Islam Muslims


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Islam Muslims

  1. 1. ISLAM - MUSLIMS "Righteous is he who believes in Allah and the Last Day and the Angels and the Scriptures and the Prophets." -- Qur'an 2:177
  2. 2. Islam- Submission to Allah <ul><li>Islam is a monotheistic religion based on revelations received by the Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century </li></ul><ul><li>Qur'an (Koran), Islam's sacred text </li></ul><ul><li>today Islam is the second largest religion in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic word Islam means &quot;submission,&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Five Pillars of Islam: faith, prayer, fasting, pilgrimage and alms </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Arabian Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic People who lived in the desert </li></ul><ul><li>Arab means desert dweller </li></ul><ul><li>around the fifth century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Mecca, west coast of Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Site of Ka’ba dedicated to many deities </li></ul><ul><li>Jinn was the name for Spirits </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabs were mostly polytheists </li></ul>Islam- Submission to Allah
  4. 4. Islam – submission to Allah! <ul><li>Mecca soon became the religious center of the Arabic World </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage would be frequent every day according to the god worshiped to come and give sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants would make a rich living out of these pilgrims </li></ul><ul><li>Religion was only focused on protection not accountability, Religion was not a source of morality in these days </li></ul><ul><li>Among all these gods, Allah was considered as the highest god. </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs had contact with Many Christians in the desert. But Christianity was not heavily practiced by the Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism and Christianity was recognized </li></ul>
  5. 5. Islam – Submission to Allah <ul><li>Yathrib which was later renamed Medina </li></ul><ul><li>Jews had a great influence </li></ul><ul><li>Allah (Arabic for &quot;the god&quot;) was the creator, provider and determiner of human destiny </li></ul><ul><li>regarded as the greatest among the many gods </li></ul><ul><li>It was into a world of polytheism that Islam was born </li></ul><ul><li>It all started with a man named Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Who Was Muhammad? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Islam – Submission to Allah <ul><li>Muhammad whose name means &quot;highly praised“ </li></ul><ul><li>born in Mecca in 570 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Orphan at the age of six </li></ul><ul><li>His father died before his birth, his mom passed when he was six </li></ul><ul><li>He was raised by his uncle </li></ul><ul><li>He worked as a shepherd to earn a living at his young age </li></ul><ul><li>He became later a caravan driver and keeper </li></ul><ul><li>He was employed by a wealthy widow named Khadija </li></ul><ul><li>She was about 15 years older than he was </li></ul><ul><li>They got involved and got married. </li></ul><ul><li>He lived a good life, thanks to his wife riches </li></ul><ul><li>They were married for 24 years until her death </li></ul><ul><li>He remained monogamous while he was with her although polygamy was practiced in these days </li></ul>
  7. 7. Muhammed (or Muhammad) <ul><li>In his 30s, he loved to take some time in the caves to meditate </li></ul><ul><li>At 40 years old, he claimed to have received a revelation from god (Allah) </li></ul><ul><li>His wife became his first follower </li></ul><ul><li>He said Angel Gabriel came to him and said Proclaim and he was reluctant at first </li></ul><ul><li>Proclaim in the name of your Lord who created! Created man from a clot of blood. Proclaim: Your Lord is the Most Generous, Who teaches by the pen; Teaches man what he knew not. (Qur'an 96:1-3) </li></ul><ul><li>He claimed to have received many other revelations for God and angels </li></ul><ul><li>He was preaching against pagan polytheism, immorality and materialism, repentance from evil and worship of Allah, the only true God </li></ul>
  8. 8. Muhammed <ul><li>He became a threat to the way of life in Mecca and he was trouble for the economy </li></ul><ul><li>He and his followers were persecuted heavily </li></ul><ul><li>He gained only a few followers in the first three years </li></ul><ul><li>His followers were were stoned, covered in dirt as they prayed, beat with sticks, thrown into prison and refused service by merchants.   </li></ul><ul><li>They fled from Mecca and sought refuge in another city baptized Medinat al-Nabi (Medina)(meaning city of the prophet) previously called Yathrib </li></ul><ul><li>This event is remembered by the Islams as Hijira </li></ul><ul><li>His popularity grew in that city and he became its leader and statesman (political individual) </li></ul><ul><li>Many came from various venues to see the way that he changed life in Medina, to explore the skills as politician </li></ul>
