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  1. 1. Media WALKTHROUGH Collected forTelevision Orientation & Production Course Participant By Rehan Hasan
  2. 2. February 2013 Ver2.1This compilation is intended to be used as a resource for first-time entrants in the field of mediaand communications in Pakistan. The information in the booklet has been collected with a view toreflecting the sights and sounds that a media person comes across. The names, images, logos andtextual content have been brought together in this eBook only for educational purpose and thecopyrights belong to original owner. The names, images and textual content in this document shouldnot be removed from this context, reproduced or otherwise manipulated without the consent of theiroriginal copyright owners.Everyone is allowed to reproduce distribute and circulate this eBook and no prior permission fromthe author is required.
  3. 3. 35 mm: (1) 2 X 2-inch slides used in slide chain. (2) Motion picture film format.A and B roll editing: The production of amaster tape from two tapes, A and B rolls,on the same input machine. A-roll isconsidered to be the primary material, asopposed to B-roll. ABAD: (Association of Builders and developers) or (Agency for Barani Area Development) ABC: (Audit Bureau of Circulation) ABL: (Allied Bank Limited) ACB: (Askari Commercial Bank) or (Australian Cricket Board) Account Executive: A sales personnel employed at TV stations sell either advertising time or space. . Across mike: Referring to the technique of speaking sideways to a microphone, rather than directly into it, to reduce hissing, popping, and explosive sounds.
  4. 4. Across-the-board: A program or commercialscheduled at the same time each day, generallyMonday through Friday (Western countries) Mondayto Sunday (Pakistan); also called strip.Actuality: A live or taped news report broadcastfrom the scene, containing the voice(s) of thenewsmaker(s), as well as of the reporter also calledlive report.Ad banner: Graphic image or other media objectused as an advertisement.AdWords: Google’s flagship advertising productAdWords offers pay-per-click (PPC) advertising, andsite-targeted advertising for both text and bannerads. The AdWords program includes local, national,and international distribution.ADB: Asian Development Bank.ADBP: Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan.Address: Unique name for a computer or siteonline, usually a URL ( for a Website or marked with a symbol @ ( an e-mail address.Advertising Weight: Level of advertising supportover a period of time, expressed in gross ratingpoints, impressions, target audience reached, etc.Affidavit: A notarized record of commercial andpublic service announcements aired by a station,listing broadcast date and time, provided toadvertisers; also called transmission report.Affiliate: A station that contractually agrees to carryprograms of the network with which it is affiliated.Also a local television station affiliated with one ormore of the major networks. A partner website thatlinks to your own website is also known as anaffiliate.
  5. 5. Affiliate Marketing: Website promote other websites, product and services through banner ads or other website links on their pages, and then receive a fee for every lead or sale generated. AFP: Agency France Press. AG: Advocate General. Against the light: Synonym for backlighting.Agency commission: The compensation paid by a station to recognizedagencies for services rendered in connection with placing advertising with it.The standard agency commission allowed is 15% of the gross cost. AGP: Attorney General of Pakistan. Or, Auditor General of Pakistan. AGPR: Accountant General of Pakistan Revenue. . AIG: Assistant Inspector General.
  6. 6. AIOU: Allama Iqbal Open University.Air ready: Describing a commercial, program, orother material completed and available for broadcastuse.Air time: Transmission time from the beginning tothe end of the program.Air: The medium for radio and TV broadcasting. Astation or program, when broadcast, is on the air orairing. Also All India radio.Airable: Suitable for broadcasting.Airwaves: The medium through which broadcastingsignals are transmitted.Alerts: Word used on the internet for informing thatsomething new happened at their site like GoogleNews Alerts, Blog Alerts, Web Alerts, Video Alerts.In Television news Alert is use as warning thatsomething happened out of the queue.Alligator: Metal spring-clamp with alligator like jawsused to attach lights and other items.AM: Amplitude Modulation. AM is the standardbroadcast transmission system used by the majorityof radio stations.AMC: Army Medical Corps. or: Army MedicalCollege.Analog: A method of data storage and transmissionby continuous or wavelike signals of pulses ofvarying (high or low) intensity; in contrast to digitaltransmission (online or offline).Anchor: The key narrator of a program such asnews is called anchor; also called anchorperson oranchorman; two or more individuals sharing thesefunctions are co-anchors. Example sports anchor,weather anchor, and field anchor (reports fromoutside the studio or station)ANF: Anti-Narcotics Force.
  7. 7. ANI: Associated News of India. Announcement: A printed notice or a message during a broadcast. ANP: Awami National Party.Antenna: A device made up of metal for sending or receiving electromagnetic waves,now built into radio and TV sets for receiving. AP: Associated Press. APC: All Parties Conference. Or: Armored Personnel Carrier. APHC: All Parties Hurriyet Conference. . APNS: All Pakistan Newspapers Society.
  8. 8. APP: Associated Press of Pakistan.APP: Popularized in the general by iPhone, an appis simply an application that performs a specificfunction on your computer or handheld device.APTMA: All Pakistan Textile ManufacturersAssociation.APWA: All Pakistan Women Association.Arcing: A curved movement, as in the circularmotion of a TV pedestal camera, for which theinstructions are arc left and arc right.ARD: Alliance for Restoration of Democracy.Artificial light: Any light source which is not the sunor something illuminated by sunlight. This includeselectric lighting, flash bulbs and electronic flash unitsand so on.Art director: Person responsible for theappearance, layout of a publication, work or shot.Art directors may hire or commission photographers,artist or actor to take part in the production to fitrequirement and specification.ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations.ASF: Airport Security Force.ASI: Assistant Sub Inspector.ASP: Assistant Superintendent of Police.Assignment: The designation of a photo or writingtask by an editor. In most of the production housesassignments are listed on an assignment board oron an assignment sheet.ATC: Anti-Terrorist Court. Or: Air Traffic Controller.Audience composition: The number or percentageor characteristics (demographics, Income level) ofthe men, women, children, or other groups ofviewers of listeners of a specific TV program orchannel /station; also called audience profile.Audience: A group of spectators, listeners, viewers,or readers of a performance, program, or work.Average audience is a number or rating calculatedby the Gallop/ BRB, Oasis, Nielsen-Aftab and otherresearch services.
  9. 9. Audio billboard: Information at the beginning of an audio tape, including a brief about the event recorded, the name of the reporter, number of the take and the other copyright detailsAudio operator: The person responsible for the technical qualityof a programs sound. The audio operator works in a control roomor an audio room and communicates by headset with the assistantaudio operator and others on the floor of the studio. Also soundrecordist. Audio: The sound portion of a broadcast, film, tape, or other medium. Audio, from the Latin "to hear". Audiotape: A magnetic strip on which are recorded electrical signals that can be converted to sound. AV (audio/video): Involving both sound and sight, as in a script with the text of the dialogue and a description of the accompanying visual action. Avatar: A Photo, sign or graphic image that represents the author of a piece of online content. Average Frequency: Number of times the average person or household is exposed to an advertising schedule. It is always derived from Gross Rating Points and Reach. AVP: Assistant Vice President.
  10. 10. AWACS: Airborne Early Warning and Control System.Backdrop: Studio background. Backdrops are frequentlymade from long rolls of paper, draped fabric or Panaflex.Backlighting: light coming from behind the subject. Photoof a subject taken with the camera facing towards the lightsource. A technique used to create dramatic effect.Back timing: Back time is the clock time (the actual time)at which the last segment should begin if the program is toend on time.Background: 1 Background action: a part of a picture orscene that appears in the distance or rear, a position ofrelative less importance than the foreground. A backgroundplate is a rear projection slide or film against whichforeground action is filmed. 2 Background music: Musicor other sound faded to a lower or background level. Tobackground the sound is to reduce or fade it, as with amusic background for a voice-over.Band: A range of radio-spectrum frequencies (broadcastband), including AM, FM, UHF, VHF, VLF, ham, police.Bandwidth: The amount of information that can betransmitted over a network at a given time. The higher thebandwidth, the more data can pass over the network.Bars: A reference signal recorded on the beginning of avideotape for the purpose of aligning the playback of thattape.Barter: A method of buying Television Air time againstmerchandising or services as opposed to cash. Forinstance ARY Digital playing PIA advertisement againstairline tickets.Basic cable service: A cable TV companys set ofchannels, like channels on Info-Highway cable service,WorldCall Multimedia etc.Basic set: A film, TV, or stage set with furniture andscenery but without props.Baud Rate: In computers the speed at which a modem cantransmit data.BBC: British Broadcasting Corporation.Beep: An audio signal used for alerting or warning, as onthe soundtrack of a videotape for editing or notice of theforthcoming beginning of a scene, program, or commercial.
  11. 11. Beeper: A telephone interview. Though this is no longer necessary, stations used to berequired to insert a beep (audio signal) on recorded interviews to indicate that they were notlive, the term still is used to describe an interview conducted over the telephone rather thanin the studio. It is also used to describe any long-distance interview. With the use ofsatellites, it is now possible to conduct long-distance interviews over television. A beeper lineis a phone line connected to a tape recorder. Beep is often found in interviews with Kashmirileaders on phone in PTV Khabarnama.Beta: A type of 1/2-inch videotape and videocassette recorder (Betamax) made by Sony andothers, used mostly in TV stations prior to digital broadcasting. PTV starts its transmissionwith U-Matic format then upgraded to Beta it is now obsolete in most of the modernproduction studios and channels as they are moving towards digital format like HD, 3D, 4K. Betacam: Brand name of Sony broadcast-quality half-inch videotape and recorders. A standard in news and low- to medium-budget video productions. BHC: Balochistan High Court. BHU: Basic Health Unit.Billboard: The opening or closing credits or an announcement of a forthcoming program orsegment, as on a news or interview program; an announcement related to a sponsor oradvertiser, such as "this portion of the program is brought to you by Habib Bank" . Alsosignboard on the street called as billboard. Billing: The charge made to an advertiser by an agency. Bird: Ward bird is commonly used for satellite. To lose the bird is to suffer an interruption of transmission.
