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Verbal communication report


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Verbal communication report

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Verbal Communication 2
  3. 3. Table of ContentCommunication ……………………………………….. 04Types of Communication ……………………………………….. 09Nonverbal communication ……………………………………….. 10Para verbal communication ……………………………………….. 11Verbal Communication ………………………………………… 12Verbal communication Tools ………..………………………………… 16References ………………………………………….. 17 3
  4. 4. Communication Communication is:  Sending and receiving messages  How we relate to each other  An important part of our relationships  A way to express who we are  More than talking and listening  About attitude, tone of voice, facial expressions and body language Changes in communicationChanges in the ability to communicate are unique to each person. A caregiver may recognize differencesin the person with dementia such as:  Difficulty finding the right words  Using familiar words repeatedly  Inventing new words to describe familiar things  Easily losing train of thought  Difficulty organizing words logically  Reverting to speaking in a native language  Using curse words  Speaking less often  More often relying on gestures instead of speaking.A number of physical conditions and medications can also affect a person’s ability to communicate. Consult your doctor when you notice major changes.1 Helping the person communicates:Communicating with a person with dementia requires patience and understanding. Above all, you must bea good listener. 4
  5. 5. To help the person communicateBe patient and supportiveLet the person know you‘re listening and trying to understand what is being said.Show your interestKeep good eye contact. Show the person that you care about what is being said.Offer comfort and reassuranceIf he or she is having trouble communicating, let the person know that it‘s OK. Encourage the person tocontinue to explain his or her thoughts.Give the person timeLet the person think about and describe whatever he or she wants to. Be careful not to interrupt.Avoid criticizing or correctingDon‘t tell the person what he or she is saying is incorrect. Instead, listen and try to find the meaning inwhat is being said. Repeat what was said, if it helps to clarify the thought.Avoid arguingIf the person says something you don‘t agree with, let it be. Arguing usually only makes things worse.Offer a guessIf the person uses the wrong word or cannot find a word, try guessing the right one. If you understandwhat the person means, you may not need to give the correct word. Be careful not to cause unnecessaryfrustration.Encourage unspoken communicationIf you don‘t understand what is being said, ask the person to point or gesture.Limit distractionsFind a place that‘s quiet, so you won‘t be interrupted. The surroundings should support the person‘sability to focus on his or her thoughts.Focus on the feelings, not the factsSometimes the emotions being expressed are more important than what is being said. Look for thefeelings behind the words. At times, tone of voice and other actions may provide clues. 5
  6. 6. 2 Best ways for you to communicateAs dementia progresses, communication can become more and more challenging. Sensitive, ongoingcommunication is important, no matter how difficult it may become or how confused the person mayappear. While the person may not always respond, he or she still requires and benefits from continuedcommunication. When communicating with a person with dementia, it‘s especially important to chooseyour words carefully. To best communicate:Identify yourselfApproach the person from the front. Tell the person who you are.Call the person by nameThis is not only courteous; it helps orient the person and gets his or her attention.Use short, simple words and sentencesDon‘t overwhelm the person with lengthy requests or stories. Speak in a concise manner.Keep to the point. In some cases, slang words may be helpful.Talk slowly and clearlyBe aware of speed and clarity when speaking.Give one-step directionsBreak down tasks and instructions into clear, simple steps. Give one step at a time.Ask one question at a timeDon‘t overwhelm or confuse the person with too many questions at once.Patiently wait for a responseThe person may need extra time to process your request. Give the person the time and encouragement heor she needs to respond.Repeat information or questionsIf the person doesn‘t respond, wait a moment. Then ask again. Ask the question in the same way, usingthe same words as before.Turn questions into answersTry providing the solution rather than the question. For example, say ―The bathroom is right here,‖instead of asking, ―Do you need to use the bathroom?‖ 6
  7. 7. Avoid confusing expressionsIf you ask the person to ―Hop in!‖ – He or she may take that as literal instructions. Describe the actiondirectly to prevent confusion. ―Please come here. Your shower is ready.‖Avoid vague wordsInstead of saying ―Here it is!‖ – try saying, ―Here is your hat.‖Emphasize key wordsStress the words in a sentence you most want to draw attention to, like ―Here is your coffee.‖Turn negatives into positivesInstead of saying, ―Don‘t go there,‖ try saying, ―Let‘s go here.‖Give visual cuesTo help demonstrate the task, point or touch the item you want the person to use. Or, begin the task forthe person.Avoid quizzingSometimes reminiscing may be healthy. But avoid asking, ―Do you remember when ...?‖ Stay away fromsaying things like, ―You should know who that is.‖Give simple explanationsAvoid using logic and reason at great length. Give a complete response in a clear and concise way.Write things downTrying using simple written notes for reminders, if the person is able to understand them. A writtenresponse may also help when a spoken one seems too confusing.Treat the person with dignity and respectAvoid talking down to the person or talking as if he or she isn‘t there.Be aware of your tone of voice  Speak slowly and distinctly  Use a gentle and relaxed tone of voice a lower pitch is more calming  Convey an easygoing, non-demanding manner of speaking  Be aware of your feelings and attitude they are often communicated through your tone of voice, even when you don‘t mean to 7
