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Safe lifting with all types of cranes.

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  2. 2. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES1.SCOPE 2. NORMATIVE REFERENCES1. SCOPEAdvice on planning management, selection of equipment and personnel for safe lifting with alltypes of cranes.Specific guidance on safety- hazards caused by mobility and the diversity of locations formobile crane lifting operations.Mobility means of road wheels or crawler tracks.(Rail-mounted-not covered)Fully mobile to travel with suspended loads.Semi-mobile cranes- fitted with stabilizers or outriggersIn parts and assembled at the site.2. NORMATIVE REFERENCESBS 4-1:1993 Structural steel sections- Specification for hot-rolled sectionBS 5306-3:1995 Fire extinguishing installation and equipment on premise.(Portable)BS 6187:1982 Code of practice for demolitionBS 7262:1990 Specification for automatic in safe load indicatorsCP3:Chapter V-2:1972 Code of basic data for the design of buildings- Wind loadsISO 12482-1:1990 Cranes-Condition monitoring-Part 1: GeneralHSE Note GS6: Avoidance of Danger from Overhead Electric Lines, 1990 HMSOHSE Note GS39 Training of Crane Drivers and Slingers, 1986 HSMOHS(G)118 Electrical Safety in Arc Welding 1994 HSMOCoP SUoLE 1994 Lifting Equipment Engineers AssociationCIRIA 1996 Crane Stability on SiteLOLER/MH&S /PUWER1996 No3163 Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulation1992 No 3073 The supply of machinery (safety) regulations (SMR)
  3. 3. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES3. DEFINITIONSRATED CAPACITY-(SWL) Maximum load that be safely handled by a crane-position-conditionsRATED CAPACITY INDICATOR-device warning the load is approaching rated capacity and another warningwhen rated capatity is exceeded (=automatic SLI)RATED CAPACITY LIMITER-device prevents motions that increase risks if rated capacity is exceededRADIUS-horizontal distanceRADIUS INDICATOR-device that shows the radius –operating and rated capacityLIFTING ACCESSORY-between the crane and the load, or on the load to attach the loadIN-SERVICE-handling loads up to rated capacity in permissible wind speeds and other conditionsmanufacturerOUT-OF-SERVICE- no load, wind speed conditions.ROUGH TERRAIN CRANE-telescopic jib, wheeled crane, for working on sites and able to travel on sitebetween LO over dry, firm, uncompacted groundALL-TERRAIN CRANE- telescopic jib, wheeled crane with a specially designe d chassis that allows travel onthehighway at normal road speeds, - manoeuvtabilityFREE-ON-WHEELS-lift loads without use of outriggers or estabilizersLOAD ENHANCING EQUIPMENT-equipment to increase stability or reduce structural stress- eg superliftMETHOD STATEMENT- document produced for or by appointed person-how the LO should be carried outEMPLOYING ORGANIZATION-who requires a LO and responsibility for safe use of the craneAPPOINTED PERSON-with training, practical and theorical knowledge and experienceCRANE SUPERVISOR-control the lifting operation-in accordance appointed person’s safe system of workCRANE DRIVER-operates the crane to positons loads or to assemble the craneSLINGER-attach and detach the load- correct selection and use of lifting accesoriesSIGNALLER-directing the crane driver to ensure safe movementCOMPETENT PERSON- practical and theorical knowledge and experience to examine LE and to assess theseinrelation to safety and to continued use of the equipment
  4. 4. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES4. MANAGEMENT OF LIFTING OPERATIONSAFE SYSTEM OF WORK-include:Risk assessmentPlanning of the operationPreparation of a method statementSelection, provision and use of a suitable cranes/ and equipment (maintenance,inspection and examination and testingPreparation of the site, if requiredProvision of properly trained and competent personnel-aware of their statutoryresponsibilitiesSupervision by properly trained and competent pesonnel with authorityEnsure that all test certificates and other documents are avaiblePreventing unauthorized movement of use of the crane at all timesConsideration for the safety of persons in the danger zone but not involved in LOErection and dismantling may be a separate LOComminicated to all parties concernedCONTROL OF THE LIFTING OPERATION-the employing organization shoul contract an appoint person priortoeach specific LO, to ensure the safe system of work.PLANNING OF THE LIFTING OPERATION- by appointed person to ensure that all foreseeable risks are takeninto account. Include:-Load characteristics and the method of lifting-Selecction of an appropriate crane-Selection of lifting accessories (and weight)-Position of the crane and load before, during, and after operation-Site – proximity hazards, space availability and suitability of the ground-Erection and dismantling-Present and foreseeable enviromental conditions at the site