  12. 12. BISE: Board of Intermediate and SecondaryEducation. For each administration division ofPakistan.Bite: A short segment, or a take, such as a 15-second sound bite that is repeated on TV programs.The major excerpt from an interview, a veryquotable sentence or two, is called the news biteBJP: Bhartiya Janata Party.Blackout: An option by an advertiser or newsmennot to air commercial or news item in a particularmarket.Blast: Blasting is excessive sound through amicrophone.Bleed: A small amount of space at the edges of ashot to compensate for any loss between thepictures as it appears on the studio monitor and onthe home screen.Blitzing: Overwhelming the consumer withadvertising.Blocking tape: On film, stage, and TV sets, tapemarked on the floor to indicate where a performershould stand.Blocking: The planned movement of performers orthe camera.Blog: A blog is a combination of words ‘web’ and‘log’, and are used to comment on any issue theylike Blog owned by individuals and well ascompanies. They typically contain comments byother readers, links to other sites.Bloom: A circle or flare on the screen caused byreflections from a shiny object such as mirror,jewelry, lights, reflectors, or whitening in an over-bright area; also called blooming.BNM: Balochistan National Movement.Board fade: Lowering of the intensity of music orother sounds, it is also called a production fade.
  13. 13. BOI: Board of Investment.Bonus Spot: Additional TV or radio spot provided to an advertiser at no charge either tocompensate or to raise the overall audience delivery. Bookmark: Process that allows you to save a reference to a site or page that you have already visited. At a later point in time, you can use a bookmark to return to that page. It commonly refers to a feature of web browser that allows you to collect and organize bookmarks of your favorite web sites.Boom: A long movable stand, crane, arm, or pole for mounting and moving amicrophone (boom microphone), camera, flags, lamps, etc. The boom arm is thecircular arm on a camera platform that controls the vertical position of the camera.Thus, to boom up is to raise the dolly boom arm and camera in order to obtain atilt down, or downward shot. The opposite is a boom down, or tilt up, shot, inwhich the dolly boom arm is lowered. A boom shot is a continuous single shotinvolving various movements of the camera boom. These shots also are calledcrane shots. The boom operator handles the microphone boom and associatedequipment. Bounce: Sudden, unanticipated brightness in the picture. Box set: Setting of the props in which a complete room or area is realistically reproduced except for the area not covered in a scene usually one of the wall and ceiling, to allow space for the camera to move. Brand Manager: A person assigned to direct the marketing and sales activities of a given brand in a company’s line of products. . Break: A time segment-- between few seconds or minutes--before, during, or after a TV program.
  14. 14. Break Position: A commercial aired between twoprograms instead of in the middle of one program.Breaking news: Currently happening, live, as ithappen, also called a breaking story, Late-breakingnews.Broadcast hours: The total number of hoursbroadcast by a station during a year.Broadcast quality: The technical specifications ofaudio, video signal and the actual look of that signal.A technically perfect video signal might look terrible.For instance, a SD tape, properly doctored througha digital effects generator, might meet a stationstechnical requirements but might be rejectedbecause it is not a broadcast-quality picture. Eachbroadcast company, network, or station has its ownlevel of quality.Broadcast: TV or radio program transmitted for alarge areaBrowser: Application used to view and navigate theWorld Wide Web and other Internet resources.BTA: Best time available.Bug: Bug: Problem with computer software orhardware that causes it to malfunction or crash.Bulk eraser: A large electromagnet thatdemagnetizes and wipes—erases--an entire tapewithout running the tape through the recorder.Bump: Brief segment to announce forthcomingsegment of a program, usually with the words"coming up next.Bumper: A transitional device, such as fadeoutmusic or "Well return after these messages,"between story action and a commercial; also calleda program separator.B/W: Abbreviation for black and white.CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
  15. 15. Cable penetration: The percentage of homes that subscribe to cable television, generally within a specified area like Karachi, DHA etc.Cable puller: A person responsible for setting up and handling power, audio, and videocables. One cable puller is allocated to each production also known as extra or support staff.Cablecasting: Programming carried on cable television, as opposed to over-the-air broadcasting. Cable-less cable: Cable operator run their system on MMDS or LMDS technologies. Cable TV: TV programming that is delivered by coaxial or fiber cable rather than over the air.Calibrating the Zoom - Zooming to longest focal length then focusing to ensure that the picturewill be focused throughout the entire zoom range. The zoom should be calibrated whenever thecamera or subject distance changes significantly. Call Sheet - A schedule of dates and times indicating the talent, production, and technical personnel needed for rehearsal, pre-set and production. .Calligraphic or Line-Drawing Display - An electronic device that draws lines or "vectors" on avideo screen. The Picture System is one such calligraphic display. The image can be changedvery quickly, and since it responds immediately to input it is called a "real-time" device.
  16. 16. Camcorder: A combination TV camera andvideotape recorder in one portable unit.Cameo -. Lighting technique in which subjects in theforeground appear against a completely blackbackground.Camera angles: Angle at which a camera records asubject, it can be low, high or on the eye level.Camera Control Unit (CCU) - A separate controllerfor video cameras that allows remote adjustment ofiris, pedestal, Chroma as well as alignment.Camera cue: A red light or buzzer indicating that aTV camera is shooting a scene for transmission.Camera Head - The portion of a video camerachain, which includes the lens system, pickup tubesand viewfinder.Camera left (or camera right): The left (or right) asseen from the camera operators or viewersposition, as opposed to that of the performer.Camera original: A first-generation videotape fromthe original camera signal.Camera rehearsal: A full-dress rehearsal, one withactual costumes and props used, camera movementand tracking take place as in the original shot isrequired; more advanced than a reading or scriptrehearsal.Camera talk: A situation in which a performer looksdirectly into the lens to deliver a message to theaudience.Captioning: The process of superimposing subtitlesat the bottom of a TV screen.CAR: Central Asian Republic.Card rate: The cost of time quoted on a rate card.Also rack rate.CAS: Chief of Air Staff.
  17. 17. CATV (cable television, cable TV): A common household name, television distribution system in which TV signals reach the destination (transmitted) via cable rather than through the air using different types of insulated wires like copper or fiber optic cables. Cable television systems are generally called cable systems; the companies that own and operate them are known as cable system operators or cablecasters. Categories: Used in social media to arrange content into subject areas. CBA: Collective Bargain Authority. Labor Union CBR: Central Board of Revenue in Pakistan it is now called FBRCCD Charge-Coupled Device: Electronic light sensor used in digital cameras. In 3CCDCameras imaging system uses three separate sensor each one taking a separate measurementof the primary colors, red, green, or blue light. CCU: Coronary Care Unit. CDA: Capital Development Authority. CDC: Central Depository Company.
  18. 18. CE: Chief Executive.CEC: Chief Election Commissioner.CEO: Chief Executive Officer.CGI - Acronym for computer-generated imagery.Channel Capacity: The number of channelsavailable for use on a current cable system.Character generator: An electronic typewriter thatcreates letters and symbols in video.CHASHNUP: Chashma Nuclear Power Project.Chat: Online conversation, normally involves usersadding text and or using voice and video streaming.Chromakey: An electronic process that alters thebackground scene without affecting the foreground,a saturated color (usually Green or Blue) forms ahole in the background picture so that a secondvideo source (such as a camera) can fill this area.Green and red are also used in a chroma keyprocess.Churn: The turnover of cable television subscribersdue to disconnects and/or new subscribers. Alsochurn rate.CIA: Crime Investigation Agency (Pak) CentralInvestigating Agency (US).CID: Crime Investigation Department. Circle wipe:An optical effect in which an image first appears asa dot in the center and then grows to full size whilecovering (wiping out) the preceding scene.Circle-in: An optical effect in which a picturediminishes and disappears as it is replaced by asecond picture that grows in a circle from the center;the opposite of a circle-out.CJ: Chief Justice.Clearance: Obtaining approval to use a commercial/program from censor authority. Press InformationDepartment / Censor Board.Clip: A short segment of a program.
  19. 19. Closed circuit: A term referring to audio and/or video transmission for controlled reception, such as to hotels, meeting places, even in a community. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is transmitted over cable to specific sites. Cloud computing: When users access data remotely across an internet connection, rather than through working from a desktop, also called “the cloud” refers when users can access their data from anywhere rather than being tied to a particular machine (server). Clutter: Excessive amounts of advertising carried by a station at a giving time.CMH: Combined Military Hospital. C-Mount - Common screw-in lens mount on video cameras. CMS: Content management systems CMYK Color Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black: The color model in which all colors are described as combinations of these four colors. Most color printers (ink-jet, laser, dye-sublimation, Wax thermal) are based on CMYK color. CNN: Cable News Network.
