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Issues of Invisibility and Otherness in American Literature: people outside the  hegemonic paradigm of whiteness Marli Mer...
Invisibility <ul><li>too broad: skin color, ethnicity, gender, social status. </li></ul><ul><li>Explorer X exploited. </li...
<ul><li>It is in these groups that descendants of Africans are inserted. </li></ul><ul><li>Invisibility - literary charact...
<ul><li>The aim of the paper is to get students willing to externalize, through representations in concept maps, relations...
<ul><li>The telling questions underlying this study were: </li></ul><ul><li>  What concepts can we relate to Literature? <...
<ul><li>Selected explanation that emerged from the discussions : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Now we feel readier to understand the...
<ul><li>Students in groups brainstormed about literature and invisibility after reading a selection of texts by Maya Angel...
<ul><li>Each of the four concept maps shown here result from cooperative interactions between and among peers and teacher,...
<ul><li>Concept map 3: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The third is a concept map based on the previous ones and added to the scene co...
Conclusion <ul><li>According to the paper, the students felt and thought about the issue of invisibility and its linkages,...
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Group2 conceptmaps

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Group2 conceptmaps

  1. 1. Issues of Invisibility and Otherness in American Literature: people outside the hegemonic paradigm of whiteness Marli Merker Moreira Literature of English Expression, 2006, UNISINOS, Brazil. Group: Letícia Meira Maia Márcia Diniz Guimarães FALE – UFMG - 2011
  2. 2. Invisibility <ul><li>too broad: skin color, ethnicity, gender, social status. </li></ul><ul><li>Explorer X exploited. </li></ul><ul><li>minority (seen as such by the dominant group), non white. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>It is in these groups that descendants of Africans are inserted. </li></ul><ul><li>Invisibility - literary characters </li></ul><ul><li>This invisibility is presented through literary texts produced in English by African Americans. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The aim of the paper is to get students willing to externalize, through representations in concept maps, relationships among literature, identity, cultures, discrimination and invisibility. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The telling questions underlying this study were: </li></ul><ul><li>  What concepts can we relate to Literature? </li></ul><ul><li>b)  How does invisibility relate to Literature? </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Selected explanation that emerged from the discussions : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Now we feel readier to understand the linkages and laces of Literature concerning its comprehensiveness and its relevance, regarding life issues of literary characters, such as invisibility, which can be an umbrella concept that shelters events/ matters and objects in a literary text—and even our daily experience—, most of the time passes through our eyes completely unobserved. It seems a natural instinct for us to avoid seeing it, feeling it, and listening to its muffled voice (when it can be perceived after all). Actually, we have never stopped to reflect about such issues in our daily life, or in literary characters.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Students in groups brainstormed about literature and invisibility after reading a selection of texts by Maya Angelou, James Baldwin, Toni Morrison, Alice Walker, and others and ended up creating concept maps on that matter. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four concept maps that were selected as a sample of what it was produced by the students. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Each of the four concept maps shown here result from cooperative interactions between and among peers and teacher, and they comprise discussions, brainstorming, parking lots for concepts, map presentations, and the construction of collaborative maps that represented ideas, feelings, and thoughts of students about the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Concept map 1: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The first one represents their negotiation and sharing of meanings as equal partners after four classroom meetings. “ </li></ul><ul><li>Concept map 2: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The second, zooms in on literature and its linkages with concepts such as background, cultural identity, language, and group membership, and it was drawn in the ninth week of study” </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Concept map 3: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The third is a concept map based on the previous ones and added to the scene concepts such as power, globalization, standardization, invisibility, culture shock, isolation, acculturation, and others;” </li></ul><ul><li>Concept map 4: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The fourth is a concept map that tries to summarize their feelings and thoughts about literature and invisibility along the semester.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Conclusion <ul><li>According to the paper, the students felt and thought about the issue of invisibility and its linkages, such as silenced voices (what is not said), discrimination, isolation, power, and exploitation. At the end of the semester, these undergraduate students stated that they had never thought and reflected so much about how literary texts can “ rise above the limits of the written word and enter the souls of readers. ” They affirmed their satisfaction from having learned to work together in cooperative interactions to construct their concept maps, which, according to these students, improved their potential to unpack knowledge from a literary text. </li></ul>

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