  5. 5. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES4. MANAGEMENT OF LIFTING OPERATIONMETHOD STATEMENT-by appointed person sted-by-step LO. Include:-Schedule of responsibilities-Full details of the crane-Details of ancillary equipment-Details of the lifting accessories-Name of the appointed person-Name of the crane supervisor(who may be the appointed person)-A complete plan, the sequence of the operationEliminte danger to personnel not involved in the LO, to prevent entry into the danger zoneINSURANCE-cover serious personal injury and damage to property during LOCONTRACTS-between the employing organization and the other party include:-An agreement that an appointed person is provided-An agreement that the employing organization provides accurate information on the locations of all service as requested by theappointed personSELECTION OF APPOINTED PERSON-consider the variety and complexity of the operation.Should be notifiedformally in writing.ReviewDUTIES OF APPOINTED PERSON FOR MOBILE CRANE OPERATIONGENERAL- can vary in accordance with the complexity of the operationBASIC LIFT- Weight of the load, no hazards, duties include:-Establishing the weight-Location of the operation, access and egress, suitability of the ground-Ensuring that crane has been thoroughly examined inspected, check before use-Ensuring system for reporting defects is in place-Selecting appropriate LA, and method of attachment to the load-LA are thoroughly examined, inspected and checked before use-Designated a person to check LA and any lifting points-Briefing all persons involved in the LO-Checking that no changes are required in the safe system of work-Crane supervisor designated to direct personnel-Selection of the crane- based weight of load (+hook, lifting tackle) max. Heigh of lift and max radius required.Crane capacity .
  6. 6. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES4. MANAGEMENT OF LIFTING OPERATIONSTANDARD LIFT- Duties of appointed person include:- Investigating all hazards (surrounding, overground or underground)- Increased risk if the load lifted from a structure at the height above thestanding positon of the crane.-Liaison with any other person or authority or corrective action overcomeany hazards-Effect of the lifting operation on surrounding property or personsCOMPLEX LIFT- more one crane or exceptional hazards, the appointed person:-Weight of the load- Any lifting points-Proportion of the weight taken by each crane is known accurately +-2%-Crane compatible with sufficient margings- dynamic loading-LO is planned- no possibility of contact between jibs and load-Method statement includes access, ground conditions, erection..LO- Suitability of the ground- withstand the forces applied.-To monitor the inclination of the loadSUPERVISION- to ensure safety. Crane driver is not possible to observe all hazards. Appointedperson.
  7. 7. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES5. SELECTION AND MINIMUN ATTIBUTES OF PERSONNELSELECTION- suitable personner who are competent to carry out all duties required. Ensurethat personnel are efficiently organized to ensure good team work.MINIMUM ATTRIBUTES OF PERSONNEL-GENERAL-competent, trained and assessed, able to present a record of training andassessment, physically able to carry out the workAPPOINTED PERSON- see point beforeCRANE SUPERVISOR- authorized to carry out the duties listed in 6, fully conversant with allpersons involved in LO, able to give clear instructions, to assess danger to the LOIf the crane supervisor is also a crane driver, the crane supervisor should NOT OPERATEany crane involved in the LO supervisedCRANE DRIVER- should be:-Trained on the specific model of crane/assimilate and apply information-reports, charts-Familiar with manufacturer’s instructions-rigging operation, maintenance-Aware of level ground/Correct use of outriggers-Set and check functioning of the rated capacity limiter and indicator-Effect of wind and another climatic effect on the crane and load-Able to resist pressures form other persons, to avoid dangerous situations, operate fire suppressant equimentSLINGER- establish weights, CG, balance, distances/select LA and check conditon/initate safe movementSIGNALLER- relay signals from slinger to drive/direct safe movement of the crane and load/instructiontsCRANE ERECTOR- prepare specific model/work safely ancofincenly at heights/set and check indicatorand limiter and other safety devices/weights, balance,distance, heights/techniques of slingingMAINTENANCE PERSONNEL-the specific model with manufacturer’s instructions/safe system of workSSoW
  8. 8. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES6.DUTIES OF PERSONNELAPPOINTED PERSON-duties in point 4CRANE SUPERVISOR-Direct and supervise the LO in accordance with method statementCRANE DRIVER-correct operation in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions andwithin the safe sytems of work. Initial signal from slinger, and signals from one slinger/signaller.No tamper with any controlsSLINGER-attaching and detaching the load, and using the correct lifting accessories andequipment. Initial movement of the crane.SIGNALLER-directing movement of the crane and load instead of slinger, only one person isresponsible at any time.CRANE ERECTOR-erection the crane- manufacturer’s instructions.MAINTENANCE PERSONNER-maintaining the crane in a safe condition, in accordance withthemanufacturer’s maintenance manual and within the safe system of work
  9. 9. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES7. SELECTION OF CRANEGENERAL-selecting a crane:-weights, dimensions and characteristics of the load-operational speeds, radii, heights of lifts, areas of movement-number,frequency and types of lifting operations-length of time the crane required for-site, ground and enviromental conditions or restrictions-space available access/egress, erection, travelling, operation and dismantling-any special operational requirements or limitations imposed-economic factor-but conforms to the safe system of work