  20. 20. CNS: Chief of Naval Staff.CO: Commanding Officer.COAS: Chief of the Army Staff.Coaxial Cable: Insulated transmission cablecapable of carrying many television signalssimultaneously.CODEC: A process in which a signal is encoded fortransmission or storage, then decoded for playback.Color bar: An electrically generated signalconsisting of red, blue, green, yellow, cyan andmagenta, plus black and white, used for TV testingand for color standardization and accuracy.Color Calibration: Method by which the imagesource like digital camera or scanner and outputtools like monitor and printer are matched to use thesame or similar color shade and resolution. Toinsures that the image viewed on the monitor hasthe same range of colors as the image that isprinted, and any adjustments made to the color ofthe image in the computer are accuratelyrepresented when the image is printed.Color Correction Filters: Filters that change thecolor temperature of the scene being photographed.Color correction: Correcting or at least altering thecolor information in a photograph, video or graphicimage. This can be done by verity of tool likesoftware, filters, reflectors, shades, etc. Colorcorrection is required if the camera was not white-balanced, it is a time consuming process sowhenever you start filming, first take care of whitebalance.Column Inch: Unit of newspaper space one columnwide and one inch deep.Comments: Response from the visitor of thewebsite, blog news feed is known as comment; mostblogs allow users to add comments under posts.Comments help facilitate interaction with customersand the public in general, and businesses monitorcomments and respond accordingly.Commercial break: An interruption in TVprogramming for broadcast of one or moreadvertisements.
  21. 21. Commercial break: An interruption in TV programming for broadcast of one or more advertisements.Commercial load: The maximum amount of advertising time available during a whole day oftransmission unlike Pakistan in different countries there is a maximum limit of advertisementper hour.Component Video - Signal that has been split into two or more component channels. Inpopular use, it refers to a type of component analog video (CAV) information that is transmittedor stored as three separate signals. Composite - A special effects process combining two or more separate elements. Compression - The process of reducing the information content of a signal so that it occupies less space on a transmission channel or storage device. Compression Ratio - Compression ratio is a number used to tell how much information is squeezed out of an image when it has been compressed. For example, suppose we start with a 4 MB image and compress it down to 1MBThis represents a compression ratio of 4:1; 1/4 of the original amount of storage is now required. For a given compression technique - MPEG, for example - the higher the compression ratio, the worse the image looks. Computer Animation - Animation can be classified into 2D and 3D, both take the same approach towards appearance. In 2D animation, the artist draws the scene pretty much the same way he would on a sheet of paper, only instead of using a pencil or a brush, he now uses a mouse or a graphic tablet. . Consensus: Shared agreement. Like media operate role to create a consensus in society.
  22. 22. Conspiracy theory: Assumption that a small andpowerful, and often hidden, élite (establishment) areable to use the mass media to condition andpersuade passive audiences into conforming to thepowerful élites wishes. It depends very much on thenotion of all-powerful media and easily dupedaudiences. It is difficult to find evidence that themedia really are that powerful and conspiracytheory is often dismissed because you wouldotherwise sound like someone takes the X-Files asreality.Construction (of reality): This idea emphasizesthat there is no single reality, rather a range ofdefinitions of reality. Reality as presented by themass media is therefore not a picture or reflection ofreality, but, rather, a constructed interpretation ofreality.Content: Any piece of online media, includingimages, graphics, text, videos, animations, sound-clips etc.Control room: The room in which the director,engineer, and others adjust sound and/or video.Cookies: Small files that are downloaded to yourcomputer when you browse certain web pages.Cookies hold information that can be retrieved byother web pages on the site. Cookies oftenprogramed with an expiration date.Copycat effect: Power of the media to create anepidemic of behavior. The idea is by no meansnew; Ethnic riots in Karachi in eighties and morerecently in Gujarat India. Post 11 Sep clashes in USwith people of Asian origin.Correspondent: A reporter who is a full-time orpart-time employee of one of the media (not astringer or freelancer) and who is based elsewherethan the headquarters of the employer.Coverage: Media treatment to any issue.
  23. 23. Coverage Area: Specific geography where a media vehicle has its coverage. In broadcast,coverage usually describes the area to which the stations signal extends. In print, coverageusually means the circulation area. CPC: Cost per click used in Internet page viewing and advertisement. CPM Cost per Thousand: Cost to reach 1,000 units of audience, households or individuals, for advertising. A figure used to compare media costs. CPNE: Council of Pakistan Newspaper Editors. CPU: Central Processing Unit. Crane: A vehicle with a movable arm or boom that moves a platform on which director, camera operator, and camera assistant sit. The base of the vehicle is called a trolley. Cranes shot or boom shot is a shot taken from a crane.Crawl: A body of typed information, such as anews bulletin, promotional message, telephonenumber, or cast credits, that is transmitted in acontinuous flow across all or part of a TV screen Credit: Acknowledgment of work done.
  24. 24. Crew: A group of workers on a site or production, asdistinguished from performers (cast).Cross-talk: Live conversation between broadcasters,as between an anchorperson and an on-site reporter.CSO: Chief Scientific Officer.CSR: Corporate social responsibility, a conceptwhereby businesses and organizations perform asocial good or take responsibility for the impact of theiractivities.CSS: Central Superior Services.Cue card: A large card containing lines to be spokenby a performer, often used off-camera on TV; alsocalled a flip card, idiot card.Cue: A signal in words or signs that initiates action,dialogue, effects, or other aspects of a production,such as an indication from a director for a performer orinterview subject to begin or end. Exact timing is onecue. Cues may be given with a cue light, such as anOn The Air sign or a warning light.Cut: A transition from one scene to another (a visualcut) or one soundtrack to another (a sound cut).D/A : Digital to Analog, The conversion of data orsignal storage from one format or method to the other.D-1: The first practical digital format, introduced bySony in 1986. Still considered a quality referenceD-8, Developing Eight: Group of developingcountries with large Muslim populations that haveformed an economic development alliance. It consistsof Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia,Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, and TurkeyDAT: Digital audio tape.DBA: District Bar Association.DCC: Defense Committee of Cabinet.DCET: Dawood College of Engineering & Technology.DCO: District Coordination Officer. head of districtadministration equivalent to Deputy commissioner(DC) in Local Government and Municipality acts.
  25. 25. DEA: Drug Enforcement Administration a US body combating drug trafficking. ANF Anti-Narcotics Force a Pakistani parallel to DEA. Decoder: A television set-top device that enables the home subscriber to convert an electronically scrambled television picture into a viewable signal.Demo: Demonstration, as in a demo record, or reel of a record or tape produced for an audition. Depth of Field: The distance through which objects will appear sharp in front of and behind the point at which the camera is focused. Depth of Focus: The distance through which the object can be moved backward and forward in front of lens still produce sharp image. Deregulation: Process of removing or diluting the rules, which govern the operation of television, Radio and other media organizations operators. DG: Director General. Diffused Light: Light originating from a physically large source. It is either reflected or directed through a diffusing medium.
  26. 26. Diffusers: For lenses: Fine nets, muslin, granulatedor grooved glass, positioned in front of the lens. Forlamps: Cellular diffusing materials like light nets,spun glass, etc., placed in front of the lamp.DIG: Deputy Inspector General of Police.Digg: Popular social news site that lets peoplediscover and share content from anywhere on theWeb.Digital Betacam: Digital successor to the venerableBetacam SP format. Introduced by Sony in 1993.Digital Camera: A camera that operates utilizingdigital circuits and technology. Offers extremelystable pictures, automatic setup and picturecorrection.Digital video: A video picture recorded on digitalformat.Digital: The primary method of data storage andtransmission. A digital camera record images aspixels.Digital8: Consumer format from Sony. Digital8records for all practical purposes the same signal asDV, but uses cheaper Hi8 tapes and can play backold analogue 8mm/Hi8 tapes.Dim: Not bright; To dim down is to reduce the lightintensity; to dim up or dim in is to increase the lightgradually, and to dim out is to reduce the light toblackout.Direct broadcast satellite (DBS): A high-poweredsatellite for broadcasting directly to homes.Director: A supervisor; generally refers to theperson responsible for all audience-visiblecomponents of a program, film, or show, whereasthe producer is responsible for other behind-the-scenes aspects.
  27. 27. Dissolve: An optical technique to produce a gradual change in scenes.The progressive blending of the end of one shot into the beginning of thenext is produced by the superimposition of a fade-out into a fade-in or byputting the camera gradually out of or into focus (a cross-dissolve). Anout-of-focus dissolve is a transition in which one shot is faded out offocus while another shot is faded in. Distortion: A quality degradation between that which has been recorded and that which is reproduced. DMG: District Management Group. Dolly: A mobile platform with three of four wheels for carrying a microphone, camera, or other items. A dolly shot shifts the viewpoint of the camera. Domain Name: The part of a URL code on the Internet that is unique to a particular company or Organization and helps Web users locate a Web page. .PK means it is registered as Pakistani site, .UK means it is registered as British site, additionally for commercial site they use .com, educational site uses .EDU non-profit organizations use .org, government use .GOV. Doorway Dolly: A dolly with four soft tires, which is, narrows enough to fit through a doorway. Down Time: Time used for maintenance or repair of equipment. Downlink: The portion of a signal from the satellite down to the receiving point, such as a dish.
