Introduction to Web 2.0

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* Brief History
* Differences Between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0
* The Web as Platform
* Harnessing Collective Intelligence
* Blogging and the Wisdom of Crowds
* Data is the Next Intel Inside
* End of the Software Release Cycle
* Lightweight Programming Models
* Software Above the Level of a Single Device
* Rich User Experiences
* Core Competencies

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Introduction to Web 2.0

  1. 1. Introduction to Web 2.0 Reggie Santos UP ITDC
  2. 2. Outline  Brief History  Differences Between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0  The Web as Platform  Harnessing Collective Intelligence  Blogging and the Wisdom of Crowds  Data is the Next Intel Inside  Brief History  Differences Between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0  The Web as Platform  Harnessing Collective Intelligence  Blogging and the Wisdom of Crowds  Data is the Next Intel Inside
  3. 3. Outline  End of the Software Release Cycle  Lightweight Programming Models  Software Above the Level of a Single Device  Rich User Experiences  Core Competencies  References  End of the Software Release Cycle  Lightweight Programming Models  Software Above the Level of a Single Device  Rich User Experiences  Core Competencies  References
  4. 4. Brief History "Web 2.0"  Began with a conference brainstorming session between O'Reilly and MediaLive International  The companies that had survived the dot-com collapse seemed to have some things in common "Web 2.0"  Began with a conference brainstorming session between O'Reilly and MediaLive International  The companies that had survived the dot-com collapse seemed to have some things in common
  5. 5. Brief History – dot- com Collapse
  6. 6. Difference between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 Web 1.0 Web 2.0 DoubleClick Google AdSense Ofoto Flickr Akamai BitTorrent mp3.com Napster Britannica Online Wikipedia personal websites blogging evite upcoming.org and EVDB
  7. 7. Difference between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 Web 1.0 Web 2.0 domain name speculation Search Engine Optimization (SEO) page views cost per click screen scraping web services publishing participation content management systems wikis directories (taxonomy) tagging (“folksonomy”) stickiness syndication
  8. 8. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform
  9. 9. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform Netscape vs. Google  the value of the software is proportional to the scale and dynamism of the data it helps to manage Netscape vs. Google  the value of the software is proportional to the scale and dynamism of the data it helps to manage
  10. 10. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform
  11. 11. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform DoubleClick vs. Overture and AdSense  leverage customer self-service and algorithmic data management to reach out to the entire web, to the edges and not just the center, to the long tail and not just the head DoubleClick vs. Overture and AdSense  leverage customer self-service and algorithmic data management to reach out to the entire web, to the edges and not just the center, to the long tail and not just the head
  12. 12. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform DoubleClick vs. Overture and AdSense  “the long tail”  collective power of the small sites that make up the bulk of the web's content DoubleClick vs. Overture and AdSense  “the long tail”  collective power of the small sites that make up the bulk of the web's content
  13. 13. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform
  14. 14. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform  eBay enables occasional transactions of only a few dollars between single individuals, acting as an automated intermediary  eBay enables occasional transactions of only a few dollars between single individuals, acting as an automated intermediary
  15. 15. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform
  16. 16. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform  Napster (though shutdown for legal reasons) built its network not by building a centralized song database, but by architecting a system in such a way that every downloader also became a server, and thus grew the network  Napster (though shutdown for legal reasons) built its network not by building a centralized song database, but by architecting a system in such a way that every downloader also became a server, and thus grew the network
  17. 17. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform
  18. 18. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform
  19. 19. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform Akamai vs. BitTorrent  every client is also a server  files are broken up into fragments that can be served from multiple locations, transparently harnessing the network of downloaders to provide both bandwidth and data to other users Akamai vs. BitTorrent  every client is also a server  files are broken up into fragments that can be served from multiple locations, transparently harnessing the network of downloaders to provide both bandwidth and data to other users
