Nature and Scope of
Cooperative Education
Cooperative Education Definition
Program of occupational education for persons who,
through written cooperative agreement...
Cooperative Education Characteristics
Prepare students for realities of work
Help them adjust and make transition from s...
Cooperative Education Characteristics
Opportunity for employers to assist in training – for
themselves and for the occupa...
Cooperative Education Characteristics
Logical approach for pre-employment program designed to
break poverty cycle of some...
Work-Based Career Education Plans
Cooperative Education—Used in agriculture; business,
marketing, and management; health,...
Work-Based Career Education Plans
Work Experience and Career Exploration Program
(WECEP)—For 14- and 15-year-old at-risk ...
Work-Based Career Education Plans
Cooperative Work Training - Designed to give students
work experience without specific ...
Non-cooperative Work Programs
Work Observation
Observes different work for few weeks
Not paid
May or may not be tied t...
HISTORY
History of Cooperative Education
1906 - Started at University of Cincinnati in engineering
1909 - HS cooperative educati...
History of Cooperative Education
1911 – Experimental HS program established in York,
Pennsylvania
1912 – First retail co...
History of Cooperative Education
1917 - Smith-Hughes Act
Provided $7 million for vocational education in agriculture,
tr...
History of Cooperative Education
1934 - George-Ellzey Act
Replaced previous legislation.
Authorized an appropriation of...
History of Cooperative Education
1946 - George-Barden Act
Authorized larger appropriation ($29 million) for voc ed in
ag...
History of Cooperative Education
1958 - National Defense Education Act
Funded technical occupations necessary to nationa...
History of Cooperative Education
1963 - Vocational Education Act
Maintained, extended, and improved existing programs
P...
History of Cooperative Education
1973 - Comprehensive Employment Training Act
Replaced Manpower Development Training Act...
History of Cooperative Education
1982 - Job Training Partnership Act
Establish programs to prepare youth and unskilled a...
History of Cooperative Education
1984 - Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act
Expanded and enlarged existing programs...
History of Cooperative Education
1990 - Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology
Education Act
Emphasized:
Int...
History of Cooperative Education
1994 - School-to-Work Opportunities Act
Addressed national skills shortage
Emphasized ...
History of Cooperative Education
1998 - Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education
Act
Encourage career and tech...
History of Cooperative Education
Each year, the appropriation is in jeopardy and
career and technical educators fight for...
LEGAL BASES
Teacher-Coordinator Qualifications
Valid teaching certificate
24 hours in area of specialization including a methods cou...
Number of Members
Not more than 12, including ex-officio school members
Small committees typically meet more often and a...
Duties of Members
• Chairperson - Should be a community member who will
work closely with coordinator to plan and who will...
Duties of Members
Secretary - Usually furnished by school and is not a member
of committee
Takes minutes and works with ...
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
TYPES OF COOPERATIVE
EDUCATION
Types of Cooperative Education
Internships – Work experience required in professional
degree programs; for post-secondary...
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  • Cooperative education links work experiences, that are described in a written training memorandum, with related instruction provided by the local education agency (LEA). The classroom and work portions of the cooperative plan are jointly planned and supervised by qualified personnel from the educational agency and the employment community to assure maximum career development for participating students.
  • Designed for 11 th and 12 th grade students who are interested in pursuing careers in the particular occupational field. Students hold part-time jobs and participate in at least 200 minutes per week of related classroom instruction. Classroom instruction focuses on providing students with job survival and career exploration skills related to the job and on improving their ability to interact positively with others. Job related instruction is determined by a verified task list for the particular occupational area being studied. Coordinator is required to meet the content area specifications.
  • WECEP – Intent of program is to help academically disadvantaged students increase self-esteem, explore career options, develop a positive attitude toward work, gain entry level skills, and continue in school after the age of 16. In-school instruction of at least 200 minutes per week is required, and students are not allowed to work on the job for more than 23 hours per week. Special Ed Job placement is in the community or at the school for specific work experiences for a maximum of 2-3 hours daily. In-school job training sites are designed to allow students to acquire appropriate attitudes and habits necessary to be successfully employed. The community job site placements are based upon the strengths and weaknesses of the students. Jobs are selected which are challenging and allow the students to achieve at the highest possible level of performance.