  28. 28. DPA: Deutsche Press Agency.Dress Rehearsal: The final rehearsal of a production,which is an exact duplicate of the final performance.Drop frame: A system of modifying the frame countingsequence to allow the time code to match Real TimeClock.Drop-out: A defect in a tape resulting in a black flash,color loss,DSNG: Digital Satellite News Gathering, whenreporting from a remote location using satellite link tosend video feed also called SNG.DSP: Deputy Superintendent of Police.Dub: 1 Duplicate. 2 Insert material in originalaudio/visual material. Material to be dubbed mayconsist of a different language soundtrack, new orupdated material, or other editing. Like X file is dub inUrdu for Pakistani viewers by PTV. Dubber: A person who duplicates a film or tape(makes a dub); a machine such as an audio playbackmachine used to make a copy of a tape; a performerwho lip-synchs or inserts dialogue into an existing filmor tape, such as a translation (a dubbed version).Dubbing: The process of recording, such as making aduplicate of a film or tape or replacing dialogue or asoundtrack with new material, as in a different language orwith a singer, actor, or other performer replacing theoriginal.Ear prompter: A tiny ear plug connected to a smallaudio recorder, enabling a performer to hear arecorded script while on stage or on camera.Earphones: More commonly called headphones or aheadset.Earth station: Equipment for transmitting or receivingsatellite communications, such as a parabolic or dishantenna that sends or receives TV signals over the airdirectly from satellites or other sources. Also called aground station.
  29. 29. Ease In/Ease Out: Gradual acceleration up to or down from the speed of motion. East/West: The right/left or horizontal axis of movement. eBook: Electronic version of a traditional printed book that can be downloaded from the Internet and read on your computer or handheld device. Something as simple as a PDF document. The one you are reading right now. ECNEC: Executive Committee of National Economic Council.e-Commerce: Electronic commerce consist of exchange of data tofacilitate the financing and payment aspect of (media) businesssuch as electronic funds transfer, Internet marketing, onlinetransaction processing, inventory management systems, etc. ECP: Election Commission of Pakistan.Editing on the Fly (linear): 1. Directing a multicamera production with the director calling shots asthe show progresses. 2. Editing videotape without an edit programmer, which requires the edit tobe timed perfectly and made as both playback and edit/record VTRs are in operation.. Editing room: A room in which a film is edited or cut.
  30. 30. EDO: Executive District Officer, for each departmentlike health, education, etc.Effect: A technique or device for producing a visualor auditory illusion, such as sound effects, specialeffects, or optical effects.EFP (Electronic field production): The use ofequipment, generally portable, outside a TV studio.Non News production. EJ (Electronic journalism):Live transmission or videotaping from a locationaway from the television studio, by an EJ cameracrew.Electronic character generator (ECG): Atypewriter like machine that produces weatherreports, sports scores, identifications, and other textas part of a TV picture.Electronic cue: An audio or video signal indicatingthe end of a tape or other instruction.Electronic setup (ESU): The pre broadcast timeduring which equipment is set up and tested.Embedding: Small piece of code is added to a blogor website to display a video or photo hostedelsewhere. Like we use code of YouTube videos onblogs or website.Encryption: The process of encoding, as in thescrambling of TV signals. Pay-TV transmission oftenis encrypted, and subscribers have devices thatdecrypt, or unscramble.ENG (electronic news gathering): Use of anelectronic, portable TV camera to videotape orbroadcast news from outside the studio.ENT: Ear, Nose & Throat.EOBI: Employees Old age Benefit Institution.EPB: Export Promotion Bureau.EPG (Electronic Programming Guide): Applicationthat allows the viewer to interactively select his/hertelevision programming
  31. 31. EPI: Expanded Program on Immunization. EPZ: Export Processing Zone. Equalizer: A process that attempts to enhance the quality of a recording by filtering out distortions and other undesirable elements. ESG (electronic sports gathering): The use of cameras, mobile units, and other equipment to produce a telecast of a sports event. ESUP: English Speaking Union of Pakistan.EU: European Union. EVF (Electronic viewfinder): A small screen for monitoring while operating a video camera. It may be built in or separate. EVP: Executive Vice President.
  32. 32. Exclusive: Story, News Item, clip or footage that isavailable only to a single channel or newspaper andwebsite or any other media organization.Exclusivity: Agreement whereby a media vehicleagrees to run no advertising directly competitive tothe advertiser purchasing the media vehicle orprogram.Eye contact: The practice of looking a person in theeyes. In film and TV, eye contact is achieved bylooking directly into the camera.Eyewitness news: A TV news format featuring on-the-scene reporters, generally shot with a portableelectronic camera.Fade: To vary in intensity, as a gradual change ofaudio or video.f/x or fx: Special effects, a motion-picture term foranimation, objects, and other techniques anddevices that are not real.Fade down: To gradually decrease the audio levelof a recording.Fade up: To gradually increase the audio level of arecording.fade-in: A shot that begins in darkness andgradually lightens up to full brightness, reverse fade-out.FANA: Federally Administered Northern Areas.Fast Lens: A lens with a low f-stop number, whichpermits photographing with a wide aperture and,consequently, use under low-light conditions.FAST: The camera assistants motto. Everythinghe/she must do before each shot (Focus, Aperture,Shutter, Take).FATA: Federally Administered Tribal Areas.FBI: Federal Bureau of Investigation.FBS: Federal Bureau of Statistics.FC: Frontier Constabulary.
  33. 33. Feed: Transmission sent to or from satellite TV networks to local stations or by a local station to network. In social Media Feed this refers to any content delivered at regular intervals, for example the latest blog posts or social activity from an individual/company.Feedback: A noise from a microphone or speaker, caused by improper placement. FIA: Federal Investigation Agency.Fiber Optics: A method of transmitting signals over lightwaves sent through extremely thin fibers of glass. FIBL: Fidelity Investment Bank Limited. Field producer: A person who works outside the headquarters studio--in the field--to supervise the production of programs or segments, as of a news program. FIH: International Hockey Federation. File film: Stock footage from the library, or file, of a TV station or other source. When used as background material in a TV newscast, file film generally is identified by a line at the top or bottom of the screen with the date on which it was originally taken.
  34. 34. FIR: First Investigation Report.Firewall: Security barrier controlling communicationbetween a personal or corporate. Firewall is basedon rules which allow and disallow traffic to pass,based on the level of security and filtering a networkoperator enforce.FIU: Field Investigation Unit.Fixed position: Instruction by an advertiser to puthis or her advertisement at some fixed position,inside cover of a magazine, first commercial in thefirst break of the program. Usually sold at a premiumrate.Flickr: World’s number-one for photo-sharingwebsite.FM (frequency modulation): The encoding of acarrier wave, FM radio stations, from 88 to 108megahertz produce reception superior to that of AM.FM: Frequency Modulation. Or: Foreign Minister.FO: Foreign Office.Focus: The point where the light rays converge toproduce a clear, sharp, and defined image.Follow: The act of monitoring someone’s onlineactivity, for example through Twitter.Follower: Someone who is following your updates.The more followers you have the more popular youare.Footage: Length. A portion of a film is calledfootage, such as daily footage or news footage.Footprint: The geographic area on earth in which asatellite signal can be received.Forum: Topically-focused discussion group or area.Fourth estate: Media often argue that theyconstitute the fourth estate, watching forwrongdoings of the other three.FPCCI: Federation of Pakistan Chambers ofCommerce and Industry.
  35. 35. FPSC: Federal Public Service Commission.Frame: A part of the image appears on film. PAL 24 frameper second NTSC 30 frame per second. Freeze frame: A technique in which a single frame is repeated in sequence to give the effect of frozen or stopped motion. Friend: Not necessarily someone you’ve met in real-life, a ‘friend’ is anyone you’ve had some sort of interaction and you agree to ‘connect’ with through a social platform, such as Facebook, Journalistlink, Maloomat, etc FTO: Federal Tax Ombudsman. FTP: File transfer protocol Gain: Increase of signal power, particularly sound volume. GDA: Grand Democratic Alliance.
  36. 36. Gel: Colored plastic or gelatin material which ismounted in front of lighting instruments to producecolored light.Generation: The master, or original, is the firstgeneration. Any copy made from the master issecond generation.GHQ: General Headquarters.Gigahertz (GHz): One billion cycles per second.Signals operating above 3 Gigahertz are known asmicrowaves. Above 30 GHz they are know asmillimeter waves.GIKI: Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute.GOC: General Officer Commanding.GPO: General Post Office.Gray Scale: A test pattern or chart progressing insteps from TV white to TV black.GRPs Gross Rating Points: Sum of individualratings in a media plan.GST: General Sales Tax.HBFC: House Building Finance Corporation.HBL: Habib Bank Limited.HDTV (high-definition television): A system withhigher resolution, widely used in US and EuropeanMarkets, gaining its popularity worldwide. HDTVprovides about five times more picture information(picture elements or pixels) than conventionaltelevision, creating clarity, wider aspect ratio, anddigital quality sound.Head end: Site in a cable system or broadbandcoaxial network where the programming originatesand the distribution network starts. Signals areusually received off the air from satellites,microwave relays, or fiber-optic cables at the headend for distribution to cable operators.Headset: An earphone, generally with an attachedmouthpiece transmitter.HEC: Higher Education CommissionHIT: Heavy Industries Taxila.