  8. 8. Pay special attention to your body language  Always approach the person from the front  Avoid sudden movements  Keep good eye contact; if the person is seated or reclining, get down to that level  Be aware of your stance to avoid sending a bad message  Use positive, friendly facial expressions  Use unspoken communication like pointing, gesturing or touch3 People with hearing limitations if the person has difficulty hearing:  Approach the person from the front  Stand directly in front of the person when speaking to him or her  Get the person‘s attention by saying his or her name, and give a gentle touch  Speak slowly and clearly  Use a lower tone of voice  Use unspoken communication like pointing, gesturing or touch  Write things down, if needed  If he or she has a hearing aid, encourage the person to wear it; check the battery often4 People with vision limitations if the person has difficulty seeing:  Avoid startling the person  Don‘t make loud noises or sudden movements  Identify yourself as you approach the person  Tell the person of your intentions before you begin  Use large-print or audiotape materials, if available  If he or she has glasses, encourage the person to wear them; keep them clean and have the prescription checked regularly 8
  9. 9. 10 quick tips to Better communication1 Be calm and supportive2 Focus on the feelings, not the facts3 Pay attentions to tone of voice4 Address the person by his or her name5 Speak slowly, and use short, simple words6 Ask one question at a time7 Avoid vague words and negative statements8 Don‘t talk about the person as if he or she weren‘t there9 Use unspoken communication, like pointing10 Be patient, flexible and understanding Types of CommunicationWhen we talk to others or write to them, communication takes place between us. But for such acommunication, language is essential. Communication with the help of words is known as verbalcommunication. Similarly when we meet our friends, we shake our hand with them. This also conveyssome meaning. This is an example of non-verbal communication. Communication without any use ofwords is called non-verbal communication. Let us know further about these two.Verbal communication is made through words, either spoken or written. Communication through spokenwords is known as oral communication, which may be in the form of lectures, meetings, groupdiscussions, conferences, telephonic conversations, radio message etc. In written communication,message is transmitted through written words in the form of letters, memos, circulars, notices, reports,manuals, magazines, handbooks, etc.Non-verbal communication may be ‗Visual‘, ‗Aural‘ or ‗Gestural‘. Sometimes you look into somepictures, graphs, symbols, diagrams etc. and some message is conveyed to you.All these are different forms of visual communication. For example, the traffic policeman showing thestop sign, a teacher showing a chart of different animals is visual communication.Bells, whistles, buzzers, horns etc. are also the instruments through which we can communicate ourmessage. Communication with the help of these types of sounds is called aural communication. Forexample, the bell used in schools and colleges to inform students and teachers about the beginning or endof periods, siren used in factories to inform the change of work–shift of the workers are examples of auralcommunication. 9
  10. 10. Communication through the use of various parts of the human body, or through body language is termedas gestural communication. Saluting our national flag, motionless position during the singing of nationalanthem, waving of hands, nodding of head, showing anger on face, etc. are examples of gesturalcommunication. 1. Nonverbal Communication 2. Para Verbal Communication 3. Verbal Communication 1. Nonverbal CommunicationHow Do You Define Non-Verbal Communication?Verbal communication often refers to the words we use in communication; nonverbal communicationrefers to communication that is produced by some means other than words (eye contact, body language,or vocal cues, for example).The five primary functions of Nonverbal Behavior are: 1. Expression of Emotion — emotions are expressed mainly through the face, body, and voice. 2. Communication of Interpersonal Attitudes — the establishment and maintenance of relationships if often done through nonverbal signals (tone of voice, gaze, touch, etc.). 3. Accompany and Support Speech — vocalization and nonverbal behaviors are synchronized with speech in conversation (nodding one‘s head or using phrases like ―uh-huh‖ when another is talking). 4. Self-Presentation — presenting oneself to another through nonverbal attributes likes appearance. 5. Rituals — the use of greetings, handshakes or other rituals. Traditional Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication Physical appearance — Appearance messages are generally the first nonverbal messages received and can be used to develop judgments about people based on how they look, what they wear, and their level of attractiveness, among other things Physical attractiveness impacts how people perceive others as similar to themselves and is used to evaluate credibility and general attractiveness Territory and Personal Space (Proxemics) — Personal space refers to the space an individual maintains around him or herself, while territory is a larger area an individual controls that can provide privacy (for example, an office or a specific chair in the conference room). Invading another‘s territory may cause that person discomfort and the desire to defend his or her space. Culture can influence the way that individuals use space. Individualist societies like the United States emphasize 10