  10. 10. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES7. SELECTION OF CRANETRUCK-MOUNTED CRANE- mounted on a road truck chassis(public highways at normal speeds).Width of crane, any overhead obstructions, and gradient of, tight bends or sharp corners, lengthand manoeuvrability condidered in relation to the layout of the site.FIXED-BASE CRANE-are cranes with a very high nominal lifting capacity, transported in severalparts and assembled there. Some limited travel –after assembly.ROUGH-TERRAIN CRANE-lift free-on-wheels the ground should be level. Pick and carry loadson the crane hook careful consideration should be given to planning and us SSoWALL-TERRAIN CRANE-is a hybrid of a truck-mounted crane and a rough-terrain crane. Groundconditions are required. Better ability to climb gradients.YARD CRANE-working within a work site or factory where there is a known range of loads to belifted.Chasis is short. Speed travel is usually about walking pace. Outriggers. Can travel with loadssuspended. Jib is usually of lattice construction, either strut or cantilever desingLOW-HEADROOM CRANE-lift and carry loads in locations where there is an overhead clearance restriction-eg-on a factory floor. Jib is of cantilever, telescopic constructions- but with option of extension eg fly jib. Travel speedis lower than small all-terrain cranes. Not rotate with the load.CRAWLER CRANE-no use Free fall- Electro-mechanical controls systems lock out the free fall.- drum remainsconnected to power train. Consider for a significant number of load, over an extended period and- low groundbearing pressure, compactness is required once the crane is erected, ground is poor to travel over and is sloped.The crane is transported in parts, erection and desmantling may require an auxiliary crane, sufficiente space isrequired, particularly if a long jib combination, and a long jib should be laid down quicly in the working position, ifadverse weather conditions are expected.
  11. 11. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES7. SELECTION OF CRANEJIB CONFIGURATIONSGENERAL-many differente combinationsFLY JIB- erected on site before use. Can be set in the same line as the axis or can be offsetat a fixed angle. (Telescopic box construction reduce lifting capacity)LUFFING FLY JIB-fixed offset fly jib and is of lattice construction. Should be used with themain jib set at the maximum angle of elevation.MAIN JIB EXTENSIONS- position of crane whether additional space to fit the extension. Jibdeflections-may be greater-weight increased 10% recommendationsSPECIAL OPERATIONS- Piling operation (Annex A). Demolition (Annex B)Dismantling opertions (Annex C) Lifting person (Annex D) Dinamic compaction (Annex E)
  12. 12. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES8. SAFETYGENERAL-Use, maintenance, repair and renewal of safety equipment.Instruction of, and allocation ofresponsabilities to.IDENTIFICATION OF PERSON DIRECTING CRANE MOVEMENTS-slinger or signaller- identifiable to thedriver-high visibility clothing, by using radio call signs.PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT-appropriate for the conditions of the loccation (helmets, safetyspectacles, harness, boots, ear defenders), equipement is inspected before and after use, and maintained ingood workng order or replaced, as appropriate. Record of inspections and repairs is maintained. Maydeteriorate with age- should renewed- manufacturer’s instructionsUSE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT-all personnel working on, visiting or in the vicinity of thecrane- aware of requirements. Personnel should be instructed in correct use and require to use it.USE OF SAFETY HARNESSES- work at a height that exceeds 2m.- to ensure sufficient freedom of movementofthe wearer. Crane driver be trained in correct use of all PPE required to erect and dismantle the crane.ACCESS AND EMERGENCY ESCAPEGENERAL-safe access and means of emergency escape for inspection, maintenance, repair, erection, anddismantling of the craneBOARDING AND LEAVING THE CRANE-first obtaining the crane driver’s permission.INSTRUCTION OF PERSONNEL- how to use the proper access points and means of emergency escapeFIRE EXTINGUISHERS- conform to BS 5306-3. Mounted on the crane or at the site be scheduled for periodicinspection and renewed as necessary.CRANE SAFETY EQUIPMENTRATED CAPACITY INDICATOR/RATED CAPACITY LIMITER-to safety in unforessen circumstances. Checks atregularintervals.RADIUS INDICATOR- deflections-may not give accurate readingsMOTION LIMIT DEVICES-should be checked by the crane driver at the beginning of each woring shiftMEANS TO CHECK WIND SPEEDS-Be taken into account: the direccion of the wind acting on the cranestructure/