  20. 20. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform Akamai vs. BitTorrent  the more popular the file, the faster it can be served  the service automatically gets better the more people use it Akamai vs. BitTorrent  the more popular the file, the faster it can be served  the service automatically gets better the more people use it
  21. 21. Web 2.0: The Web as Platform Akamai vs. BitTorrent  there is an implicit “architecture of participation”, a built-in ethic of cooperation, in which the service acts primarily as an intelligent broker, connecting the edges to each other and harnessing the power of the users themselves Akamai vs. BitTorrent  there is an implicit “architecture of participation”, a built-in ethic of cooperation, in which the service acts primarily as an intelligent broker, connecting the edges to each other and harnessing the power of the users themselves
  22. 22. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence  Hyperlinking is the foundation of the web  The web of connections grows organically as an output of the collective activity of all web users  Hyperlinking is the foundation of the web  The web of connections grows organically as an output of the collective activity of all web users
  23. 23. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence
  24. 24. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence  Yahoo! was born as a catalog, or directory of links, an aggregation of the best work of thousands, then millions of users  Yahoo! was born as a catalog, or directory of links, an aggregation of the best work of thousands, then millions of users
  25. 25. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence
  26. 26. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence  Google's breakthrough in search was PageRank, a method of using the link structure of the web rather than just the characteristics of documents to provide better search results  Google's breakthrough in search was PageRank, a method of using the link structure of the web rather than just the characteristics of documents to provide better search results
  27. 27. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence
  28. 28. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence  eBay's product is the collective activity of all its users  like the web itself, eBay grows organically in response to user activity  the company's role is an enabler of a context in which that user activity can happen  eBay's product is the collective activity of all its users  like the web itself, eBay grows organically in response to user activity  the company's role is an enabler of a context in which that user activity can happen
  29. 29. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence
  30. 30. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence  Amazon sells the same products as competitors such as Barnesandnoble.com, and they receive the same product descriptions, cover images, and editorial content from their vendors  Amazon sells the same products as competitors such as Barnesandnoble.com, and they receive the same product descriptions, cover images, and editorial content from their vendors
  31. 31. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence  But Amazon has made a science of user engagement  While a Barnesandnoble.com search is likely to lead with the company's own products or sponsored results, Amazon always leads with the “most popular” , a real-time computation based not only on sales but other factors that Amazon insiders call the “flow” around products  But Amazon has made a science of user engagement  While a Barnesandnoble.com search is likely to lead with the company's own products or sponsored results, Amazon always leads with the “most popular” , a real-time computation based not only on sales but other factors that Amazon insiders call the “flow” around products
  32. 32. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence
  33. 33. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence  Wikipedia  an online encyclopedia based on the unlikely notion that an entry can be added by an web user, and edited by any other  radical experiment in trust  Wikipedia  an online encyclopedia based on the unlikely notion that an entry can be added by an web user, and edited by any other  radical experiment in trust
  34. 34. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence “with enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow” – Eric Raymond “with enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow” – Eric Raymond
  35. 35. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence
  36. 36. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence
  37. 37. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence  Sites like del.icio.us and Flickr have pioneered a concept that some people call “folksonomy” (in contrast to taxonomy)  a style of collaborative categorization of sites using freely chosen keywords, often referred to as tags  tagging allows for the kind of multiple overlapping associations that the brain itself uses, rather than rigid categories  Sites like del.icio.us and Flickr have pioneered a concept that some people call “folksonomy” (in contrast to taxonomy)  a style of collaborative categorization of sites using freely chosen keywords, often referred to as tags  tagging allows for the kind of multiple overlapping associations that the brain itself uses, rather than rigid categories