  11. 11. personal rights and responsibilities, privacy, and freedom, whereas more collectivist societies emphasize community and collaboration 2. Para verbal CommunicationPara verbal communication refers to the messages that we transmit through the tone, pitch, and pacing ofour voices. It is how we say something, not what we say. Professor Mehrabian states that the preverbalmessage accounts for approximately 38% of what is communicated to someone. A sentence can conveyentirely different meanings depending on the emphasis on words and the tone of voice. For example, thestatement, "I didnt say you were stupid" has six different meanings, depending on which word isemphasized.Some points to remember about our Para verbal communication:When we are angry or excited, our speech tends to become more rapid and higher pitched.When we are bored or feeling down, our speech tends to slow and take on a monotone quality.When we are feeling defensive, our speech is often abrupt.Para verbal Messages:1. Account for about 38% of what is perceived and understood by others.2. Include the tone, pitch, and pacing of our voice 11
  12. 12. 3. Verbal CommunicationMany people assume that "verbal communication" refers to spoken communication only, thus excludingwritten communication. That is why, although it is rather clumsy, I use the term "communicating usingwords" when I am referring to spoken and/or written communication.Communicating using words inevitably means using a language – a system which governs the use ofagreed sounds or other symbols in order to exchange information. Like the basic communication processitself, language is an enormous topic,Even though it exists within each individual mind, meaning is never fully transferable. Allcommunication is subject to this limitation, whether we like it or not. The sender and the receiver havedifferent sense organs and different cognitive function. They are also subject to many other influenceswhich can affect the meaning ultimately assigned to a message.Factors such as the choice of words, the surrounding words and sentences, various language features,sentence structure, timing, stress, intonation, and the overall structure and organization of a message, allexert an influence on the meaning ultimately attributed to it. So do the individual characteristics of thesender and the receiver, as well as any other messages they are exchanging at or about the same time.The pre-existing knowledge of both parties, the relationship between them, the method and form of thedelivery of information, the purpose of the communication, the audience for which it is designed and theoverall situation in which it occurs, including both local and distant events, also play their part.UnderstandingHow Words WorkIt is a truism, but still worth remembering, that communication via words can only be successful if thesender and receiver have a language in common, and use it. The successful representation and transfer ofinformation will be useless if that representation means nothing to the receiver.We are so used to using words to communicate, that we usually dont think of the process as being in anyway unusual or special. Nevertheless, communicating using words, whether spoken or written, does havesome very special advantages.These advantages all flow from the fact that the information is encoded. Any language, such as theEnglish language I am using now, is a type of code. That code has three main elements: words,the rules which govern the way those words are used, and the context in which the words are used.The context, broadly speaking, consists of the surrounding words, the way the words are delivered, anyconcurrent messages, and the overall circumstances in which the communication occurs. This in fact addsup to a very large part of language, potentially including all the types of influence on meaning discussednear the end of the first chapter.Of course, encoding can be a decided disadvantage if the code is not known. However, this is not aproblem as long as the common language requirement is met. Then, although no language can exactlyrepresent the content of human consciousness, the net benefit of language is considerable. 12
  13. 13. Firstly, because a word has a definition, its meaning is usually fairly precise. Of course, this virtue issomewhat diluted if a word has more than one meaning, or if the definition of its meaning lacks precision.Even then, though, the context is usually sufficient to clarify the intended meaning of a word – though, aspreviously discussed, the overall meaning is at the mercy of many influences and cannot be exactlycontrolled.Another advantage, which flows naturally from the first, is that a relatively few words, each possessed ofa significant amount of agreed meaning, can express a total amount of meaning which might take a longtime to impart, if there were no defined words to cover the subject matter. We can thereforeadd efficiency to the relative precision already mentioned.A third advantage of words is the flexibility of management which results from their coded nature. Thisallows many operations to be performed on collections of words. A few examples are convenient storage,repeated