  37. 37. HEC: Higher Education CommissionHIT: Heavy Industries Taxila. HIT: Heavy Industries Taxila. HRCP: Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. HRSP: Human Rights Society of Pakistan. HSSC: Higher Secondary School Certificate. HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language, the coding language typically used in the development of Web pages. Hyperlink: Highlighted word, picture or file within a hypertext document that when clicked takes you to another place within the document or to another document altogether.
  38. 38. IAF: Indian Air Force.IB: Intelligence Bureau.ICC: International Cricket Council.ICMAP: Institute of Cost Management Accountantsof Pakistan.ICU: Intensive Care Unit.IDB: Islamic Development Bank.IDBP: Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan.IDP: Internally Displaced People, persons voluntaryor involuntarily removed from their place of living.IED: Improvised explosive device also known asa roadside bomb, usually homemade bomb butsometime military artillery shells and mines used tomanufacture it. A popular tool of resistance forces inAfghanistan and Iraq.IGP: Inspector General of Police.IJI: Islami Jamhoori Ittehad.ILO: International Labour Organisation.IMF: International Monetary Fund.Impedance: Resistance to current flow, which isespecially important In matching microphones andaudio equipment.Infomercial: An audio or video segment thatcombines advertising with information, sold as acommercial.Infotainment: A combination of information andentertainment.In-house: Referring to a division or unit that is partof or within a company Organization.Intelsat (International TelecommunicationsSatellite Organization): An Organization that ownsand operates the international satellite system thatprovides the majority of telecommunicationsservices outside the United States to over 100member countries. It was formed in 1964.
  39. 39. IO: Investigation Officer.IP address: String of four numbers separated by periods (such as used torepresent a computer on the Internet. IPO: Initial Public Offering of share in stock exchange. IRSA: Indus River System Authority. ISAF: International Security Assistance Force, under which all foreign forces operate in Afghanistan. ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network - digital, high bandwidth telephone lines that can deliver data over the Internet. Data, including encoded audio and video, travels at 128K bits per second over an ISDN line. ISE: Islamabad Stock Exchange. ISI: Inter Services Intelligence.
  40. 40. ISO: International Standard Organisation.ISP: Internet Service Provider.ISPR: Inter Services Public Relations.ISSB: Inter Services selection board.IT: Information Technology. or: Income Tax.JI: Jamaat-e-Islami.JKLF: Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front.JKPL: Jammu and Kashmir Peoples League.JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group): Groupof experts nominated by major companies to work toproduce standards for continuous tone imagecoding.JPMC: Jinnah Postgraduate Medical College.JSHQ: Joint Staff Headquarters.JUI-F: Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam-Fazlur Rehman.JUI-S: Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam-Samiul Haq.Junction box: A unit that connects severalelectrical sources.JUP: Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan.JWP: Jamhoori Watan Party.KANUPP: Karachi Nuclear Power Plant.KESC: Karachi Electric Supply Corporation.Keyword: Specific words entered into a searchengine by the user that result in a list of Web sitesrelated to that key word.Kill: To turn off a light, sound, or video feed; to cutor delete a line or portion of a program.Kiss: A light that gently brushes a subject.KKH: Karakoram Highway.KLA: Kosovo Liberation Army.
  41. 41. Knowledge gap: The knowledge gap hypothesis states that “as the infusion of mass mediainformation into a social system increases. Segments of the population with higher socio-economicstatus tend to acquire this information at a faster rate than the lower status segments, so that thegap in knowledge between these segments tends to increase rather than decrease”. KPI: Kashmir Press International. KPT: Karachi Port Trust. KRL: Khan Research Laboratories. KS&EW: Karachi Shipyard & Engineer Works. KSE: Karachi Stock Exchange. KTPS: Kot Addu Power Station. KTPS: Kot Addu Power Station.
  42. 42. KU: Karachi University.KUTS: Karachi University Teachers’ Association.KWSB: Karachi Water & Sewerage Board.Lapel mike: A small microphone clipped to anecktie, shirt, or elsewhere, or worn hanging aroundthe neck.LDA: Lahore Development Authority.Lead: Information that leads to the uncovering ofmore interesting information.Lead-in: An introduction, such as by a newscasterpreceding a report or a brief segment at thebeginning of a sitcom or other program.LHC: Lahore High Court.LHCBA: Lahore High Court Bar Association.LHV: Lady Health Visitor.LHW: Lady Health Worker.Light Meter: Meter designed to read light intensityusing either reflected or incident light. Most lightmeters used in TV have foot-candle scales.Light Plot: A floorplan showing the studio set drawnto scale, with the lighting instruments that are to beused superimposed to indicate instrument, location,and function.Line Rate: Cost per agate line for newspapers.Lineup: The arrangement of items in a newscast.Lip Sync: 1 The synchronization of sound andpicture. 2 Having a performer mouth words to aprerecorded sound track.Live on tape: TV program of an actualperformance, recorded and broadcast subsequentlyand therefore not really live.Live: Referring to a real or actual performance thatis simultaneously transmitted, as by a live actioncamera (LAC), as distinct from a taped or delayedbroadcast.
  43. 43. LOC: Line of Control De’fecto border between Pakistan andIndianan controlled Kashmir.Location: An actual setting, as distinct from a studio,used for TV show. To film or tape on location is to shoot amotion picture or to tape in such a setting. long take: A camera shot maintained for an extended period. Looping: The process of continuously repeating a program segment from point A to point B LPG: Liquid Petroleum Gas. LRH: Lady Reading Hospital. in Peshawar. LSE: Lahore Stock Exchange. LTTE: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. of Sri Lanka.
  44. 44. Luminance: Light; brightness.LUMS: Lahore University of Management Lahore.Lux: An international unit of light intensity.Makegood: A commercial run in place of one thatdid not run properly.Man on the street (MOS): An interviewingtechnique in which the opinions of the general publicare sought.March on: Opening music titles, or otheridentification of TV program.Master Control (MCR): The room where all videoand audio outputs of various production studios arefed for distribution and broadcast or recording.Match cut: A quick transition, or cut, from one filmor TV camera to another, or a smooth transition fromone shot to another, with the action appearing tocontinue seamlessly.MBRL: Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher.MBT: Main Battle Tank.MC: Muslim Conference. in Azad Kashmir.MCB: Muslim Commercial Bank.MD: Managing Director.MDA: Multan Development Authority.ME: Middle East.Media dopes – Media saying; Viewer of program isthe victim of the producer. A homogeneous,externally produced culture cannot be sold ready-made to the masses: culture simply does not worklike that. Popular culture is made by the people, notproduced by the culture industry. Media show all thecultural resources, it is the people who use or reject.Media escort: A person who accompanies aninterviewee to TV stations and other media andprovides transportation and other assistance.
  45. 45. Media imperialism: Western (especially American) cultural values are being forced on non-Western societies, to which they are spread most especially by the mass media.Establishment of US economic, military and cultural hegemony was deliberate US policy,which would depend crucially on US dominance of global communications. Multinationalmedia corporations which now span the globe have reached the point where they pose adistinct threat to the sovereignty of the weaker nation-states. Clearly the US is dominant inthe export of media products, as well as in the control of news agencies’ from HerbertSchiller thesis on Media Imperialism. Media Kit: Information designed to help promote a particular program or station. Megahertz (MHz): One million cycle per second.Metadata: Any data, such as titles, descriptions, tags and captions — that describes a mediaitem such as a video, photo or blog post. This information is used to retrieve data, file, photo,video by any application or database MGD: Million Gallon per Day.MH: Military hospital, CMH combined military hospital. MI: Military Intelligence.MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A machine protocol that allows synthesizers,computers, drum machines and other processors to communicate with and/or control oneanother.
  46. 46. MINFAL: Ministry of Food, Agriculture andLivestock.Minicam: A small, self-contained portable TVcamera for videotaping on-site news events.Miniseries: A short series or sequence of relatedprograms.mix: To record separate soundtracks into a singletrack or to blend audio and visual components toproduce a master.MLA: Member Legislative Assembly.MNA: Member National Assembly.MNC: Multinational Corporation.MO: Medical Officer.Mobile unit: A vehicle for carrying equipment foron-location production; also called a mobileproduction unit. Modulate: To change thefrequency, phase, or amplitude of a carrier wave.MOD: Ministry of Defenses.Monitor: A device for checking or regulatingperformance, an instrument that receives TV signalsby direct wire in a TV studio.Monochrome: Black and white television.Montage: A rapid sequence of shots used toproduce a particular image or mood.Moray: A video disturbance caused by flashyjewelry, brightly colored apparel, or other sources.Morphing: A computer process that transforms onephotograph or image into another.MOS: Man on the street.Move in: A direction to move a camera ormicrophone closer to the subject.Move out: A direction to move a camera ormicrophone away from the subject.Moving off: Movement by a subject away from thecamera or microphone; also called fade off.moving on: Movement by a subject closer to thecamera or microphone; also called fade on.MP: Military Police.
  47. 47. Moving on: Movement by a subject closer to the camera or microphone; also called fade on. MP: Military Police. MPA: Member Provincial Assembly. MQM: Muttahida Qaumi Movement or Mohajir Qaumi Movement. MRD: Movement for Restoration of Democracy. MSA: Maritime Security Agency. MT: Mechanical Transport. MTC: Military Trial Court.