  13. 13. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES8. SAFETYTHOROUGH EXAMINATION AND TESTING OF CRANESGENERAL- suspension of calibrated weights on the crane all configuration are systematically covered.EXAMINATION SCHEME APPROACH-be based on regular assessments in accordance with usageSPECIFIED PERIOD APPROACHSIX MONTHLY THOROUGH EXAMINATION- used to lift person an LATWELVE MONTHLY THOROUGH EXAMINATIONSOVERLOAD TESTING AND THOROUGH EXAMINATION-once every 4 years, except for on crane capacity + 500t,12 mothlyMAJOR REPARIR OR MODIFICATION-should be thoroughly examined and overload testedRECORDS-include:-Technical information, including EC declaration of conformity, maintenance instructions and performance data provided bymanufacturer-Test certificates, reports of thorough examintaions and records of inspections (including ropes)-Records of significant repairs and modifications to the crane , including renewal parts, signatures of reponsible persons-Details that occurrences- incidents or accidents, shock loads, dangerous occurrences or reportable accidents, hours worked.Can be kept in any format. Kept of any extended periods.DOCUMENTATION- should be available:-Report of the last thorough examination, and LA, and lifting equipment-Records of test: calibration RCI and RCL (12 months), , data loggers from new relevant testing (NDT), overload tested (4yearsor after any major repairs or modifications)-Weekly inspections-Duty charts-Records of maintenance-Manufacturer’s operating manual-Record of crane driver training-Method statement- including any plan showing the positioning of the crane
  14. 14. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES9. SITTING OF CRANESGENERAL-At least be taken into account::-The crane standing and supports conditons-The presence and proximity of other hazards-The effect of wind during in-service and out-of-service conditions-The suitability of access/egress to allow placing or erection and dismantlingand removing the crane following completion of LOCRANE STANDING OR SUPPORT CONDITIONSGENERAL-appointed person should ensure that the loads imposed by the crane can besustained by the ground or any means of support, by assessment of a competent person.The loads imposes should be obtain from the crane manufacturer or other authority, include thecombine effects of the following:- The dead weight of the crane (counterweight, ballasting or foundations..)- The dead weight or the load(s) and any lifting attachment/s (LA)- Dinamic forces caused by movements of the crane- Wind loading resulting from wind speed up to the maximum permitted (See CP3-2)USE OF OUTRIGGERS/STABILIZERS-points loads through the outrigger/stabilizers beams andjack pads should be spread over a sufficient area to prevent the crane overturning or becomingunstable.The pressure of outrigger can be considered to pass into the ground at an angle of 45ºfrom the outside edges. Appointed person should ensure that the siting can accommodate thecrane with the outriggers extended –duty chart- plus any area required for ground matting
  16. 16. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES9. SITTING OF CRANESPROXIMITY HAZARDSGENERAL-danger to or from underground services should be taken into considerations (gasmains, electric cable) Crane fundations is clear of any underground services. At any placewhere a crane or load passes an obstacle:- Crane path clear defined by marking- a clearance of not less than 600 mm arrangedbetween any part of the crane and any obstacle.-Boundary lines for staking of the goods –permanently marked on the groundOVERHEAD ELECTRIC LINES AND CABLES-any part of the crane (rope, slings or load)touchesor ever apporaches overhead electric lines or cables HSE Guidance.Note GS6 is complied.15 m plus the maximum jib length of overhead lines on steel powers9 m plus the maximum jib length of overhead lines on wood, concrete or steel polesPrecautions if machine makes contact with live electric line or cable:-remain inside cab+ warn all other personnel to keep away from the crane and do not touch any part of the crane, rope or load-try, unaided, to move crane until it is clear of the power line or cable-if machine cannot be moved away remain inside the cab- alert s/o to inform electricity supply authority-if it is essential to leave the cab-fire- jump clear as far away from the crane, no touch the crane and the ground at the same time-inform the reponsible enginerr until assistante is received
  17. 17. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES9. SITTING OF CRANESPROXIMITY HAZARDSCRANE CONTROL IN THE VICITITY OF AERODROMES/AIRFIELDS-consult theaerodrome/airfieldmanager for permission to use a crane if the following apply:- crane is to be used within 6 km of the aerodrome/airfield- the height of the crane exceeds 10m or the height of surrounding structures or treesRAILWAYS- Occupation period of the tracks, during which no rail traffic can use the tracks- (loadon or adjacent to rail tracks)HIGHTWAYS- the appointed person to establish a safe system of work to ensure that injuries topersons cannot be caused by the crane and/or loads. Arrangements should be made for traffic tobe stopped or diverted away from the working area if appropriateLIVE PLANT-nuclear installations, refineries and chemical plants in particular, may present greatlyincreased risks to personnel and property- may be appropriate to reduce the rated capacity of thecrane. May require special suppressing equipment to be fitted if explosive atmospheric conditionscould occur. Appointed person should include emergency instructions on cessation of work andsite evacuation in the lifting operation plan.