editing and translation into other languages. There is some more about this in Appendix 2 andAppendix 4, but for now we can simply add convenience to the precision and efficiency already noted.Human languages evolve continuously through the use of spoken words, becoming more useful andusually also more complex. The later addition of writing increases their usefulness yet further, andconsiderably so. Although speaking and writing are both methods of delivering words to a receiver, thereare some important differences between them.Not only is it routine to use slightly different vocabulary and grammar, depending on whether thecommunication is spoken or written, but the physical representation of words as sounds bears virtually norelationship at all to their physical representation as written or printed text.The non-verbal messages which accompany words may also seem subtly different, according to whetherthey are heard or seen. In addition, while the sender is usually not in a position to observe a person who isreading a written message, the sender usually can observe the effect of a spoken message. Suchobservation can lead to the correction of misunderstandings.An important practical point, when giving instructions or explanations in the form of spoken words, isthat it is best to follow up with the same information clearly set out in written or printed text. While thegeneral meaning may have been understood and remembered, details are frequently missing.Indeed, the sender may well realize, when preparing the written version, that some important details wereomitted altogether when speaking about the matter. In addition, if the receiver was under stress at the timeof the conversation, almost everything is likely to be vaguely remembered, or not remembered at all.Shades of MeaningWhen words are used to communicate information, their meaning can be anything from very vague tovery precise. In addition, words can be entirely descriptive, entirely abstract, or anywhere in between. Ifthey are descriptive, they might evoke the imagery of any or all of the main inputs, and sometimes thesubsidiary inputs as well. Alternatively, if the meaning is abstract, they will evoke no sensory imagery atall. 13
  14. 14. To make the meaning more vague, one can choose words with less specific meanings, or arrange words ina way that allows for more than one interpretation, or both. To make the meaning more precise, one mustavoid doing either of those things, so that there is as little flexibility as regards meaning, as possible.Descriptive communication with words provides information which allows the identification ofsomething which is already known to one or more of the five senses. For example, the words "a largegreen tree stood there, bathed in brilliant sunlight, like a giant sentry guarding the newly ploughed field"are likely to evoke visual memories, making it easy for the receiver to imagine seeing such a sight.Similarly, the words "the rain drumming loudly on the roof made a deafening roar, echoed by the rattlingof the windows and accompanied by the moaning of the wind" are likely to evoke auditory memories,making it easy for the receiver to imagine hearing such a sound.To evoke tactile memories, words like smooth, prickling, cold and sharp might be effective. To evokeolfactory memories, words like aroma, scent or smell might be employed. Finally, to evoke gustatorymemories, words like flavor, tasty and spicy could be pressed into service.It is also possible, when communicating using words, to include an element of embedded meaning. This isachieved by using ordinary words – but not in ordinary ways It may involve unusual, perhaps surprising,word choices, unusual ways of putting the words together, or various specific poetic devices such asrhyme, rhythm, alliteration and onomatopoeia.Although the methods mentioned in the previous paragraph may be employed with the intention ofexpressing a particular meaning, it must be remembered that the very fluidity of this art form allows foran extremely wide range of possible interpretations. Therefore, what can be a very powerful form ofcommunication is usually also very imprecise!The end result of the various ways of influencing meaning described above is that a group of words canprovide far more meaning than might be expected from the usual meanings of the individual words. Theextra meaning (which may be the main, or perhaps the only meaning) is often said to reside "between thelines". The commonest examples are found in poetry, philosophy and the lyrics of songs.However, people may also resort to symbolic language during a conversation, either because they areattempting to express the inexpressible, or because they do not want to state the facts baldly. Terminallyill patients often refer to their uncertain future in this way. This can sometimes lead to a more directdiscussion of the prognosis, but on other occasions an answer in the same symbolic vein may be moreappropriate.A rather different example of extra meaning embedded within a group of words is sarcasm, in whichapparently innocent words are intended – and interpreted – as harsh criticism. The principle is the same,in that the words are used as raw materials to build a meaning which goes beyond the literal one. 14