  48. 48. Multicam: The use of two or more camerassimultaneously to shoot a scene from more than oneangle.MW: Megawatt.NAB (National Association of Broadcasters): Amajor Organisation of radio and TV stations andnetworks, in USA.NAB: National Accountability Bureau.NADRA: National Database and RegistrationAuthority.NAP: National Awami Party.NARA: National Alien Registration Authority.NARC: National Agricultural Research Centre.NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.Natural sound: Animal noises, weather conditions,and other actual sounds recorded for TV, ascontrasted with artificial sound or sound effects.NBP: National Bank of Pakistan.NCBs: Nationalised Commercial Banks.NCHD: National Commission on HumanDevelopment.NDC: National Defence College.NDFC: National Development Finance Corporation.NEPRA: National Electric Power RegulatoryAuthority.NESCOM: National Engineering and ScienceCommission.Network identification: The name or identificationof a TV network made at the beginning of each hourand/or the beginning and end of the networkprograms.Network promo: An announcement broadcast by anetwork to promote a specific program or thenetwork itself, generally at the end of a networkprogram.Network: A group of TV stations that broadcast thesame programs. Like Shalimar Television Network
  49. 49. Network: A group of TV stations that broadcast the same programs. Like Shalimar Television Network Newsgroup: Electronic bulletin board containing items on specific topic and open to everybody. Few newsgroups permit the posting of advertising also.News management: this term is normally used to describe the way that governments andsome time individuals attempt to control the flow of news to the media and to set the agendafor the media. This might involve issuing a press notes which is embargoed, holding pressbriefing, leaking news stories or staging an event which is big enough to grab the mediasattention. NGO: Non-Governmental Organization.NHA: National Highway Authority. NIE: National Institute of Electronics. NIH: National Institute of Health. NIO: National Institute of Oceanography.
  50. 50. NIPA: National Institute of Public Administration.NIV: National Institute of Virology.NLA: National Language Authority.NLC: National Logistic Cell.NLI: Northern Light Infantry.NNI: News Network International.Noise: Unwanted audio or video signals, whichinterfere with program information.NPP: National Peoples Party.NPT: National Press Trust.NRB: National Reconstruction Bureau.NRSP: National Rural Support Program.NTN: National Tax Number.NTSC (National Television System Committee):Communications Commission, that establishestelevision standards in the United States.NUST: National University of Sciences andTechnology.NWFP: North West Frontier Province former name ofKPK province name.O.C.: On camera; action in front of a TV camera,visible to the audience. In a TV script, its a directionindicating on which person or scene the camera isfocused.OB: Outside broadcast; not in the studio, from aremote location.OC: Officer Commanding.Octopus: A software base news management systemthrough which news flow control, monitor and execute.There are several other news management systemsused by different media organizations like ENPS,Vivvo, OPenMedia, etc.Off air: A program received via conventionaltelevision and not via cable. Off the air refers to theending of the transmission of a program or thetermination of a program.
  51. 51. Off: Off-camera: outside the image field; off-mike: directed away from the microphone; off- screen or off-camera announcer: an announcer heard but not seen.Off-line edit: A non-computerized, rough assembly of segments with abrupt transitions,followed by a computerized, on-line edit with smooth transitions and other improvements.Off-network: A program available for syndication after it has been broadcast on a network. OGDC: Oil and Gas Development Corporation. OGDCL: Oil and Gas Development Company Limited. OIC: Organization of Islamic Conference. Omnies: Crowd noises as picked up by an omnidirectional microphone that picks up sound from all directions. On the air: A broadcast in progress.
  52. 52. On-scene show: A TV program produced at the site ofan earlier murder, accident, or other event, sometimesrecreated the scene.OP: Observation Post.Open mike: A live 1 A recorded program or interview in which alocal announcer can participate to add a local or livedimension to the beginning or end, ask questions, orinsert local information; 2 A program with no specificconclusion time.Open Source: Open source refers to software code thatis free to build upon. Open source journalism refer to thepractice of collaboration and free sharing of media andinformation. Projects includes the Linux operatingsystem, the Apache Web server, Firefox browserWordpress application, Wikipedia etc.OPF: Overseas Pakistanis Foundation.Original: First, fresh; the initial source from which copiesis made, such as an original master tape.Originate: To produce and transmit a program or othermaterial.Oscilloscope - A device utilizing a cathode ray tube tovisually display electronic signals; used for equipmenttesting and setup.Out of frame: A subject or action that is off-camera andnot seen within the frame of the picture.Overlap: The running of two tape machines insynchronization so that a changeover can be made fromone to the other; a segment of a dissolve in which theimages are superimposed and the shooting of sceneslonger than necessary to provide leeway in editing.PAC: Pakistan Aeronautical Complex. or: PublicAccounts Committee of National Assembly.Pack: A package, packet, or container; A mike-pack is asmall package of batteries and wires, attached to aperformers body, and connected to a cordlessmicrophone.
  53. 53. Package: A program or a combination programs or commercial spots offered to a sponsor as a unit, usually at a discountPAEC: Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. PAF: Pakistan Air Force. PAFWA: Pakistan Air Force Women’s Association. PAL (Phase Alternate Line): This is one of several composite video systems. The phase of the color carrier is alternated from line to line. PAL: Pakistan Academy of Letters. Pan and scan: A technique for changing the aspect ratio of the frame of a wide-screen film so that it can be transmitted for TV. Pan: A direction given to the person operating the camera, so that camera eye moves slowly and evenly, vertically or horizontally, in a panorama. The process of laterally moving the camera to photograph a wide view is called panning.
  54. 54. PANAH: Pakistan National Heart Association.Parabolic Reflector: A large dish with amicrophone mounted in the center. Used to pick upaudio from large distances.PARC: Pakistan Council of Agricultural Research.PAT: Pakistan Awami Tehrik.PATA: Provincially Administered Tribal Areas.Pay Per View: Pay television programming forwhich viewers pay a separate fee for each programordered, (e.g., movies, sporting events, etc.)Pay TV: Home television programming for which theviewer pays by the program or by the month; alsocalled pay-television, subscription television (STV).PBC: Punjab Bar Council.PBC: Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation. or:Pakistan Bar Council.PBF: Pakistan Business Forum.PC: Privatization Commission. or: Pearl Continental.PCB: Pakistan Cricket Board.PCC: Punjab College of Commerce.PCGA: Pakistan Cotton Ginners Association.PCO: Provisional Constitutional Order. or: PublicCall Office.PCR: Production control room of the Studio whereall the video feeds from cameras and light controlsconnected with audio video and light switchers.PCRWR: Pakistan Commission for Research onWater Resources.PCSIR: Pakistan Council of Scientific and IndustrialResearch.PDA: Peshawar Development Authority or PakistanDemocratic Party.PEMRA: Pakistan Electronic Media RegulatoryAuthority.Peoplemeter: A device that is part of an audiencemeasurement system of Nielsen Media Research.PESCO: Peshawar Electric Supply Company.
  55. 55. Peoplemeter: A device that is part of an audience measurement system of Nielsen Media Research.PESCO: Peshawar Electric Supply Company. PFCS: Pakistan Fishermen Cooperative Society. PFUJ: Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists. PHC: Peshawar High Court. PHF: Pakistan Hockey Federation. PIA: Pakistan International Airlines. Picture-in-picture (PIP or P.I.P.): A feature of television sets in which the viewer can see one videotape or program inside a small window on the screen while watching a videotape or another program on the same screen.
  56. 56. PID: Press Information Department.Pilot: A sample of a proposed television series.PIMS: Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences.Pixel: Short for picture element, Pixels are the tinycomponents that, working together, capture thedigital image record in your camera, and later viewon a computer monitor. The more pixels that thereare, the higher the screen or image resolution willbe.Pixelization: The ‘break-up’ of a digital image filethat has been scaled up (enlarged) to a point wherethe pixels no longer blend together to form a smoothimage. Can also appear in the form of step-like, orchoppy curves and angled lines number of pixelsincrease within an image, the less likely you will seepixelization in it.PJAP: Pakistan Jamhuri Aman Party.PLA: People’s Liberation Army.Playback: Reproduction of sounds, images, or othermaterial from a recording or other source.PLF: Peoples Lawyers Forum.PLI: Postal Life Insurance.Plug: A jack; an electrical device with fitted into anoutlet or to connect circuits. A phone plug is a jackcommonly used as a microphone connector.PMA: Pakistan Medical Association. or: PakistanMilitary Academy.PMDC: Pakistan Medical and Dental Council.PMG: Post Master General.PML: Pakistan Muslim League .PML-F: Pakistan Muslim League-Functional.PML-J: Pakistan Muslim League-Jinnah.PML-N: Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz.PML-Q: Pakistan Muslim League-Qasim.PML-QA: Pakistan Muslim League-Quaid-i-Azam.
  57. 57. PN: Pakistan Navy.PNA: Pakistan National Alliance. PNCA: Pakistan National Council of the Arts. PNG Portable Network Graphics: Developed as a patent-free alternative to GIF, used for lossless compression for the purposes of displaying images on the World Wide Web. Adopted by the WWW consortium as a replacement for GIF.Podcast: A downloadable radio show designed for listening on mobileor any other portable media device or a computer. POF: Pakistan Ordnance Factories. POL: Pakistan Oilfields Limited. PONM: Pakistan Oppressed Nations Movement.
