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The Importance of Expectation-  Perception Fit for Leadership  Effectiveness across CulturesRegina Eckert, Center for Crea...
Implicit Leadership Theories Implicit leadership theory (ILT; Lord & Maher, 1991) • Individuals have deeply embedded assum...
Culturally-endorsed leadership theories GLOBE (House et al.,2004; Chhokar, Brodbeck & House, 2007): • Cultures differ in t...
Open question around CLT’s and Leader Effectiveness Little research on the underlying psychological mechanisms and cross-c...
MethodDevelopment and validation of a 360-degree feedback tool “Global LeaderView” measuring leadership expectations (in a...
MethodData from 502 Direct Report raters (subordinates) from 64 countries, rating159 managersIV: Expectations and percepti...
Results: Universal leadership dimensions                                                                      P=E         ...
Results                                      P=E                                                                          ...
Implications Implication for theory: • The classic fit hypothesis of ILT seems to hold only for dimensions that are    cul...
Thank you!2011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved.   10
2011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved.   11
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The Importance of Expectation- Perception Fit for Leadership Effectiveness across Cultures

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Exploring the importance of leaders\' behavior fitting the expectations that their direct reports have of what constitutes "outstanding leadership". Presentation held at EAWOP conference, May 2011, Maastricht.

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The Importance of Expectation- Perception Fit for Leadership Effectiveness across Cultures

  1. 1. The Importance of Expectation- Perception Fit for Leadership Effectiveness across CulturesRegina Eckert, Center for Creative LeadershipFelix C Brodbeck, Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universitaet, MuenchenMarian N. Ruderman, Center for Creative LeadershipWilliam A. Gentry, Center for Creative LeadershipPhilip Braddy, Center for Creative Leadership 2011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Implicit Leadership Theories Implicit leadership theory (ILT; Lord & Maher, 1991) • Individuals have deeply embedded assumptions (ILT’s/prototypes/schemata/expectations) as to what characterizes outstanding (good/effective) leaders. • People use ILTs to understand and recognize leadership in others. Thus, leadership effectiveness emerges from the fit between what others expect of an (effective) leader and the perception they have of the occupant of a leadership position. Empirical Evidence: • Leadership expectation-by-perception fit relates to perceptions of leadership performance (e.g., Epitropaki & Martin, 2005; Offermann, Kennedy, & Wirtz, 1994) 22011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved. 2
  3. 3. Culturally-endorsed leadership theories GLOBE (House et al.,2004; Chhokar, Brodbeck & House, 2007): • Cultures differ in terms of the values they hold • Societal values are reflected in the expectations that people in different cultures have of effective leaders. • Some elements of leadership expectations (charismatic + team-oriented) are strongly endorsed across all cultures  “universal”; some others are culturally contingent  “culture-specific”. But how do these cultural differences play out for leader effectiveness? 32011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved. 3
  4. 4. Open question around CLT’s and Leader Effectiveness Little research on the underlying psychological mechanisms and cross-cultural variation of the theoretically postulated “fit” effects. Various questions in this area need to be addressed: 1. Is perfect congruence always desired, or would it be beneficial to exceed expectations on some dimensions of leadership? 2. What is the impact of not meeting expectations on leader effectiveness? Is it the same for universal and culturally-endorsed dimensions? 3. Do postulated fit effects hold up in the same way for culturally-universal as compared to culture-specific dimensions of ILTs, or are they of a different type? Recent progress with polynomial regression and response surface analysis (RSA; Edwards, 2007) has opened an avenue for studying questions about fit in a scientifically sound way. 42011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved. 4
  5. 5. MethodDevelopment and validation of a 360-degree feedback tool “Global LeaderView” measuring leadership expectations (in analogy to GLOBE) andperceptions of a target leader CFA FOR GLOBAL LEADER VIEW Expectations (n=1813) Perceptions (n=1808) χ2(5,362) = 2169, χ2(5,362) = 2154, Chi-square p<.001 p<.001 Confirmatory Fit Index CFI = .93 CFI = .93 RMSEA RMSEA = .05 RMSEA = .05 Standardized RMR SRMR = .04 SRMR = .04 52011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved. 5
  6. 6. MethodData from 502 Direct Report raters (subordinates) from 64 countries, rating159 managersIV: Expectations and perception ratings on 4 dimensions of leadership: - Charismatic (universal) - Team-oriented (universal) - Hierarchical (culture-specific) - Autonomous (culture-specific)DV: Leader effectiveness ratingsAnalysis: Polynomial regression with response-surface analysis 62011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved. 6
  7. 7. Results: Universal leadership dimensions P=E P=E Perceptions of actual performance are a better predictor of leadership effectiveness than expectation-by-perception fit (or expectations alone). 72011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved. 7
  8. 8. Results P=E P=E P>E P>E E>P E>P Leadership effectiveness is rated highest when fit is maximal. Discrepancies in either direction are negatively associated with effectiveness2011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved. 8
  9. 9. Implications Implication for theory: • The classic fit hypothesis of ILT seems to hold only for dimensions that are culturally contingent, not for those that are universally endorsed Implications for practice: • Good cross-cultural leadership is a mix of being charismatic and team- oriented and responding to others’ expectations • Confirms that there’s no cook-book style of global leadership Implications for future research: • Longitudinal research needed to enable causal relationships • Multilevel research to examine specific impact of cultural values on these relationships (need method for this…)2011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved. 9
  10. 10. Thank you!2011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. 2011 Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved. 11

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