LIS Pioneer: Eugene Garfield

Background
Born: September 16, 1925
Known as the “Father of Scientometrics
and Bibliometrics...
LIS Pioneer: Eugene Garfield

Background cont.
Paula J. Hane refers to Garfield
as a “renaissance man, who has
been a chem...
Education
http://www.columbia.edu/home/about_columbia/tour/images/plaza.jpg

In 1949 he earned a B.S.
in Chemistry from
Co...
Education cont.
http://www.graduateguide.com/images/985/UPenn_SP2_1.jpg

In 1961 he graduated
from the University of
Penns...
Career
In 1951, he began
working with the Welch
Medical Indexing Project
at Johns Hopkins
University to improve the
Curren...
Career
Based on work began with
the Welch Project, in 1955
he began publishing Current
Contents which quickly grew
to enco...
Career cont.
In 1954 Dr. Garfield formed his own company, Eugene
Garfield Associates, which was renamed Institute for
Scie...
Career cont.
SCI was combined with the Social Sciences and the
Arts & Humanities citation indexes to become the
Web of Sci...
LIS Pioneer: Eugene Garfield

Contributions to LIS
Dr. Garfield’s contributions to LIS cannot be
overstated.
The advances ...
Web of Knowledge
•

Scientific Citation
Index
•
Social Science Citation
Index
•
Arts & Humanities
Citation Index
What bega...
LIS Pioneer: Eugene Garfield

Garfield, 2005

Contributions cont.

Dr. Garfield innovated the
field of bibliometrics so fa...
References
Bensman, S. J. (2013). Eugene Garfield, Francis Narin, and Pagerank: The theoretical bases of the
Google search...
LIS Pioneer: Eugene Garfield

References
Garfield, E. (2013). Career Overview. Retrieved from
http://www.garfield.library....
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Eugene Garfield

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This presentation outlines the background, education, career and library science contributions of Eugene Garfield.