  58. 58. Postproduction: Referring to the stages after thephotography of a film, or other work, includingediting, dubbing, mixing.POW: Prisoner of War.PPAF: Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund.PPBA: Pakistan Publishers and BooksellersAssociation.PPI: Pakistan Press International.PPL: Pakistan Petroleum Limited.PPO: Pakistan Post Office.PPP: Pakistan Peoples Party.PPP-SB: Pakistan Peoples Party-Shaheed Bhutto.PPP-Sherpao: Pakistan Peoples Party-Sherpao.PPPP: Pakistan Peoples Party ParliamentarianPR: Pakistan Railways. or: Public Relations.Preproduction: The casting, scripting, and otheractivities prior to actual filming or production.Prerecord: To record a TV program prior tobroadcast.Presentational: A manner of speaking or looking ata camera as if it were the audience.Preview light: The green warning light on a TVcamera, which indicates that it is about to transmit.Preview monitor (PV): A TV screen used by thedirector to monitor and select a picture to be usedfrom among shots by various cameras and othersources.Preview or prevue (PV): The promotion of aforthcoming attraction; also called trailer.PRGF: Poverty Reduction Growth Facility, is an armof the International Monetary Fund which lendsworlds poorest countries.
  59. 59. Primary colors: Red, green, and blue, used alone or in combinations to create all other colors you capture with a digital camera, view on a computer monitor, or work within an image-editing program like Photoshop. See also CMYK.Primary definers: the powerful groups in society who have greater access to the media andtherefore a greater influence over the medias definition of reality. For comment on crime, forexample, the media will consult police first not a victim. Primary Video Source: Any video source which produces its own picture image; e.g., cameras, VTRs, telecine, and character generator. Prime time: The time period that has the greatest number of viewers or listeners, generally 8 to 11 p.m. Producer: The manager of an event, show, or other work, usually the individual in charge of finance, personnel, and other nonartistic aspects in the development of commercials, plays, movies, and other works. In TV, the producer has more creative responsibilities and control than in the movie industry; it is the associate producer who is in charge of the business elements of production. Production assistant (P.A.): A person who aids a producer, director, assistant director, or others involved in film or TV production. Production associate: A script supervisor in a taped TV production. The job includes timing each scene. Production music: Background and theme music used in broadcasting.
  60. 60. Production Switcher: Video switcher whichenables any video source or composite picture onthe air.Program director: A person in charge ofprogramming at station.Promo: Short for promotion, more specifically, theword refers to the preliminary advertisement orannouncement of a program.Prompter: A device to enable speakers andperformers to read a script while looking at theaudience or at the camera.Prop: Short for property,, any scenic element usedto dress the set but which is not structurally a part ofthe background. Includes furniture, pictures, andvarious items used by performers.PSB: Pakistan Software Board. or: Pakistan SportsBoard.PSF: Pakistan Squash Federation. or: PeoplesStudents Federation.PSO: Pakistan State Oil.PTA: Pakistan Telecommunication Authority. or:Parents-Teachers Association.PTC: Pakistan Tobacco Company.PTCL: Pakistan Telecommunication CompanyLimited.PTDC: Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation.PTI: Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaf.PTML: Pakistan Telecom Mobile Limited.PTV: Pakistan Television.PU: Punjab University.Public broadcasting: Nonprofit TV stations that aresupported by individual subscribers, foundations,government, and other funding sources, includingcorporations.
  61. 61. Public service advertising: Time or space provided by a station or a publication at no charge to non-profit Organisations.Public service announcement: A message usually broadcast free TV stations. Theannouncements usually are provided by government agencies and non-profit Organisations andare considered to be in the public interest. PWD: Public Works Department. QAU: Quaid-e-Azam University. QIP: Quick Impact Project. QJP: Qaumi Jamhoor Party. QMG: Quarter Master General.Rack Rate: Typical advertising or airtime rate available to any advertiser, this does not includeany discounts or special offers.
  62. 62. Radio Frequency (RF) - Wireless transmission ofvideo and audio signals via various broadcastchannel frequencies.Radio Microphone - A microphone with a miniaturetransmitter and a piece of wire as an aerial.RAF: Royal Air Force, of Britain.RAID: - Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks, atechnique originally designed for hard disk dataintegrity.Rate Card: Statement by a media companyshowing advertising costs, issue dates, programnames, closing dates, requirements, cancellationdates, position available, etc.Rating: Popularity of a program.Raw Stock - A film that has not yet been exposedand/or processed.RAW: Research & Analysis Wing, of India.RDFC: Regional Development Finance Corporation.Reach: The total number of people or householdsreached by a station.Real Time: The actual time in which an event orprogram takes place.REAP: Rice Exporters Association of Pakistan.Red-eye: Term used to describe the reddenedpupils of the eyes that sometimes occur whenphotographing people or pets with an electronicflash. The red color appears when the pupil of theeye is dilated, usually in a low light environmentwhen the light of the flash strikes the rear portion ofthe eye and illuminates the blood vessels located inthe rear portion of the eye. Red-eye can often beavoided by placing the flash further away from thecamera.Red light: The warning light over a door of a studioindicating that it is in use; a light on a TV cameraindication that it is in use.Remote: A broadcast from a place other than thestations studio.
  63. 63. Remote: A broadcast from a place other than the stations studio.RGH: Rawalpindi General Hospital. Roll Cue: The command to start a film, videotape, or audio tape. Rolling: Means that a film, videotape, or audio tape has been started and is ready for playback or recording. Rough Cut: Roughly edited film on a non-linear editing system with finer changes to be made before the fine cut. RSS: Rashtriya Sevak Sang. A Indian Hindu extremist right wing paramilitary group founded in 1925.RSS feed: Web feed with frequently updated content. Content distributors syndicate a Webfeed, enabling users to subscribe to a site’s latest content. A newsreader application is requiredto read, listen or watch feed on your mobile, computer or portable device on your own schedule. RTA: Regional Transport Authority.
  64. 64. Running time: The time from the start to the end ofa program, segment, or commercial.SAARC: South Association for RegionalCooperation.SAM: Surface-to-Air Missile.SANA: South Asian News Agency.SBP: State Bank of Pakistan.SC: Supreme Court.SCA: Sindh Chamber of Agriculture.Schedule: A list of consecutive programs.SEO Search Engine Optimization: Art of setting-upyour website to be as search engine friendly aspossible through putting certain key search terms,as used by customers in search engines.Scoop: Very important exclusive story break by anyjournalist. A light with a shovel-shaped reflector.SCR dimmer: A silicon-controlled rectifier used inlighting control in TV.Scrambler: A device usually found in a transmitter,which scrambles the signal of a cable network so itcannot be viewed without a decoder.Script: The text of a speech, play, film, commercial,or program or simply a schedule or sequentialaccount written by a scriptwriter.SDO: Sub-Divisional Officer.SDP: Sindh Democratic Party. or: Social DemocraticParty.SDPI: Sustainable Development Policy Institute.SECP: Securities and Exchange Commission ofPakistan.Set-top box: Electronic device that connects to aTV, providing connectivity to the Internet,game systems, cable systems or direct to homesatellite television.Share: Term use when anyone distributes specificcontent with friends or ‘followers. In advertisement itis a percent of audience tuned to a particular
  65. 65. Shaky cam: TV segment made by a hand-held camera, such as a minicam.Share: Term use when anyone distributes specificcontent with friends or ‘followers. In advertisement itis a percent of audience tuned to a particularprogram at a given time. Steadycam: Apparatus used with handheld camera to control movement and jerks. SHC: Sindh High Court. SHC: Sindh High Court. Shoot: A session at which performances are filmed, especially on location instead of in a studio (to go on a shoot or to a shoot). Shooting script: A script for a TV production. Shooting: Process of recording images or action on any device.
  66. 66. Shots of various kinds Big fat wide shot (BFWS): An instruction to a cameraman for a wide angle. Birds eye view shot: Looking directly down on the subject. Making the subject appear shot. This shot can be used to give an overall establishing the scene These shots are normally used for public meetings or establishing where the character is. It is shot by lifting the camera up by hands or by hanging it off something strong enough to support it like boom. Camera shot: That part of the subject matter that is viewed and photographed by the camera. Close-up (CU): A tight photograph or shot, generally of the face and shoulders; a close shot. Cover shot: Establishing shot in filmmaking and television production usually from long-distance view, generally begins a sequence, to establish the location. Crane Shot: Shot taken by a camera on a crane, Jib or boom. Distance shot: A view in which the subject is a long distance from the camera or appears to be far away; also called a long shot. Dolly Shot Any shot made from a moving dolly. Ear shot: A close-up of a person in profile. Establishing shot: An opening comprehensive view, a long or wide shot to set the scene or acquaint the audience with the setting, characters, or plot, followed by details and closer action. Extreme close-up: A tight camera shot, close in and limited to one part of the subject.
  67. 67. Extreme Long Shot: A shot taken from as muchas a quarter of a mile away, and is generally usedas a scene-setting, establishing shot. It normallyshows an exterior, e.g. the outside of a building, ora landscape, and is often used to show scenes ofthrilling action e.g. in a war film or establishingwide spread disaster in a documentary. There willbe very little detail visible in the shot, as it ismeant to give a general impression rather thanspecific information.Full Shot: Long shot, wide shot and establishingshot some time referred as full shot because itgives complete pictureHigh Angle Shot: Camera angle is located abovethe eyeline. With this type of angle, the cameralooks down on the subject High angle shots alsomake the figure or object seem low.Longshot:In photography, filmmaking andvideo production when you select the entire sceneand the object is place in it in relation to itssurroundings. It is now common to refer to a longshot as a "wide shot" because it often requires theuse of a wide-angle lens. When a long shot isused to set up a location and its participants in filmand video it is called an establishing shot.Low Angle Shot: Camera angle positioned lowon the subject, anywhere below the eyeline,looking up.Master Shot: A single shot of a scene, usually awide or long shot, which is used as the referenceor master in editing a sequence.Medium close-up (MCU): A camera position thatis between a medium shot and a close-up,generally showing a persons head and shouldersand part of the chest.Medium shot (MS): A camera position between aclose-up and a long shot--for instance, the view ofa person from the head to the waist or lower.Medium-long shot (MLS): A camera positionbetween a long shot and medium shot.
