Navejar Infancy

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  • Shaffer, D.R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental psychology: childhood & adolescence . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Shaffer, D.R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental psychology: childhood & adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Shaffer, D.R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental psychology: childhood & adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A2wYLo0nET4
  • Navejar Infancy

    1. 1. Human Development: Infancy<br />Bridget Nolan, KatherineSprague &<br />Regina Navejar<br />
    2. 2. Infancy Learning Objectives<br />Students will become familiar with two of the four basic learning processes in infancy. <br />You will know you have learned the processes if you can explain and teach to another student: <br />Learning (the big picture) <br />Operant conditioning (cool operator) <br />Observational learning (I see, I learn) <br />You will learn these two learning processes by: <br />Reviewing the terms (look for the terms) <br />Observing two videos and looking for the features of operant conditioning and observational learning<br />Summarizing what you’ve learning to a classmate <br />
    3. 3. Basic Learning Processes in <br />Infancy <br />I can think, perceive, or react to my environment in a new way.<br />Through my experiences—repetition, study, practice and observations, I can learn. <br />Learning<br />What I’ve really learned, I won’t forget. If I do, then I didn’t really “learn” it. <br />Shaffer, D.R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental psychology: childhood & adolescence . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.<br />
    4. 4. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development<br />Sensorimotor Stage- <br />Birth to age 2<br />Puckett, M.B. , & Black, J.K. . (2007). Understanding infant behavior. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.<br />
    5. 5. Operant Conditioning“Cool Operator” and the learning process<br />Operant Conditioning <br />Learner first emits a response<br />Associates this action with the pleasant or unpleasant consequences it produces. <br />Memory (Hayne & Rovee-Collier, 1995) <br />The length of time an infant is able to recognize and recall a previously learned task increases according to age (2 month old infants- 3 days vs. 3 month old infants- 1 week) <br />Reminders helped infants<br />Context-dependant<br />Social Significance of Early Operant Conditioning <br />Infant action<br />Seeks positive reaction from caring adult<br />Example- smiling infant (action) receives a positive reaction from an adult who smiles in return (reaction) <br />Shaffer, D.R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental psychology: childhood & adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.<br />
    6. 6. Operant conditioning“Cool Operator” <br />Response-<br />Consequence-<br />Result-<br />Piaget: Secondary Circular Motions (4-10 Months) <br />Intentionally repeats behaviors or enjoyable actions<br />Operant Conditioning: <br />Infant repeats action to favorable response<br />Click on black screen<br />If you can not view it on this PowerPoint, please go to the YouTube video<br />Puckett, M.B. , & Black, J.K. . (2007). Understanding infant behavior. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.<br />
    7. 7. Observational Learning“I see, I learn”<br />Learning that results from observing the behavior of others<br />Cognitive form of observational learning: <br />Observer attends carefully to the model<br />Constructs symbolic representations (images or verbal summaries of the model’s behavior) <br />Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (pg 49)<br />Observational Learning<br />Attention- the learner observes <br />Retention- retain by creating symbolic representations<br />Reproduction- converts images into action<br />Motivation- reinforcement or punishment <br />Deferred Imitation<br />Intentionally repeats behaviors: secondary circular reactions and coordination of secondary schemes- 8-12 months (Piaget, 1951) <br />By age 9 months, some infants can imitate very simple acts up to 24 hours after they first observe them (Meltzoff, 1988c) <br />Shaffer, D.R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental psychology: childhood & adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.<br />
    8. 8. Observational Learning“I see, I learn” <br />Albert Bandura<br />Attention- the learner observes <br />Retention- retain by creating symbolic representations<br />Reproduction- converts images into action<br />Motivation- reinforcement or punishment<br />Jean Piaget<br />Coordination of Secondary Schemes (10-12 months): <br />Applies previously learned behaviors and activities to new situations; copying behaviors begin<br />Observational Activity<br />Is the learner paying attention to the model? <br />Did the learner reproduce image into action? <br />What appears to be the motivation of the learner? <br />Click on black screen<br />Go to YouTube to view if you’re not able to see it here. <br />Puckett, M.B. , & Black, J.K. . (2007). Understanding infant behavior. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.<br />

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