  9. 9. Muhammad <ul><li>After being established in Medina, the prophet will make many conquest in the Arabian World, starting with Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>In every city, after conquest, the muslims will dedicate the temples to Allah only to cease “idolatry” </li></ul><ul><li>Mecca was taken in 630 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad conquered nearly all of Arabia for Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad died in 632 (of natural causes according to report) </li></ul><ul><li>Islam reached the Atlantic as well as the Chinese borders, within 100 years of Muhammad’s death; thanks to the great military abilities of his successors </li></ul><ul><li>They were called the “Caliphs” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Beliefs of a Muslim <ul><li>Six Articles of Faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One God; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The angels of God; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The books of God, especially the Qur'an; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The prophets of God, especially Muhammad; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Day of Judgment (or the afterlife); and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The supremacy of God's will (or predestination). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Qur'an 2:255 <ul><li>&quot;Allah. There is no god but He, the Living, the Self-subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. His are all things in the heavens and on earth. Who is there can intercede in His presence except as He permitted? ... His Throne doth extend over the heavens and the earth, and He feeleth no fatigue in guarding and preserving them for He is the Most High, the Supreme in glory.&quot; </li></ul>
  12. 12. God <ul><li>Most important and central theme of Islam is that God is ONE! </li></ul><ul><li>(The –Al) (God- Ilah) (Al-Ilah) Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Related to Elohim (in Hebrew) </li></ul><ul><li>( Asma al-Husna ) 99 beautiful names of God </li></ul><ul><li>the Creator, the Fashioner, the Life-Giver, the Provider, the Opener, the Bestower, the Prevailer, the Reckoner, the Recorder, the King of Kingship and the Lord of the Worlds. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>God is unknowable </li></ul><ul><li>All they know about God is His will and they know it perfectly in the Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>The Qur'an repeatedly emphasizes strict monotheism, explicitly rejecting both polytheism and the Christian concept of the Trinity (Qur'an 4:169 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Allah is a God or righteousness </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;If ye love Allah, follow me; Allah will love and forgive you your sins.&quot; (Qur'an 3:31) &quot;Allah loves not transgressors&quot; (2:190) &quot;He loves not creatures ungrateful or wicked&quot; (2:276) &quot;Allah loves not those who do wrong&quot; (3:57, 140) &quot;Allah loves not the arrogant, the vainglorious&quot; (4:36). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Angels <ul><li>Muslims believe that angels are creatures of light </li></ul><ul><li>God created them from light </li></ul><ul><li>They carry out God’s commandments in nature and the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Every act of nature has angels behind it </li></ul><ul><li>They live in a world beyond our perception </li></ul><ul><li>alam al-ghayb </li></ul>
  15. 15. Angels <ul><li>Arabic word for angels is Malak </li></ul><ul><li>It means messenger </li></ul><ul><li>Angel Gabriel or Jibreel was the messenger to Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>That same angel led him in the night of Ascension (Al Miraj) </li></ul><ul><li>Angels are not considered as the catholics as intermediaries </li></ul><ul><li>Angels have a lot to do in creation, prophecy, spiritual life, death, resurrection, and the workings of natural elements </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Books <ul><li>According to Islam, God has revealed himself through four sacred writings: </li></ul><ul><li>The Torah…books of Moses in the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>The Zabur…Psalms of David </li></ul><ul><li>The Injil…gospel of Jesus Christ </li></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an…..the revelations that Muhammad recited to his transcribers </li></ul><ul><li>In case of any conflicts, the Qur’an prevails because it supersedes all the other revelations </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Qur’an <ul><li>The Qur’an is the holiest book for the Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims believe that Arabic is the language of Allah, the language in which the Qur’an revelations were given </li></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an includes many information found in the Bible. </li></ul><ul><li>20 prophets including Abraham, Moses, and Jesus are included </li></ul><ul><li>The Torah and the Injil are considered as pre-Islamic people </li></ul><ul><li>But Islam teaches that Torah and Injil were misinterpreted and corrupted by Jews and Christians </li></ul><ul><li>But the Qur’an is perfect to them </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Bakr and Zaid ibn Thabit were the one in charge to collect writtings of the Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims claim that The present day Qur’an is an exact representation of Muhammad’s revelations without any lost, changes or substitutions in any way </li></ul>
