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Participatory Scaling of a Mobile Learning Platform


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Presented at the AERA 2013 session “How Augmenting Reality with Mobile Devices Helps Students Learn Academic Content”
Authors: John Martin, David Gagnon, Kurt Squire, (University of Wisconsin–Madison), Chris Holden (University of New Mexico), Seann Dikkers (Ohio University)

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Participatory Scaling of a Mobile Learning Platform

  1. 1. PARTICIPATORY SCALINGof a Mobile Learning • • • • sdikkers@gmail.com1Monday, April 29, 13I’m Kurt Squire from UW–Madison, and here with colleagues John Martin (UW–Madison) and Chris Holden (University of New Mexico). David andSeann were unable to join us today.
  2. 2. How can we go beyond boutique projectswith technology?Penuel, Fishman, Cheng, and Sabelli, 20112Monday, April 29, 13We’re interested in a fewquestions.
  3. 3. How can we create projects that last aftergrant funding goes away?3Monday, April 29, 13
  4. 4. How can we do research that supports projectsbecoming part of the fabric of learning ?4Monday, April 29, 13
  5. 5. ARISMAKE YOUR GAME • GAME YOUR WORLDARIS Websitearisgames.orgARIS iOS Clientsearch iTunes app store for ARIS (iphone)5Monday, April 29, 13We think that ARIS might be a good model to look at to begin to answer some of thesequestions.
  6. 6. A Social Construction ofTechnology(SCOT) PerspectivePinch and Bijker, 19846Monday, April 29, 13We’re using Pinch and Bijker’s Social construction of technology SCOT perspective (1984) to frame teachers as key stakeholders and change agents inthe ongoing development and application of mobile learning. We believe innovative uses and adaptations of mobile applications provide insights into theinterests, priorities, and intentions of educators and learners. So, understanding how educators “take up,” adapt, and modify mobile technologies in situcan be used to inform the next generation of mobile applications and mobile-based learning environments.
  7. 7. Participatory Scaling•Sustained by use•Frequent engagement of user-designers•Users dictate key features•Collaborative Design•Open Source•Community Owned7Monday, April 29, 13These are some things we’re seeing in ARIS, that we think might lead to ParticipatoryScaling.
  8. 8. OUR HISTORYEnvironmental Detectives to ARIS8Monday, April 29, 13
  9. 9. Seven ARDesign ProjectsSouth Shore Beach: (CSI)Hip Hop Tycoon: MathMad City Mystery: (CSI)Saving Lake Wingra: CivicsRiverside Game: Land UseClassroomCurriculumAR GamesSquire, K.D., Jan, M., Mathews, J., Wagler, M., Martin, J., Devane, B. & Holden, C. (2007)Squire, K., Mathews, J., Holden, C., Martin, J. Jan, M., Johnson, C., & Wagler, M. (forthcoming).Martin, J., Mathews, J., Jan M., Holden, C. (2008)Jan, M; Mathews, J., Holden, C., Martin, J. (2008)Played by ~1000 studentsGames to teach Environmental Sciences, Social Studies,Persuasion, Math26 classrooms (urban, suburban, rural Wisconsin)Mathews, J,. Holden, C., Jan, M,. Martin, J. (2008)Squire K.D. & Jan, M. (2007).9Monday, April 29, 13We’ve been making outdoor mobile games for learning since ~2005, using MIT’s Outdoor AR (now MITAR) platform.MCM was about finding chemical pollutants; in SSB they found ecoli in goose poop made kids sick; SLW was about urban design and land use inMadison; Riverside did that in Milwaukee.We found that good location-based experiences situate learning; make data and problems meaningful.
  10. 10. Games designed by us have limited scale.10Monday, April 29, 13We worked with middle and HS teachers to create place-based games FOR THEM, but we always wanted to get the tools for creating curriculum intotheir own hands — and the hands of the students!
  11. 11. Seven ARDesign ProjectsMystery Trip Nature HillGreenbush HistoryGreenbush StoryTree TourState StreetGame UnitStudent-DesignedAR Projects11Monday, April 29, 13So, on the side, we let students go out and research their communities with mobile devices (maps, clipboards, cameras, iphones, GPS units, etc.) andhelped them create their own Place-based experiences.This was super-powerful, super-situated place-based learning.
  12. 12. Micah’s Greenbush gameYou are Samuel Sweet, a child in theGreenbush neighborhood.You areJewish, and it is 1959.While you wereout in the neighborhood a few days ago,you heard a man telling Mrs. DiSalvo thattheir grocery will be torn down to makeroom for new buildings. So you made apetition to get signed by people in theGreenbush to stop the bulldozing.Buffo is anxious to see you. "Bulldozers are running over thebuilding.Theyre tearing it down!" Together, the two of you haveover 75 signatures, but youre too late! The Italian church isalready being torn down.The Greenbush will be destroyed.12Monday, April 29, 13
  13. 13. 12-456-78-9101112 1314151617123456-7 8-9 1110 121314151617Samuel3/27;MicahsGreenbush Game(2005)Start13Monday, April 29, 13In 2005, I worked with a few 5th graders who created an Augmented Reality (historic fiction) interactive experience based on a local neighborhood thathad been razed in a city “urban renewal” project.This was a one-player, one-role tour.
