </li></ul><ul><li>Warm up with questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Have you ever had a pet?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Why are dogs so popular as pets?” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Ronnie the Hero Dog Saved Family from Coyote Attack Ronnie, a wire fox terrier who fought off a coyote to protect his family, has been honored as Hero Dog of the Year by spcaLA. <ul><li>Ronnie, a wire fox terrier from Los Angeles, is generally a pretty mellow guy. But you don’t want to mess with his family. </li></ul><ul><li>That’s what a coyote discovered last August, when he jumped the Rossmoor family fence and charged at the owners, Janis and Eric Christensen, and their other dog, a Yorkie named Annie. </li></ul><ul><li> Instantly, Ronnie leapt in between the coyote and the others, ready to defend his family to the death. Although Ronnie was bitten by the coyote, the terrier fought back, and the coyote ran away. </li></ul><ul><li>Luckily, Ronnie made a full recovery, and now he’s been honored by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals of Los Angeles with the Hero Dog of the Year award. Along with a commemorative plaque, Ronne was given a year’s supply of dog food and a weekend getaway package with his family. </li></ul><ul><li>“ This shows that treating your pet with love and respect can be returned by an amazing heroic act,” spcaLA President Madeline Bernstein told KTLA. </li></ul><ul><li>http://gimundo.com/news/article/ronnie-the-hero-dog-saved-family-from-coyote </li></ul>
  18. 18. Post Reading <ul><li>1. Why was this dog considered a hero? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What other ways can dogs help people? </li></ul><ul><li>As a subskill, idioms can be learned: </li></ul><ul><li>There are many colourful phrases and words related to dogs. Match these idioms with their meanings below. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Activity 2 - Reading for specific vocabulary
  20. 22. Activity 3 – Reading for specific information
  21. 24. Activity 4 – Reading following instructions <ul><li>Apple Pie Milkshake </li></ul><ul><li>14 oz. sweetened condensed milk, chilled - not evaporated milk </li></ul><ul><li>1 cup applesauce, chilled </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 cup apple juice or apple cider, chilled </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 teaspoon apple pie spice </li></ul><ul><li>3 cups crushed ice </li></ul><ul><li>Apple wedges, optional Directions </li></ul><ul><li>In a blender, combine sweetened condensed milk, applesauce, apple juice, and apple pie spice. </li></ul><ul><li>With blender running, gradually add ice, blending until smooth. Serve immediately. </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Video “Ocoee Middle School” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNpNfhpqDk4 </li></ul>
  23. 26. THANK YOU!!
  24. 27. References <ul><li>DHAKAL, Rebat Kumar Making Sense of Nonsense: Strategy to Improve Reading Comprehension Web, May 2010 <http://dc224.4shared.com/download/mW-YSdg2/_2__Making_Sense_of_Nonsense__.pdf?tsid=20110531-130100-cc50c4cc> </li></ul><ul><li>Pang, Elizabeth S., Angaluki Muaka, Elizabeth B. Bernhardt, and Michael L. Kamil. Teaching Reading: educational practices series–12 . International Academy of Education, International Bureau of Education. Web, January 2010 <http://www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/EducationalPracticesSeriesPdf/prac12e.pdf >. </li></ul>