  38. 38. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence
  39. 39. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence  Collaborative spam filtering products like Cloudmark aggregate the individual decisions of email users about what is and is not spam, outperforming systems that rely on analysis of the messages themselves  Collaborative spam filtering products like Cloudmark aggregate the individual decisions of email users about what is and is not spam, outperforming systems that rely on analysis of the messages themselves
  40. 40. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence
  41. 41. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence  The greatest internet success stories do not advertise their products  Adoption is driven by “viral marketing”  Recommendations propagating directly from one user to another  The greatest internet success stories do not advertise their products  Adoption is driven by “viral marketing”  Recommendations propagating directly from one user to another
  42. 42. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence
  43. 43. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence  Even much of the infrastructure of the web – including the Linux, Apache, MySQL, and Perl, PHP or Python (LAMP) code involved in most web servers – relies on the peer- production methods of open source  Even much of the infrastructure of the web – including the Linux, Apache, MySQL, and Perl, PHP or Python (LAMP) code involved in most web servers – relies on the peer- production methods of open source
  44. 44. Web 2.0: Harnessing Collective Intelligence  Network effects from user contributions are the key to market dominance in the Web 2.0 era  Network effects from user contributions are the key to market dominance in the Web 2.0 era
  45. 45. Web 2.0: Blogging and the Wisdom of Crowds
  46. 46. Web 2.0: Blogging and the Wisdom of Crowds  Blog  at its most basic, a blog is just a personal home page in a diary format  Blog  at its most basic, a blog is just a personal home page in a diary format
  47. 47. Web 2.0: Blogging and the Wisdom of Crowds “the chronological organization of the blog seems like a trivial difference, but it drives an entirely different delivery, advertising and value chain” – Rich Skrenta “the chronological organization of the blog seems like a trivial difference, but it drives an entirely different delivery, advertising and value chain” – Rich Skrenta
  48. 48. Web 2.0: Blogging and the Wisdom of Crowds
  49. 49. Web 2.0: Blogging and the Wisdom of Crowds  RSS  Really Simple Syndication  allows someone to link not just to a page, but to subscribe to it, with notification every time that page changes  “incremental/live web”  RSS  Really Simple Syndication  allows someone to link not just to a page, but to subscribe to it, with notification every time that page changes  “incremental/live web”
  50. 50. Web 2.0: Blogging and the Wisdom of Crowds “we, the media, not a few people in a back room, decides what is important” – Dan Gilmor “we, the media, not a few people in a back room, decides what is important” – Dan Gilmor
  51. 51. Web 2.0: Data is the Next Intel Inside  Every significant application to date has been backed by a specialized database  Google's web crawl  Yahoo!'s directory and web crawl  Amazon's database of products  eBay's database of products and sellers  MapQuest's map databases  Napster's distributed song database  Every significant application to date has been backed by a specialized database  Google's web crawl  Yahoo!'s directory and web crawl  Amazon's database of products  eBay's database of products and sellers  MapQuest's map databases  Napster's distributed song database
  52. 52. Web 2.0: Data is the Next Intel Inside  Database management is a core competency  applications as “infoware” rather than merely software  Database management is a core competency  applications as “infoware” rather than merely software
  53. 53. Web 2.0: Data is the Next Intel Inside MapQuests vs. Yahoo!, Microsoft and Google Maps MapQuests vs. Yahoo!, Microsoft and Google Maps
  54. 54. Web 2.0: Data is the Next Intel Inside MapQuests vs. Yahoo!, Microsoft and Google Maps MapQuests vs. Yahoo!, Microsoft and Google Maps
  55. 55. Web 2.0: Data is the Next Intel Inside MapQuests vs. Yahoo!, Microsoft and Google Maps MapQuests vs. Yahoo!, Microsoft and Google Maps
  56. 56. Web 2.0: Data is the Next Intel Inside MapQuests vs. Yahoo!, Microsoft and Google Maps MapQuests vs. Yahoo!, Microsoft and Google Maps
  57. 57. Web 2.0: Data is the Next Intel Inside Barnesandnoble.com vs. Amazon.comBarnesandnoble.com vs. Amazon.com
  58. 58. Web 2.0: Data is the Next Intel Inside Barnesandnoble.com vs. Amazon.comBarnesandnoble.com vs. Amazon.com