  • CWT – Not associated with any specific occupational area Provides 11 th & 12 th graders with part-time employment that may not be related to long-range occupational goals Primarily designed to serve students who are disadvantaged, potential school dropouts, or identified as having special needs. Specific career objectives may be delayed to allow for social and emotional adjustments, career exploration, and development of self-awareness. Teacher-coordinator must be qualified in any one of the five areas and provides at least 200 minutes per week of related instruction Interrelated – for districts with limited enrollment and/or limited community resources Coordinator is qualified in any one of the five occupational areas Place students in all areas and provides related instruction for all students enrolled Apprenticeships – utilizes a skilled technician or craftsperson to help instruct apprentices Requires trainee to be employed by an employer who has a direct need for workers in the occupation for which training is being given Must be sponsored by an employer, group of employers, or employer-associated entity For occupations that do not require a college degree but do require both considerable skill and knowledge
  • While at Lehigh University at the beginning of the 20 th Century, Herman Schneider concluded that the traditional classroom was insufficient for technical students. He was an engineer, architect, and educator. He observed that several of the more successful Lehigh graduates had worked to earn money prior to graduation. About the time he gather his data through interviews, Carnegie Technical School (now Carnegie Mellon University) opened and minimized the need for Schneider’s co-op plan in that region. In 1903 he began working at the University of Cincinnati and in 1906 was allowed to implement his plan for one year. Following that experimental year, the University of Cincinnati gave him full permission for the co-op program.
  • Smith-Hughes – First real impetus for vocational education, provided annual grant of approximately $7.2 million for the promotion of vocational education in ag, trade and industry, and home ec education.
  • Licensure – For those occupations in which employment or preparation is regulated by law or licensure, compliance with those laws is required. Cosmetology
  • The chief administrative officer should officially invite members to participate and describe the parameters of their duties. The chairperson of the steering committee should be elected from the membership.
  • Cooperative educationfinal

    1. 1. Nature and Scope of Cooperative Education
    2. 2. Cooperative Education Definition Program of occupational education for persons who, through written cooperative agreements between school and employers, receive instruction, including required academic courses and related classroom instruction by alternation of study in school with a job in any occupational field Experiences planned and supervised by school
    3. 3. Cooperative Education Characteristics Prepare students for realities of work Help them adjust and make transition from school to work Planned career development program, designed at a minimum to produce entry-level competence
    4. 4. Cooperative Education Characteristics Opportunity for employers to assist in training – for themselves and for the occupational world Method whereby instructors of in-school occupational courses can get feedback from potential employers of trainees
    5. 5. Cooperative Education Characteristics Logical approach for pre-employment program designed to break poverty cycle of some youth Means of providing realistic opportunities to apply and test skills and knowledge learning in school
    6. 6. Work-Based Career Education Plans Cooperative Education—Used in agriculture; business, marketing, and management; health, and technology Agricultural Cooperative Education (ACE) Cooperative Office Occupations (OO) Cooperative Marketing Occupations (MO) Health Occupations (HO) Home Economics and Related Occupations (HERO) Industrial Cooperative Education (ICE)
    7. 7. Work-Based Career Education Plans Work Experience and Career Exploration Program (WECEP)—For 14- and 15-year-old at-risk students Special Education Coop—Allows special education students to acquire marketable skills and knowledge in an occupation
    8. 8. Work-Based Career Education Plans Cooperative Work Training - Designed to give students work experience without specific career direction Interrelated Cooperative Education - All career areas are included in same related class and are coordinated by one coordinator Apprenticeship - Entry level employment training toward a career in cooperation with a labor union
    9. 9. Non-cooperative Work Programs Work Observation Observes different work for few weeks Not paid May or may not be tied to a class Work Exploration Briefly try out number of jobs General Work Experience No related class and limited school supervision
    10. 10. HISTORY
    11. 11. History of Cooperative Education 1906 - Started at University of Cincinnati in engineering 1909 - HS cooperative education program started in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, in cooperation with General Electric 1910 – HS cooperative courses established in Cincinnati public schools
    12. 12. History of Cooperative Education 1911 – Experimental HS program established in York, Pennsylvania 1912 – First retail cooperative training program in Boston HS 1914 – Cooperative instruction established in Dayton Cooperative High School 1915 – Programs established in ten New York City schools