  18. 18. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES10. ERECTION AND DISMANTLINGWarning persons- a pinned jibs sections while it is being erected/dismantled.Consider:- Additional spacce may be required for erecting the configuration to be used- To erect the crane away from the lifting position.- Dismantling operation- load could impigne or block the exit route for crane- Safe means of access and egress- PPE should be provited as appropriate- An erection manual – clearly understood by the erection team- Any departure from the prescribed procedures should be approved- All personnel should have a sound knowledge of their part in the operation- Following the manufacturer’s recommendations- Crane sould be level- Correct parts and components, their position and orientation in the assembly- Nuts, bolts manufactured from high tensile steel should be marked- High strength friction grip bolts should not be reused.
  19. 19. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES11.PROCEDURES AND PRECAUTIONSCRANE OPERATION-All movements be carried out by competent person nominated byappointed person. Maintenance personnel.- trained in crane drivingWORKING ON CRANESGENERAL – safe place, vision, verbal communication…PERMIT TO WORK- sign and keep the document. Certify the following:-all personnel have been withdrawn-all gear, tools and loose materials have been removed-all guards have been replaced-all safety devices are in operationConditions should :-Responsabilities for coordinating, monitoring, issuing, receiving, clearing, and cancelling permits to work-Crane should be clearly identified-A effective means of isolations of the crane-A secure mean of retaining any keys, fuses or devices to maintaining isolation-Demarcation or other special precaution to maintain a safe working areaREPORTING OF DEFECTS AND INCIDENTS-should include:-Any defects found during daily and weekly checks-Defects found at other times-Incidents or accidents, however slight-Dangerous occurrences or reportable accidents as specified in The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and DangerousOcurrences Regulations 1995Reporting procedure should include provision for an examination by competent person afterany incident, to ensure that the crane is fit for further service.
  20. 20. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES11.PROCEDURES AND PRECAUTIONSLEAVING THE CRANE UNATTENDED- crane driver should always be present when a load issuspended from a crane. Power supplies to all motions should be switches off and appropriatemotion brakes and locks applied to render the machine in safe condition. Key be removed fromthe crane.MAINTENANCEGENERAL-appointed person should be satisfied that sufficiente information on maintenanceis available and is carried out by trained personnel.PLANNED MAINTENANCE-Manufacturer’s instructions , task and intervals. Lubrication points,and frecuency of greasing and oil changes. Tyres pressures, fixing bolts…REPLACEMENT COMPONENTS-manufacturer’s specifications or equivalent standardUSE OF SPECIAL MATERIALS IN CRANE CONSTRUCTION-correct procedure as specifiedby themanufacturer excessive heat that can change the properties of steel should not be applied
  21. 21. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES11.PROCEDURES AND PRECAUTIONSPERIODIC CHECKS AND INSPECTIONSGENERAL-the appointed person should ensure all periodic checks and inspectionsDAILY CHECKS- Daily checks specified in th manufacturer’s handbook-Check that all ropes are correctly positioned ( sheaves, drums)-Visual check –electrical equipment (oil, grease, water, dirt)-Visual check levels and componets,- no loss of fluids-All limit switches or cut-outs and dead man’s handle or lever-Automatic safe load indicator- manufacturer’s daily test-Radius scale is appropriate to the jib configuration fitted-Varying the load LA radius without load-Correct air pressure- pneumatic control system- brakes-Lights, windscreen wiper(s), and washer-Visual check for security of wheels and condition of tyres on wheel-mounted crane-All crane controls without load-Check for correct operation of audible waring devices-Tidy condition and free from tins of oil, rags, tools, or…-No obstructions in the path of travel of the craneWEEKLY CHECKS –Manufacturer’s handbook-Rated capacity indicator/limiter-Visual inspection of all ropes for broken wires, flattening, …-Structure for damage-Hook and other LAs, safe catch(es), swivel(s)-Controllers, hydraulic rams , brakes, clutches, tyres-Slew lock, steering, brakes, lights, indicator, hotn, windscreen, wiper, washer, rubber tyred cranesCRANE NOT IN REGULAR USE- Manufacturer recomendations, all crane ropes, control linkage,test of eachmotion, correct functioning all safety devices, hoses, seals and other componets for evidence ofdeterioration.