  59. 59. Web 2.0: Data is the Next Intel Inside  The race is on to own certain classes of core data  Location  Identity  Calendaring of public events  Product identifiers  Namespaces  The race is on to own certain classes of core data  Location  Identity  Calendaring of public events  Product identifiers  Namespaces
  60. 60. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle  SaaS  Software delivered as a service, not as a product  SaaS  Software delivered as a service, not as a product
  61. 61. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle
  62. 62. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle  Benefits  Faster time to market  Reduced risk  Closer relationship with customers  Real-time data to make quantifiable decisions  Increased responsiveness  Benefits  Faster time to market  Reduced risk  Closer relationship with customers  Real-time data to make quantifiable decisions  Increased responsiveness
  63. 63. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle  Release early and release often  “The perpetual beta”  The product is developed in the open, with new features slipstreamed in on a monthly, weekly, or even daily basis  Engage users as co-developers and real-time testers  Release early and release often  “The perpetual beta”  The product is developed in the open, with new features slipstreamed in on a monthly, weekly, or even daily basis  Engage users as co-developers and real-time testers
  64. 64. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle  Instrument your product  In the development process, you need to plan for and implement not only the customer-facing application but also a framework for capturing how customers are using your product  What users do often tells you more than what they say  Instrument your product  In the development process, you need to plan for and implement not only the customer-facing application but also a framework for capturing how customers are using your product  What users do often tells you more than what they say
  65. 65. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle  Incrementally create new products  New and existing products should evolve through rapid releases, user feedback, and instrumentation  Incrementally create new products  New and existing products should evolve through rapid releases, user feedback, and instrumentation
  66. 66. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle  Make operations a core competency  Expertise in product development must be matched by an expertise in daily operations  Software will cease to perform unless it is maintained on a daily basis  Make operations a core competency  Expertise in product development must be matched by an expertise in daily operations  Software will cease to perform unless it is maintained on a daily basis
  67. 67. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle
  68. 68. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle  Google's system administration, networking, and load- balancing techniques are perhaps even more closely guarded secrets than their search algorithms  Google's system administration, networking, and load- balancing techniques are perhaps even more closely guarded secrets than their search algorithms
  69. 69. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle Techniques:  Using horizontal scaling techniques and commodity hardware components for simplified fault-tolerance and high availability  Using low-cost software (typically open source) to leverage large support communities and resources Techniques:  Using horizontal scaling techniques and commodity hardware components for simplified fault-tolerance and high availability  Using low-cost software (typically open source) to leverage large support communities and resources
  70. 70. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle Techniques:  Ensuring that operations planning and staffing are first-class priorities  Feeding lessons learned from operational experience back into the core product – features, stability and scalability Techniques:  Ensuring that operations planning and staffing are first-class priorities  Feeding lessons learned from operational experience back into the core product – features, stability and scalability
  71. 71. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle
  72. 72. Web 2.0: End of the Software Adoption Cycle  Use dynamic tools and languages  Scripting languages such as Perl, Python, PHP and now Ruby, play such a large role at Web 2.0  Tool of choice for system and network administrators, as well as application developers building dynamic systems that require constant change  Use dynamic tools and languages  Scripting languages such as Perl, Python, PHP and now Ruby, play such a large role at Web 2.0  Tool of choice for system and network administrators, as well as application developers building dynamic systems that require constant change
  73. 73. Web 2.0: Lightweight Programming Models
  74. 74. Web 2.0: Lightweight Programming Models  REST (Representational State Transfer) vs. SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)  REST (Representational State Transfer) vs. SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)
  75. 75. Web 2.0: Lightweight Programming Models  Google Maps's simple AJAX (JavaScript and XML) interface  Google Maps's simple AJAX (JavaScript and XML) interface