  15. 15. MisunderstandingGeneral PrecautionsThe possibility of different meanings being attributed to the same words is, of course, not necessarilybeneficial, because it may result in misunderstanding. Although, as previously discussed, exact transfer ofmeaning is not feasible, a great deal can be done to minimize misunderstanding. Firstly, it usually helps toemploy well-known words, to speak or write them clearly, and to use fairly short sentences of simplestructure.Secondly, it is essential to know your audience. Words are used differently, sometimes with differentshades of meaning but quite often with completely different meanings, in different age groups, culturesand subcultures. In addition, the context may be different in various ways which are associated with theparticular group. Even the grammar will not escape unscathed!It is also a good idea to review the meanings of statements mentally, while formulating them, and againbefore sending them. Just by wondering what the words could possibly mean, what images they mightevoke and how they might make someone feel, ones choice of words can often be improved.Language BarrierThe general precautions mentioned above, together with some specific ones, become particularlyimportant in the presence of a language barrier. In this situation, many nuances of meaning may bemisinterpreted, and some essential content may be lost altogether. In addition, as I will discuss later,gestures may have quite different meanings in different cultures.In any conversation with a person who is using a second or other language, it is more important than everto use the simple words, short sentences and clear enunciation mentioned above under GeneralPrecautions. In addition, the speed of delivery must be adjusted to the needs of the particular recipient.It is also important to check at frequent intervals, to see whether the intended messages (and no majormisunderstandings!) are getting through. This can best be judged by a mixture of careful observation ofthe receivers non-verbal output, for clues suggestive of uncertainty; and direct questioning, to evaluatecomprehension of the matters which have been discussed.Frequent eye contact may be one useful part of the assessment of comprehension, but it is sometimesperceived as intrusive or vaguely disturbing by the other person. (In a teaching situation, a similar cautionapplies to watching a speakers lips, which can help to determine the cause of pronunciation errors, butcan also make the watched person feel uncomfortable, unless the reason for it is explained).If a particular word is critical to the understanding of the subject matter, it is a good idea to askspecifically whether its meaning is known. People often feign comprehension in order to be polite, toavoid being a nuisance, or simply because they think they will be able to guess the overall meaning soon.Students of a second or other language often carry around a small translation dictionary, either electronicor printed (the latter usually being preferable, at the time of writing). However, the meaning found in adictionary should always be considered provisional, especially if the person seems surprised by it, assome words have very different alternative meanings. 15
  16. 16. Drawing pictures or diagrams to represent important elements of a sentence can be a very useful device.Asking a person to interrupt you whenever they dont understand is probably also worth a try, but thepoliteness and guesswork mentioned above often prevent this plan from working. Asking specificquestions, which can only be answered correctly if the sentence has been understood, gives much betterresults.That is all I will say about words under this heading. As mentioned above, there is a little more inAppendix 2. There will also be some references to the use of words in the chapters which follow.However, most of the finer points belong to disciplines like English Expression, English Literature andPoetry – and those disciplines are entirely outside my scope.Tools of Verbal CommunicationThe verbal communication data is converted to a computational representation which include measures ofthe content (what team members are talking about), quality (how well team members seem to know whatthey are talking about) and fluency (how well team members are talking about it). This process uses acombination of computational linguistic and machine learning techniques that analyze semantic, syntacticand statistical features of the communication stream.The primary underlying technology used in this analysis is a method for mimicking human understandingof the meaning of natural language called. Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) (see [4] for an overview ofthe technology). LSA is first automatically trained on a body of text containing knowledge of a domain,for example a set of training manuals, and/or domain relevant verbal communication. After such training,LSA is able to measure the degree of similarity of meaning of two communication utterances in a waythat closely mimics human judgments. This capability can be used to understand the spoken interactionsmuch in the same way a subject matter expert can compare the performance of one team or individual toothers. The techniques has been widely used in other machine understanding technologies includingcommercial search engines, automated scoring of essay exams, and methods for modeling humanlanguage acquisition.The results from the LSA analysis is combined with other computational language technologies whichinclude techniques to measure syntactic complexity, patterns of interaction and coherence among teammembers, and statistical features of individual and team language (see [5] for examples of typicallanguage analyses). The computational representations of the team language features are then used withmachine-learning technology to predict the team performance metrics. In a sense, the overall methodlearns which features of team communication are associated with different metrics of team performanceand then can predict scores for those metrics for any new set of communication data. 16
  17. 17. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 17