  18. 18. Other sacred books <ul><li>Sunnah (sayings of Muhammad while leading his followers [compared to the gospels]) gathered in a book called Hadith </li></ul><ul><li>The Qiyas, agreement of Muslims on interpretations of the Qur’an and Hadith </li></ul><ul><li>The Shari’ah is a book for conduct </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Prophets <ul><li>Muslims believe that prophets have been sent to human beings throughout history </li></ul><ul><li>Islam has a list of prophets, fewer than 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Among the names are Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, Jonah, John the Baptist, Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus is not the Son of God, although his conception is considered as immaculate </li></ul><ul><li>But his death and resurrection are denied </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad is the greatest and last prophet who gave us revelation from God (Allah) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Future judgment <ul><li>Muslims (like Jews and Christians) believe in the day of Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Afterlife is the life after resurrection </li></ul><ul><li>Dead and living will come into judgment before God </li></ul><ul><li>All activities on earth are recorded by two angels </li></ul><ul><li>And at the day of judgment, your actions will be on the scale of the Justice of Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Whichever weighs more, there the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>The deeds are not random acts of kindness, but the deeds according to the teaching of Qur’an or Hadith </li></ul><ul><li>The five pillars of faith as Muslim </li></ul>
  21. 21. Five Pillars <ul><li>Recite the Creed about God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shahadah (bearing witness) “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His messenger” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pray the prayers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five times a day “dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and night” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give the Alms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alms 2.5% of your income for the poor (and also the works of missionaries and building of mosques) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start the fast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting for piety or penance- but also one month of fasting in the ninth month of their lunar year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make the Pilgrimage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once in a lifetime, not a fantasy trip, but a pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) (exception to the sick and crippled or those who can’t afford it </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Islam Social and political aspects <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Polygamy </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis and Shiites </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme and moderate Muslims </li></ul>
  23. 23. Women in Islam <ul><li>Four out of every five Muslim converts are women </li></ul><ul><li>80% of new converts are women </li></ul><ul><li>The women’s body is to be seen only by her husband </li></ul><ul><li>From early age, the women are thought to cover themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>It might differ from one society to another whether or not it is required to use the veil </li></ul><ul><li>But any woman’s body is for the pleasure and the sight of her husband only </li></ul><ul><li>In some countries, it might be forbidden for male gynecological doctors to practice of women </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005, some doctors were slain for doing so </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sura 24:31 <ul><li>And tell the believing women to subdue their eyes, and maintain their chastity. They shall not reveal any parts of their bodies, except that which is necessary. They shall cover their chests, and shall not relax this code in the presence of other than their husbands, their fathers, the fathers of their husbands, their sons, the sons of their husbands, their brothers, the sons of their brothers, the sons of their sisters, other women, the male servants or employees whose sexual drive has been nullified, or the children who have not reached puberty. They shall not strike their feet when they walk in order to shake and reveal certain details of their bodies. All of you shall repent to GOD, O you believers, that you may succeed. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Women in Islam <ul><li>Muslim women are in disadvantages when it comes to inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Either no rights at all (Maliki) or restricted rights (Hanafi) </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce is a male prerogative </li></ul><ul><li>After a divorce case, a child is released to his mother until he is weaned, then he goes to his father </li></ul><ul><li>The court testimony of a woman is half valuable to a man’s testimony </li></ul><ul><li>A husband can prevent his wife to work </li></ul><ul><li>He may forbid her to leave the house for any reasons other than to study the religion </li></ul>