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Eugene Garfield

  1. 1. LIS Pioneer: Eugene Garfield Background Born: September 16, 1925 Known as the “Father of Scientometrics and Bibliometrics” (Brynko, 2007) Founder and Chairman Emeritus of Thomas Scientific (Connor, 2008) Pioneered the field of citation indexing and analysis (Hane, 2005) Eugene Garfield http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ Module 3 Group 3
  2. 2. LIS Pioneer: Eugene Garfield Background cont. Paula J. Hane refers to Garfield as a “renaissance man, who has been a chemist, information scientist, editor, publisher, database producer, and "science communicator,“ (2005). ISI Presents: Putting Scientific Information to Work A lecture given by Garfield to inform scientist and librarians about how to use the Science Citation Index was transformed into this 1972 film. It was separated into 3 parts to be posted on YouTube in 2008. Garfield is also a prolific writer and creator of ISI, the Institute for Scientific Information (Brynko, 2007). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YwPRI9ug6BY (Garfield, 2013) Module 3 Group 3
  3. 3. Education http://www.columbia.edu/home/about_columbia/tour/images/plaza.jpg In 1949 he earned a B.S. in Chemistry from Columbia University (Garfeild, 2013). In 1954 he earned a Master’s degree in library science from Columbia University (Garfield, 2013). Module 3 Group 3
  4. 4. Education cont. http://www.graduateguide.com/images/985/UPenn_SP2_1.jpg In 1961 he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a Ph.D. in Structural Linguistics (Garfeild, 2013) His dissertation was An Algorithm for Translating Chemical Names to Molecular Formula (Garfeild, 2013). Module 3 Group 3
  5. 5. Career In 1951, he began working with the Welch Medical Indexing Project at Johns Hopkins University to improve the Current List of Medical Literature (later called Index Medicus) using machine compilation methods (Presley & Caraway, 1999). http://olms.cte.jhu.edu/olms2/data/ck/sites/1351/images/Johns_hopkins_un 1).jpg Module 3 Group 3
  6. 6. Career Based on work began with the Welch Project, in 1955 he began publishing Current Contents which quickly grew to encompass several publications in different disciplines. Current Contents contained the contents pages from current journals in each discipline. (“Career Overview,” n.d.) http://faculty.libsci.sc.edu/bob/ISP/garfield2.htm Module 3 Group 3
  7. 7. Career cont. In 1954 Dr. Garfield formed his own company, Eugene Garfield Associates, which was renamed Institute for Scientific Information in 1960. The Institute for Scientific Information began publication of the Science Citation Index (SCI) in 1964. (Presley & Caraway, 1999) The rest of Dr. Garfield’s career has been devoted to developing and enhancing tools for researchers, including The Scientist (“Career Overview,” n.d.). Module 3 Group 3
  8. 8. Career cont. SCI was combined with the Social Sciences and the Arts & Humanities citation indexes to become the Web of Science. Dr. Garfield was on the board of Research America, the board of overseers of the University of Pennsylvania Libraries and Temple University Health System, Inc., and served as president of ASIST. (Hane, 2005) Module 3 Group 3
  9. 9. LIS Pioneer: Eugene Garfield Contributions to LIS Dr. Garfield’s contributions to LIS cannot be overstated. The advances that were made because of his dynamic new use of indexing resulted in anentirely new approach to research. Module 3 Group 3
  10. 10. Web of Knowledge • Scientific Citation Index • Social Science Citation Index • Arts & Humanities Citation Index What began as an index of scientific journals has become an extensive interdisciplinary web of citation (Presley, 1999). Medline/ MEDLAR • products of the Welch Project, which provides medical information for consumers (Thomson, 2014). HISTCITE • currently offered software package which is the most advanced realization of Garfield’s original bibliometric vision (Thomson, 2014). Module 3 Group 3
  11. 11. LIS Pioneer: Eugene Garfield Garfield, 2005 Contributions cont. Dr. Garfield innovated the field of bibliometrics so far ahead of its time that it’s taken technology 40 years to fully realize his vision. Impact Factor- counting the number of citations and thus quantifying the relevance of scholarly articles in a field (Thomson, 2014). The discovery of the “impact factor” has radically changed the process and quality of research in the scientific and eventually every field. Citation Anyalysis- Grandfather of Google? Larry Page and Sergey Brin cited Garfield’s work in citation analysis as a foundation for their work on PageRank (Bensman, 2013). Module 3 Group 3
  12. 12. References Bensman, S. J. (2013). Eugene Garfield, Francis Narin, and Pagerank: The theoretical bases of the Google search engine. (Master's thesis), Available from arXiv.org. (1312.3872)Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1312.3872v1 Brynko B. (2007). An Interview with Eugene Garfield - A Lifetime of Achievement and Still Going Strong. Information Today 24(1), 21. Retrieved from http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/papers/infotoday2007.pdf Connor, E. (2008). Interview with Eugene Garfield, Founder and Chairman Emeritus of Thomson Scientific. Journal Of Electronic Resources In Medical Libraries, 5(3), 261-265. doi:10.1080/15424060802222448 Hane, P. J. (2005). Eugene Garfield turns 80. Information Today, 22(9), 24. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=brb&AN=502961860&scope=site Garfield, E. (2013). Eugene Garfield, Ph.D. Retrieved from http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ Module 3 Group 3
  13. 13. LIS Pioneer: Eugene Garfield References Garfield, E. (2013). Career Overview. Retrieved from http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/overvu.html Garfield, E. (2013). Education. Retrieved from http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/educat.html Garfield, E. (Photographer). (2005, October 24). Most highly cited [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.the-scientist.com/? articles.view/articleNo/16769/title/Most-Highly-Cited/ Presley, R. L., & Caraway, B. L. (1999). An interview with Eugene Garfield. Serials Review, 25(3), 67-80. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0098-7913(99)00038-6 Thomson Reuters. (2014). History of citation indexing. Retrieved from http://wokinfo.com/essays/history-of-citation-indexing/ Module 3 Group 3

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