  22. 22. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES11.PROCEDURES AND PRECAUTIONSWELDING OPERATION-on the load-earth return of the welding set close to the arcing pointOUT-OF-SERVICE CONDITIONSGENERAL- even for overnignt- manufacturer’s instructions- wheather conditionsTHUNDERSTORMS-cease operationsON-SITE TRAVELGENERAL- travel of fully rigged crane should be planned, supervised and carried out.WHEELED CRANES- no overhead hazards, checks backfilled. Telescopic jib- closed position unstableminimized.Slew lock.Outriggers extended. Wind loading, gusty,. Crane driver should walk the route priorto travelling the craneCRAWLER-MOUNTED-travel over uneven, sloping and unmade-up groundMOVEMENT TO SITEWHEELED CRANES- may have height as well as weight limitations-check over-bridges on the route-Clearance height below the travelling height of the craneCRAWLER CRANES –advance notice of movement of the crawler crane is given to the police- as well asindemnity to authorities.
  23. 23. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES12. OPERATING CONDITIONSRATED CAPACITITY-to prevent pendulum swinging of the load. Lifting a load, the hoist line should be plumb.Structrural failure can occur without warningMODE OF OPERATION AND CONTROLIDENTIFICATION OF CONTROLS AND DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT- Control should be marked toidentify the motion controlled and the direction lf movement. English or internationally agreed symbols. Beforeany LO:- Crane driver should be familiar with the controls and control layout- Ensure that rated capacity indicator/limiter is set to the configuration- Have a clear and unrestricted view of the load and operational area- assisted by slinger, singnaller- The lift can be carried out without causing damage- The loads and crane hoist ropes are clear of obstructions- Telephone, radio or closed-circuit television communication- If air or hydraulic systems are used – gauges function and correct pressuresThe crane safety devices NOT BE USED as a routine means of stopping the motionsTo avoid shock or side loadings on the jib or structureCRANE LEVEL- Can be made using the crane’s unladen hoist rope as a plumb line. Following sequence:- Maximum length of jib set at minimum radius, lower the hoist block without load- Slew the superstructure at right angles to he chassis- Observer the position of the suspended hook block- If the hook or hoist line appears in the middle of the jib foot- crane is level- Rotate the superstructure through 90º and reobserve the position of the hook- If the hook lies in the middle of the jib foot- crane is level all way roundCorrective action by appropriate adjustment of the outrigger jacks. (wind no affect)
  24. 24. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES12. OPERATING CONDITIONSTELESCOPIC JIB ALIGNMENT- deflectionOUTRIGGERS/STABILIZERS-GENERAL-hydraulically operated outriggers or stabilizers-enhances duties- to allow the erectionof longer jib combinations. Crawler cranes lose mobility. Rated capacity chart- details of duties ormobilityLIFTING USING OUTRIGGERS/STABILIZERS- beams extend to the position marked, tyres clearofany supporting surfaces.- Duty chartsPARTIALLY EXTENDED OUTRIGGERS- partial extension- marked- charts- May increase theloadingimposed by the outrigger jacks, extra packing should be used to spread the loading.LIFTING WITHOUT OUTRIGGERS- free on wheels- duties- if there is no alternative. Level andconditions of tyresPICK AND CARRY- Maximum speed of travel, load position, tyres and ground conditions. Swing-controled using hand lines
  26. 26. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES12. OPERATING CONDITIONSSPECIAL DUTIESGENERAL-attachments tested- certificated and clearly marked = rated capacity and weightGRABBING AND MAGNET CRANE SERVICESGENERAL-no fast slewing, grab suction effects, impacts, weight of grab, magnet (less weightscrane duty)GRABBING SERVICE- not use truck mounted cranes, all terrain cranes and rough terrain craneswith telescopic jibs (small factor of coefficients of utilization) . Use a double rope-operated grab.The weight of contents depends on the density of the material. Load is the weight of the grab andits contents.MAGNET SERVICE-The power to the magnet should not be switched on until the magnet islowered on to the load.No be used on hot metal. No use switched off (avoid too hot) and rest ona wooden platform-no on the ground.VACUUM LIFTING DEVICESGENERAL-Inspected- that sufficient suction can be maintained. Audible warning if the vacuumfallsto 80% or less or the designed working vacuum-and or ir the vacuum- inducing pump fails. Ifpump fails, sufficient vacuum is maintained to continue to support the load for the time required.Lift loads with a surface suitable for vacuum lifting padsUSE- Each vacuum pad support an equal part of the load- Contact surface of the load should be suspended horizontally- Surface of the load should be clear of any loose material- effective contactINSPECTION AND TEST-test load-be similar to the surface with most non-adhering texture onwhich the device is intended to be used. Inspect before use at the beginning of each day or shift(hoses, vacuum pads, waring device)
  27. 27. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES13. SLINGING AND HANDLING OF LOADSWEIGHT AND CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF THE LOADWEIGHT OF THE LOAD-determined by any of the following procedures:- Checks to see the weight is maked on the load (all parts)- Check the weight stated on any documentation- Look at a drawing of the load.- If the load is still on a trailer or truck use a weighbridge- Estimate the weight using tables of weights (BS 4-1 weight of rolledsteel sections)- estimated using densitiesIf the load is hollow, check if it contains anything.CENTRE OF GRAVITYGENERAL-it is the point at which the total weight of the load can be concentratedREGULARY SHAPED LOAD(S)-CG be estimated by measuring the midpoint in each directionCOMPLEX-SHAPED LOAD AND IRREGULARLY-the CG should be estimated for the various parts,and then combined to obtain a CG for the whole.(See ACoP fof SU of Lifting Equipment). Adjusted to ensurethat the load is evenly balanced for lifting, without toppling over.
