Stuart Hall - Audience Positioning

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Stuart Hall - Audience Positioning

  1. 1. Stuart Hall – Encoding/Decoding <ul><li>Stuart Hall is a cultural theorist and Professor of Sociology at the Open University. </li></ul><ul><li>Stuart Hall looked at the role of audience positioning in the interpretation of mass media texts by different social groups. Hall came up with a model suggesting three ways in which we may read a media text: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  2. 2. Encoding and decoding <ul><li>Dominant reading - reader fully accepts the preferred reading (audience will read the text the way the author intended them to) so that the code seems natural and transparent. </li></ul><ul><li>The negotiated reading – the reader partly believes the code and broadly accepts the preferred reading, but sometimes modifies it in a way which reflects their own position, experiences and interests.  </li></ul><ul><li>The oppositional reading – the readers social position places them in an oppositional relation to the dominant code. They reject the reading. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Media Power <ul><li>Hall was concerned with media power, including how it propagates particular social values, to create dominant ideologies (in other words framing public debate surrounding certain issues; e.g. the role of women in society, asylum and immigration, the welfare system, the monarchy etc...) </li></ul><ul><li>He believes that the mass media create and define issues of public concern and interest through audience positioning . </li></ul><ul><li>Polysemy - is the capacity for a text to have multiple meanings. It is to do with how individuals interpret and decode readings in different contexts and cultures. </li></ul>

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