    13. 13. History of Cooperative Education 1917 - Smith-Hughes Act Provided $7 million for vocational education in agriculture, trades and industry, home economics, and teacher training 1929 - George-Reed Act Authorized an increase of $1 million annually for four years to expand voc ed in agriculture and home economics
    14. 14. History of Cooperative Education 1934 - George-Ellzey Act Replaced previous legislation. Authorized an appropriation of $3 million annually for three years for agriculture, home economics, and trades and industry 1936 - George-Deen Act Authorized, on a continuing basis, an annual appropriation of $14 million for the previous three occupations, but added distributive occupations (marketing)
    15. 15. History of Cooperative Education 1946 - George-Barden Act Authorized larger appropriation ($29 million) for voc ed in agriculture, home economics, trades and industry, and distributive occupations 1956 - George-Barden Amendments Added practical nursing Added fishery occupations
    16. 16. History of Cooperative Education 1958 - National Defense Education Act Funded technical occupations necessary to national defense Response to Sputnik I 1962 - Manpower Development Training Act Eased dislocated workers Assisted economically disadvantaged
    17. 17. History of Cooperative Education 1963 - Vocational Education Act Maintained, extended, and improved existing programs Provided instruction so persons of all ages would have access to vocational training. Added business education 1968 – Vocational Education Amendments Mandated programs for disadvantaged and handicapped Provided consumer homemaking by contract
    18. 18. History of Cooperative Education 1973 - Comprehensive Employment Training Act Replaced Manpower Development Training Act Transferred decision making from DC to local and state governments 1976 - Vocational Education Amendments Extend, improve, and maintain existing programs Develop new programs Develop programs to overcome sex discrimination and stereotyping
    19. 19. History of Cooperative Education 1982 - Job Training Partnership Act Establish programs to prepare youth and unskilled adults for entry into labor force Afford job training to economically disadvantaged facing critical barriers to employment
    20. 20. History of Cooperative Education 1984 - Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act Expanded and enlarged existing programs and programmatic opportunities Economic goal – improve skills of labor force and prepare adults for job opportunities Social goal – provide equal opportunities for adults in vocational education Switched from expanding programs to improving programs and addressing at-risk populations
    21. 21. History of Cooperative Education 1990 - Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act Emphasized: Integration of academic and vocational education Articulation between segments of education Closer linkages between school and work Requires states to develop systems of performance measures and standards
    22. 22. History of Cooperative Education 1994 - School-to-Work Opportunities Act Addressed national skills shortage Emphasized preparing students with knowledge, skills, abilities and information about occupations and labor market to help make transition from school to employment Elements included: collaborative partnerships, integrated curriculum, technological advances, adaptable workers, career guidance, work-based learning
    23. 23. History of Cooperative Education 1998 - Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act Encourage career and technical education reform, innovation, and improvement Tech prep was reauthorized Strengthen academic, vocational, and technical skills Provide students with strong experience in and understanding all aspects of an industry Develop, expand, or improve use of technology New accountability measures - performance
    24. 24. History of Cooperative Education Each year, the appropriation is in jeopardy and career and technical educators fight for their existence.
    25. 25. LEGAL BASES
    26. 26. Teacher-Coordinator Qualifications Valid teaching certificate 24 hours in area of specialization including a methods course 2,000 hours work experience in related occupation Licensure, if required by law Six semester hours of CE coursework
    27. 27. Number of Members Not more than 12, including ex-officio school members Small committees typically meet more often and accomplish more work Some members may serve on general and occupational advisory committees
    28. 28. Duties of Members • Chairperson - Should be a community member who will work closely with coordinator to plan and who will conduct effective meetings • Vice-Chairperson - Should work closely with chair so that he/she can take over in absence of chair
    29. 29. Duties of Members Secretary - Usually furnished by school and is not a member of committee Takes minutes and works with coordinator to disseminate minutes Performs other duties to assist chair, vice chair, and coordinator
    30. 30. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
    31. 31. TYPES OF COOPERATIVE EDUCATION
    32. 32. Types of Cooperative Education Internships – Work experience required in professional degree programs; for post-secondary programs Job shadowing – School-sponsored and supervised program in which students are placed with one or more employers for short period of time; secondary and post-secondary students

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