  28. 28. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES13. SLINGING AND HANDLING OF LOADSLIFTING ACCESORIES-test certificate (6 moths), clearly marked, rated capacity and identification number.Visually inspected before each use. Storage. Slings are not knotted. If used to lift molten metal or slag- LA bederated by 50%. Checks withstand the working environment and protected from mechanical damage or otherhazards. Chains are not joined using bolts or wire. Correct pins are fitted if shackles are use. No drag alongtheground-chains or slings.HOOK AND HOOK BLOCKS-sufficient capacity for the load. Hook should either:- Have a safety catch or other efficient device to prevent displacement of the sling or load- Should be of a shape that minimizes risk of the sling or loadOnly one sling on any hook. Sling be attached to a ring, link or shackle.Hook can spin (a single fall of hoist rope), so take to disconnect the slings.SLINGING OPERATIONS- slingers- properly trained and authorized by appointed person. Lifting eyes shouldbe attached to the sling by shackles –at least the same capacity.Sling g should be protected-packing material to prevent contact with any sharp edges- cause damage.Initial raising- no slip of become fouled slings (tension increases),Before load is lifted- check for any out of balance, inclination in the hoist line (deflections). Hook remainsdirectly over the CG.Slinger/signallers should be positioned in a safe area during the LO.WEB BELT SLINGS- checked carefully each time before attachment to and after removal from the load.No use with signs of cuts or fraying in the fabric.USE OF HAND LINES-use it there is a possibility that the load could come into contact with any other object. Asingle hand line normally be sufficient. Only manual application- not by belaying the line round a fixed point.
  29. 29. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANES14. CURRENT LEGISLATIONFollowing legislation currently applies to use of mobile cranes:- The Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act 1974;- The Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 1992, plus amendments- Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (plus code of practice plus HSE guidance);- The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994;- The Construction (Health Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996;- The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (plus approved code of practice);- The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (plus code of practice plus HSE guidance);- The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 (plus approved code of practice);- The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (plus code of practice plus HSE guidance);- The Personnel Protective Equipment Regulations 1992;- The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995;- Docks Regulations 1988;- The Noise at Work Regulations 1989;- The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 (plus code of practice plus HSE guidance);- Road Traffic Act 1962;- The Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations 1986.