  26. 26. Polygamy <ul><li>Muhammed allowed every man to have up to four wives </li></ul><ul><li>But he warned them if they can’t keep control, he must refrain to only one and to women slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Number a slave-girls one could have was unlimited </li></ul><ul><li>Monogamy is recommended but not enforced in many Islamic countries </li></ul><ul><li>It is only a few years ago that the age to marry a young woman has been raised in some Islamic nations </li></ul>
  27. 27. Men Superiority <ul><li>The men are made responsible for the women, ** and GOD has endowed them with certain qualities, and made them the bread earners. The righteous women will cheerfully accept this arrangement, since it is GOD's commandment, and honor their husbands during their absence. If you experience rebellion from the women, you shall first talk to them, then ( you may use negative incentives like ) deserting them in bed, then you may ( as a last alternative ) beat them. If they obey you, you are not permitted to transgress against them. GOD is Most High, Supreme. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Jihad <ul><li>Holy war waged on behalf of Islam as a religious duty </li></ul><ul><li>The moderate Muslim refers that Jihad refers to the internal struggles of the soul and has no reference to military actions </li></ul><ul><li>The radical Muslims say otherwise </li></ul>
  29. 29. Division within Islam <ul><li>Variety of sects within Islam, each having a slightly different slant on doctrinal point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Two main or primary sects </li></ul><ul><li>The Sunnis (or Sunnites) and the Shi’ites (Traditionalists) </li></ul><ul><li>The Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the legitimate successors of Muhammad and stressing the importance of Sunna as a basis for law. </li></ul><ul><li>Sunna: the traditional portion of Muslim law, based on the words and acts of Muhammad, and preserved in the traditional literature </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest group of the two and found in the non-Arabic world and countries like Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan,… </li></ul>
  30. 30. Division within Islam <ul><li>The Shi’ite: a member of one of the two great religious divisions of Islam that regards Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, as the legitimate successor of Muhammad, and disregards the three caliphs who succeeded him. </li></ul><ul><li>They believe that Muslim leaders must be political leaders also </li></ul><ul><li>This sect is smaller than the other one, but it is growing </li></ul><ul><li>Found mostly in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and parts of Africa… </li></ul>
  31. 31. Jihad <ul><li>What is Jihad? </li></ul><ul><li>The Islamic response will depend on what group of Muslims questioned on the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate Muslim defines it as the internal struggle against sins and vices in the world </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; The best jihad [struggle] is (by) the one who strives against his own self for Allah, The Mighty and Majestic, &quot; Hadith (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad). </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors. &quot; Qur'an, Chapter 2, verse 190. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Jihad <ul><li>Internet definition of Jihad: </li></ul><ul><li>The word Jihad stems from the Arabic root word J-H-D, which means &quot;strive.&quot; Other words derived from this root include &quot;effort,&quot; &quot;labor,&quot; and &quot;fatigue.&quot; Essentially Jihad is an effort to practice religion in the face of oppression and persecution. </li></ul><ul><li>The views of most Muslims in the world, especially the Sunnites.(but not the extremists) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Jihad <ul><li>For the extremists: armed struggles </li></ul><ul><li>Acts of warfare in the name of Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Surah 9:5 Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. </li></ul><ul><li>9:29 Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow not the Religion of Truth, until they pay the tribute readily, being brought low. </li></ul><ul><li>Surah 4:101 When you travel, during war, you commit no error by shortening your Contact Prayers (Salat), if you fear that the disbelievers may attack you. Surely, the disbelievers are your ardent enemies. </li></ul><ul><li>Hadith 52…….War </li></ul><ul><li>Al Bukhari vol. 1:35 </li></ul>