  76. 76. Web 2.0: Lightweight Programming Models  Support lightweight programming models that allow for loosely coupled systems  Think syndication, not coordination  Design for “hackability” and remixability  Support lightweight programming models that allow for loosely coupled systems  Think syndication, not coordination  Design for “hackability” and remixability
  77. 77. Web 2.0: Lightweight Programming Models
  78. 78. Web 2.0: Lightweight Programming Models  The barriers to re-use are extremely low  Much of the useful software is actually open source  The web browser's “View Source” option made it possible for any user to copy any other user's web page  The barriers to re-use are extremely low  Much of the useful software is actually open source  The web browser's “View Source” option made it possible for any user to copy any other user's web page
  79. 79. Web 2.0: Innovation in Assembly
  80. 80. Web 2.0: Innovation in Assembly  The Web 2.0 mindset is good at re-use  When commodity components are abundant, you can create value simply by assembling them in novel or effective ways  The Web 2.0 mindset is good at re-use  When commodity components are abundant, you can create value simply by assembling them in novel or effective ways
  81. 81. Web 2.0: Software Above the Level of a Single Device “Useful software written above the level of a single device will command high margins for a long time to come” – Dave Stutz “Useful software written above the level of a single device will command high margins for a long time to come” – Dave Stutz
  82. 82. Web 2.0: Software Above the Level of a Single Device
  83. 83. Web 2.0: Software Above the Level of a Single Device  No longer limited to the PC platform  iTunes  seamlessly reaches from the handheld device to massive web back-end, with the PC acting as a local cache and control station  No longer limited to the PC platform  iTunes  seamlessly reaches from the handheld device to massive web back-end, with the PC acting as a local cache and control station
  84. 84. Web 2.0: Rich User Experiences
  85. 85. Web 2.0: Rich User Experiences  RIA  Rich Internet Applications  web-based applications with rich user interfaces and PC-equivalent interactivity  RIA  Rich Internet Applications  web-based applications with rich user interfaces and PC-equivalent interactivity
  86. 86. Web 2.0: Rich User Experiences
  87. 87. Web 2.0: Rich User Experiences  AJAX(/AJAJ)  Asynchronous JavaScript And XML/JSON  incorporates:  standards-based presentation using XHTML and CSS  dynamic display and interaction using the Document Object Model  AJAX(/AJAJ)  Asynchronous JavaScript And XML/JSON  incorporates:  standards-based presentation using XHTML and CSS  dynamic display and interaction using the Document Object Model
  88. 88. Web 2.0: Rich User Experiences  AJAX(/AJAJ)  incorporates:  data interchange and manipulation using XML and XSLT or JSON  asychronous data retrieval using XMLHttpRequest  JavaScript binding everything together  AJAX(/AJAJ)  incorporates:  data interchange and manipulation using XML and XSLT or JSON  asychronous data retrieval using XMLHttpRequest  JavaScript binding everything together
  89. 89. Summary  Core competencies  Services, not packaged software, with cost- effective scalability  Control over unique, hard-to-recreate data sources that get richer as more people use them  Trusting users as co-developers  Harnessing collective intelligence  Core competencies  Services, not packaged software, with cost- effective scalability  Control over unique, hard-to-recreate data sources that get richer as more people use them  Trusting users as co-developers  Harnessing collective intelligence
  90. 90. Summary  Core competencies  Leveraging "the long tail" through customer self- service  Software above the level of a single device  Lightweight user interfaces, developmental models and business models  Core competencies  Leveraging "the long tail" through customer self- service  Software above the level of a single device  Lightweight user interfaces, developmental models and business models
  91. 91. References  What is Web 2.0  http://oreilly.com/pub/a/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.htm  http://oreilly.com/catalog/web2report/chapter/web20_rep  Web 2.0 Resources  https://web20guru.wikispaces.com/Web+2.0+Resources  What is Web 2.0  http://oreilly.com/pub/a/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.htm  http://oreilly.com/catalog/web2report/chapter/web20_rep  Web 2.0 Resources  https://web20guru.wikispaces.com/Web+2.0+Resources
  92. 92. References  The Dot-com Bubble  http://www.wisegeek.org/what-was-the-dot-com-bubble.h  http://www.thebubblebubble.com/dot-com-bubble/  Screenshots  https://www.flickr.com/photos/wfryer/433975194/in/photost  https://www.flickr.com/photos/wfryer/433566428/in/photost  The Dot-com Bubble  http://www.wisegeek.org/what-was-the-dot-com-bubble.h  http://www.thebubblebubble.com/dot-com-bubble/  Screenshots  https://www.flickr.com/photos/wfryer/433975194/in/photost  https://www.flickr.com/photos/wfryer/433566428/in/photost

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