  68. 68. Moving shot: A technique in which the camera follows the action; also called action shot. Over-the-shoulder shot (OSS): A camera shot made from behind a performer, sometimes including all or part of the head and shoulders, with the camera focused on the spot at which the performer is looking. Panning Shot: Pan or panning shot cover whole scene, like moving camera in a room from wall to wall or in outside covering landscape from right to left or left to right movement of camera for taking shots. Panorama Shot: Cover the whole room without panning the camera. Sometime cameraman don’t have space available to move the camera or even in taking still photo using wide angle lenses. Point of view (POV): A camera shot seen from or obtained from the position of a performer so that a viewer sees what the performer is seeing. Running shot: Shot in which the camera moves to follow a moving subject. Tight on: An instruction to a television camera operator for a close shot of a specific person or object. Tight two shot: A direction to a TV camera operator for close-up of the heads of two peopleShutter Speed: Shutter speed is the amount of timethat the shutter is open. In film photography it was thelength of time that the film was exposed to the sceneyou’re photographing and similarly in digitalphotography shutter speed is the length of time thatyour image sensor ‘sees’ the scene you’re attemptingto capture. If you change your shutter speed forexample from 1/125th to 1/250th you’re effectivelyletting half as much light into your camera
  69. 69. SI: Sub Inspector.Sign off or sign-off: A slang term for the end or anending of a transmission. Sign on: Beginning of a transmission. Signal: An electrical impulse representing sound, image, or a message transmitted or received in television. Silks: Screens used for lighting and shading. Simulcast: A broadcast of a program at the same time on a television station and a radio station or on Internet Single-camera production: The shooting of a program with one camera (as opposed to using multiple cameras). Sister station: TV stations owned by the same company.
  70. 70. Sitcom: Situation comedy, a humorous TV showfeaturing the same characters on each program,generally once a week. Family front, Double-Trouble.SKMT: Shaukat Khanum Memorial Trust.Slot: The location of a program, announcement,news item, interview, or commercial on a broadcastschedule.SME: Small & Medium Enterprise.SNA: Sindh National Alliance.SNF: Sindh National Front.SNGPL: Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited.Snow: Fluctuating spots on a television screenresulting from a weak signal.Soap opera: A dramatic serial TV program,originally sponsored on radio mainly by Procter &Gamble and other soap companies; also called asoapSocial Media: Digital platform that facilitates twoway flows between users online a good example areFacebook, LinkedIn, YouTube, Twitter, blogging.SOT: Sound on tape, instruction by a director toinclude a SOT in the package.Sound effects: Animals, traffic, weather, andsounds other than dialogue and music, producedfrom an actual source or artificially.Sound Track: An optical, magnetic or digital bandcarrying the sound recording alongside the pictureframes on a motion-picture film.Soundbite: The audio track of a portion of ainterview.Sounder: A brief musical or sound effects sequencefor network or station identification.SP: Superintendent of Police.Spam: Term describing uncalled commercial e-mail.
  71. 71. Spam filter: Software built into e-mail gateways as well as e-mail client applications designed to identify and remove unsolicited commercial messages from incoming e-mail before the end user sees them. Spammer: Person or computer sends spamming messages.Speed 1. Camera speed is the rate of film advancement expressed in frames per second(fps). 2. Lens speed is the full amount of light a lens is capable of transmitting. 3. Emulsionspeed is the emulsion sensitivity to light, expressed as an index of exposure.Sponsor: A broadcast advertiser who pays for part or all of a program. The word now is usedto indicate any broadcast advertiser, including a sponsor of an individual spot or commercial.Spool: A roll on which film is wound for general handling orprojection.Spot: Advertising time purchased or available. Spotlight Effect: Special video effect on many switchers which enables a portion of the screen to appear brighter in order to highlight a particular element within the shot. SSC: Secondary School Certificate.
  72. 72. SSG: Special Services Group.SSGC: Sui Southern Gas Company.SSP: Senior Superintendent of Police. or: Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan.Standby: A person or thing ready for use as asubstitute, usually on an emergency basis.Stills: Slang for the still photographers of the printmedia.Storyboard: A series of illustrations (storyboardsketches) or layouts of scenes in a proposed TVcommercial or other work, used as a guide prior toproduction.STPP: Sindh Taraqqi Pasand Party.Streaming Media: Video or audio that can bewatched or listened to online but not storedpermanently, also called Webcasting.Subtitle: A superimposed caption at the bottom ofthe TV screen.Superimposition (super): Placing one image ontop of another, such as a slide superimposed on theimage received from a television camera.Surfing: The rapid changing of TV channels with aremote control.Switch: A direction to move or change, as from onecamera or video source to another or to changecamera angles. The device (video mixer) or person(studio engineer) responsible for camera mixing orswitching is called a switch or switcher.Switcher: Electronic device used to select theimage or composite images which are eitherbroadcast or recorded.Synchronous, Speed: Camera speed of exactly 24frames per second synchronized with the soundrecording.
  73. 73. Synthesizer: A device that can take an external or internal audio signal and change it by a preset controlled process SZABIST: Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science & Technology. T1: A high-speed Internet connection, allowing transfer rates of 1.5 Mbps. (megabytes per second). T3: Even faster than T1, a T-3 connection transfers information over the Internet at a rate of 45 megabytes per second.Tag: Tags are keywords added with the content to help search engine find related topics or media. Talent: Anyone who appears on camera. Talkback: A brief sequence at the end of a live remote news report in which the anchor asks one or more questions of the reporter. Tally light: A red light on an active camera.
  74. 74. Tape delay system: On telephone call-in programs,a procedure used to tape a phone call and delay itfor a few seconds prior to broadcast so thatobscenities can be deleted or the call cut off prior tobroadcast.tape log: A list of contents or sequences on anaudio or videotape.Tape: To record on audio and/or videotape.TBA: To be announced, used in broadcasting whenthe name of a program or other information is notavailable.TCP: Trading Corporation of Pakistan.TDCP: Tourism Development Corporation ofPunjab.TelePrompter: A trademarked visual promptingdevice for speakers and television performers thatreproduces the current portion of the script inenlarged letters.Teletext: An over-the-air system for thetransmission of text and simple graphics onto atelevision screen.Tell story: A news report read by a TV announceror reporter without accompanying tape or film.terrestrial feed: TV transmission via land lines suchas telephone, or direct (without lines); different fromsatellite feed.Tilt: A direction to move a camera up or down; avertical pan.Time base correction (TBC): A process of fillingout, or correcting, the electronic lines that make up avideo image; minimizes or eliminates jiggling of thepicture.Time code: A digitally encoded signal that isrecorded on videotape in the format of house,minutes, seconds and frames.Time slot: A period in a schedule.
  75. 75. Time-coding: The recording of the date and time on the edge of a videotape as it is being shot, to assist in editing and record keeping.Timeline: In Production and Editing, Audioor video place in a sequence is calledtimeline. In social Media ‘history view’ ofyour social activity.Tip-off: Information about a surprise event or breaking news, whether on or off the record. TMA: Tehsil Municipal Administration. TNFJ: Tehrik Nafaz Fiqah-e-Jafria. Now it is changed to Tehrik e Jafria Pakistan Transmission: The actual sending or beaming of the audio/video portion of the program from point to point.Transponder: A receiver that transmits signals when activated by aspecific signal. For example, a satellite transponder picks up signalsfrom the earth, translates them into a new frequency, amplifiesthem, and transmits them back to earth. TVRO (television receive-only): In satellite broadcasting, an earth station that can receive but not transmit, consisting of an antenna and equipment.
  76. 76. Tweet: Message posed on page.Limited window can handle upto 140-charactersincluding spaces.UAAR: University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi.UAE: United Arab Emirates.UBL: United Bank Limited.UC: Union Council.UDF: United Democratic Front.UET: University of Engineering & Technology.UK: United Kingdom.Ultra High Frequency (UHF): Television channels14-74.Ultraviolet: A range of wavelengths shorter thanthose in the visible spectrum but detected by filmemulsions unless an ultraviolet (UV) filter is used tostop this radiation.U-Matic: Video format by Sony using ¾ - inchcassettes. Has three different versions (LB, HB andSP), Popular production format for those not wealthyenough to use Beta SP or digital.UNDCP: United Nations Drug Control Programme.UNDP: United Nations Development Programme.UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientificand Cultural Organisation.UNFPA: United Nations Fund for Population.UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner forRefugees.UNHRC: United Nations Human RightsCommission.UNIC: United Nations Information Centre.Unidirectional: Microphone pickup pattern in whichthe microphone is designed for increased sensitivityto sounds emanating from a particular direction.UNIDO: United Nations Industrial DevelopmentOrganization.