  30. 30. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANESANNEX A: PILLING OPERATIONSHYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT-for driving or extracting piles- usully includes hoses, oilDRIVING PILES-prior deciding which type mobile crane (steel sheet and load-bearing pile):- Impacts or dangerous vibrations should not be transmitted from the driving device to the crane- If driving devices remain attached to the crane hook by a sling- should be of sufficient length toaccommodate the speed of driving-- Crane driver should be experienced in pile driving operations- ground characterists- Strut jib crane are most suitable for pile driving operations (deflections-telescopic jib cranes)(If precast piles are used- drop hammer attached to the jib- not cover by this code)EXTRACTING PILES- Telescopic jib crane NOT BE USED. Determinated and an estimation made of theresistance to extraction.. Crane supervisor be trained and experience in pile extractiong. Crane driver NOexceed the load . Welds, ropes,fixing, sheaves, etc should be inspected once per week
  31. 31. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANESANNEX B: DEMOLITION AND BALLING OPERATIONSGENERAL-no telescopic jib (impact-damage the jib). No push over walls or othe structures.A round or pear-shaped weight is suspended from the hoist rope-strike-structure,impact- break. Dinamic loadingare imposed on crane.The weight of the ball NO exceed capacity (max. 50 %)A rope from the second drum should be attached- to prevent- increase radius- overloadingA tyre is used to minimize shock transfer to the craneJib angle no exceed 60º from horizontal.Level groundVERTICAL DROP BALLING-ball raise a short distance, held by the hoist brake, and allowed to fall until the objectis struck. Brake avoid – while ball is moving- structural damage or overturning of the crane. Point of impact(bounced off). Sequence:- Number of heavy impacts are made- to cause cracking of the object- Number of lighter impacts are then made, until part of the object is broken- Heavy impacts are made to another part of the structure, etcSWINGING THE BALL IN LINE WITH THE JIB-additional rope from a second drum is attached to the ball.. Pullingrope – ball to swing outwards- plane of jib- strike the object.SWINGING THE BALL BY SLEWING- ball is suspended 3m or more below the jib head. Slew motion-ball toswingin an arc- strike object. Stop slew motion- and slew brake applied. A second rope use to prevent the ball swingingout of the safe radius. Torsional loadings- jib. The actual strain depends on a numbers of factors:-length of the jib and the operating radius-distance of the ball below the jib head-rate of acceleration of slewing motion-speed of the ball at impact and resistance of the object-position of the jib head to the ball when strikes the object-rate of checking slewing motion-weight of the ball
  32. 32. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANESANNEX C: DISMANTLING OPERATIONSGENERAL- Appointed person- ensure properly planned. Original drawings for the structure- andschedule of individual loads. Details of weights and dimension each load- to select crane,ancillariy equipment and pesonnel.A minimum allowance of 20% should be added to the weight of the load (deposit). Inspection ofthe structure an analysis of effects of corrosion.Dynamic effects could occur from movement of fluid- crane selection.No authenticated iinformation- make accurate calculations for the weight of each part.Ensure that all loads are free from adhesion to any supporting surface prior to liftingThe appointed person should ensure that the crane has a rated capacitity of twice the calculatedweight of theobject to be freed.
  33. 33. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANESANNEX D: LIFTING PERSONSGENERAL-careful planning-prior each raising and lowering operation in accodance LOLERCARRIER- devices that supports persons during lifting and lowering. Application:construction, forestry, rescueCOMPATIBILITY OF CARRIER AND CRANECAPACITY-crane have at least twice the minimum rated capacityMOTION CONTROL SYSTEM-motion to rest automatically. Free-fall is locked out. Hydraulic cylinder- stop movement in case of hose rupture orpipe facture.Maximum working speed of the carrier- of 0.5m/s on all motionsROPES diameter at least 8mmHOOK-with safety catchOTHER DEVICESANEMOMETER-to monitor in-service wind speedsSTORAGE-including emergency egress equipment, safety harness lanyard-carrierRATED CAPACITY LIMITER/RATED CAPACITY INDICATOR-prevent over-hoisting, over-lowering, or over-derricking. Hoist rope remains onthe winch drum to prevent the end of the rope running off the drum. Ensure sufficient rope remains on the drum at all times. Limitswitches, checks valves and similar devices-prevent motions-carrierUSEORGANIZATIONAL REQUIREMENTS-Lifting, lowering and supporting the carrier- controlled by appointed signallerCrane driver always be present.Visible and audible communication between persons in the carrier and the crane driver all times during LOA person should be present to perform any emergency recovery procedureCrane driver, signaller- not perform other work at the same time.Machines should not operate simultaneously in the same place- risk collisionAll movement not exceed 0.5 m/s.Load lifting attachments for carriers should not be use for any other purpose.No use carrier: - Wind exceeding 7 m/s (25 km/h) - Electrical storms- Snow or ice - Fog- Sleet of other weather conditions that could affect the safety of personnelPrevent unintentional rotation of the carrier (by using guide rope or anchoring)Carrier no be occupied while the crane is travellingThe crane, load lifting attachment and carrier should be inspected every day during usePERSONNEL- Payload of the carrier should not be exceeded. Stability-carrier-no affect.Fasten safety harness onto the personnel baskets if the carrier could tip upSecure to prevent displacemnt, tipping and/or falling outPersonnel inside the carrier- no stantd on or work from any handrail, intermediate rail or toe board of the carrierAccess and egress –secure without dangerWORK FROM A CARRIER- Safe working distances from electrical conductors. If electrical are welding is carried out from acarrier- precautions to prevent stray welding return. HS(G)118
  34. 34. BS 7121-3 MOBILE CRANESANNEX E: DYNAMIC COMPACTIONANNEX E. DYNAMIC COMPACTION- take into account the very high adverse loads in thecranestructure.Fatigue failures an other problems are minimized.