Chapter 10.1: Mixtures, Solubility, & Acid/Base Solutions

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Grade 8 Integrated Science Chapter 10 Lesson 1 on mixtures, solubility, and acid/base solutions. Understanding concentration, solubility, and what affects both.

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Chapter 10.1: Mixtures, Solubility, & Acid/Base Solutions

  1. 1. Mixtures, Solubility, and Acid/Base Solutions Chapter 10.1 p 334-340
  2. 2. Substances • A substance is matter that is always made up of the same combination of atom. • There are 2 types of substances – Elements* • *Only made up of one atom – Compounds • A compound is matter made of atoms of 2 or more elements chemically bonded together • Because the composition of elements and compounds do not change, all elements and compounds are substances
  3. 3. Mixture • A mixture is two or more substances that are physically blended but are not chemically bonded together. – *The amount of each substance in a mixture can vary. (Unlike atoms in a compound)
  4. 4. Mixtures • Granite – A type of rock – Composition of different rocks • Air – Doesn’t look like a mixture – 78% nitrogen – 21% oxygen – 1% other substances
  5. 5. 2 Types of Mixtures • Heterogeneous Mixture – Heterogeneous = diverse • Homogeneous Mixture – Solutions – Homogeneous = of the same kind; alike
  6. 6. Heterogeneous Mixture • A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture in which substances are not even mixed. – Example: • Granite is a heterogeneous mixture. It is not evenly mixed. • Often, you can see the different substances and parts of a heterogeneous mixture with unaided eyes, but sometimes you need a microscope. – Example: • Blood is a heterogeneous mixture. • It looks evenly mixed, but with a microscope you can easily see areas with more of one component and less of another. • Heterogeneous mixture can be hard to tell.
  7. 7. Which of the following diagrams shows a heterogeneous mixture?
  8. 8. Solution – Homogeneous Mixtures • Many mixtures look evenly mixed even when you view them with a powerful microscope. • These mixtures are homogeneous • A homogeneous mixture is a mixture in which two or more substances are evenly mixed on the atomic level but not bonded together. – The mixture looks evenly mixed because the individual atoms and compounds are too small to see
  9. 9. Solution • *Another name for a homogeneous mixture is a solution. • Air is a solution. Soda is also a solution. • Heterogeneous mixture can be hard to tell.
  10. 10. How do compounds and mixtures differ? • There are 2 important differences between compounds and mixtures – Substances in a mixture keep their properties because they are not chemically changed • Salt water is a mixture. You can’t see the salt, but you can taste it in the water. • In contrast, sodium and chlorine bond to form table salt. – Sodium is a soft, opaque, silvery metal – Chlorine is a greenish, poisonous gas – Salt has none of these properties
  11. 11. – Mixtures can be separated • Because substances in mixtures are not bonded, they can be separated using physical methods – For example you can boil the water out of salt water – The physical properties of one substance will differ from the other, so they can be physically separated • In contrast, compounds can only be separated by chemical change that breaks the bonds between the elements. – Look at the figure on page 339
  12. 12. Distillation of Salt Water

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