  14. 14. Micah: “I never really knew how much 25 fifth graderscould accomplish.We did masses of research.This year, I pushed my achievements to the limit.”14Monday, April 29, 13
  15. 15. David Gagnon“Can I build a web-basedAR game engine?”15Monday, April 29, 13Then we met thisguy
  16. 16. ARIS 0.5 (2009) 16Monday, April 29, 13Who had an idea for a classproject
  17. 17. 1717Monday, April 29, 13that becamebigger
  18. 18. PHP tables18Monday, April 29, 13at first, creating an ARIS activity requiredPHP
  19. 19. Drag & DropARISgames.org19Monday, April 29, 13But now, it’s easy to use, with a browser-based drag-and-dropeditor.
  20. 20. community between developers, between educators20Monday, April 29, 13And it has an active decentralized community that chips in for techsupport.
  21. 21. Games 713Players 536Authors ~500Games 2159Players 4649Authors 1750Games 5654Players 13916Authors 4284June 2011 February 2012 April 201321Monday, April 29, 13Which is why, we think, more and more folks have been designing games with it.
  22. 22. PLAYER LOGSThe Sun Never Sets on ARIS22Monday, April 29, 13Here’s a snapshot from April 26, 2013. The people are clusters ofplayers.
  23. 23. 5654 Games13916 users26 States10 confirmed countries5 continents10 confirmed countries23Monday, April 29, 13And these are games
  24. 24. MENTIRA24Monday, April 29, 13So, let’s give a few examples, starting with ChrisHolden
  25. 25. 25Monday, April 29, 13So far, I’ve had two major projects at UNM doing place-based mobile game design. The first was Mentira, a game I developed with Julie Sykes, in Spanish and Protuguese.
  26. 26. 26Monday, April 29, 13It’s based on a soap opera-stylenarrative
  27. 27. 27Monday, April 29, 13Players begin at home, or wherever theyare
  28. 28. 28Monday, April 29, 13And then have to go to the neighborhood where it’ssituated
  29. 29. 29Monday, April 29, 13There, they meet characters, and the storyunfolds.
  30. 30. 30Monday, April 29, 13And they come back to the classroom for more collaborativework.
  31. 31. 31Monday, April 29, 13Because it’s a server-based environment, we’ve got player logs that we can lookat
  32. 32. LOCAL GAMES ABQ32Monday, April 29, 13Based on that success, I started working with students and other instructors designing localgames.
  33. 33. Digital Graffiti GalleryCurating ephemeral art33Monday, April 29, 13
  34. 34. UNM Self-Guided TourCollaboration across Campus34Monday, April 29, 13
  35. 35. Art Beyond Question35Monday, April 29, 13
  36. 36. 36Monday, April 29, 13And games have been created for use in othercourses.
  37. 37. ActivitiesMentira Basic Spanish - Game as TextExample/DemoLocal Games in ABQ Student Design Studio, CreateTutorial MaterialsVisitas de la Colonia Faculty Partnership - Game asProduction EnvironmentOSET Workshops Visibility, Path to OfficialAdoption, Recruit partnersOpen Mobile Lab Low bar for entry, get helpLocal Games Blog Project ideas, asynchronouscommunicationCommunity Workshops Extend participation beyondUNM37Monday, April 29, 13I’ve spent the last few years making games with the ARIS platform, and making the ARIS platform. This is to explore what is possible in the creation ofcertain kinds of hidden worlds using several AR mechanics. Geolocation is the primary one - responding to the importance of place mentioned above -but facsimile dialog, QR codes, and now image matching are others.We also borrow heavily from the language of game studies in developing and using ARIS. In particular, it allows us and others to create worlds whereplayers have agency - roles and goals as they say. This speaks to creating context around tools as mentioned before.
  38. 38. STAR SCHOOLS ARGH PROJECT~$1.3MEXPERIENCED DEVELOPERS @ MITMENTIRA~$10KNO PROGRAMMERS38Monday, April 29, 13The cost difference between our earlier projects and later ones issignificant.
  40. 40. UW–MADISONSITUATED LEARNING40Monday, April 29, 13John can talk some about what’s happening at UW–Madison, where the Department of Academic Technology and the Engage Program are workingwith instructors in a Situate Learning Award.
  41. 41. FOLKLORE 100 41Monday, April 29, 13In Folklore, an activity was designed where students self-organized into groups of five and were given one iPad (with an unlimited data plan) per group. In the first two weeks,they had an overview of course themes, and were tasked with identifying those themes depicted on campus in a place, a piece of folk art, and two stories (interviews) of asignificant campus event for a student. They were given two-and-a-half weeks to use an ARIS activity on the iPad to document and geotag these things, and to tag them with 1)the folklore theme they address. 2) their class rank (freshman, sophomore, etc.), and 3) their username. They also were asked to comment on two others’ notes, and to visit thelocation of at least one peer’s note.
  42. 42. FOLKLORE 100 42Monday, April 29, 13It was a Quest-driven assignment (very easy to create) that use the Notebook to let users add geo-mapped images, text, video, and audio — and tagthem. Then go back to the classroom to reflect with others via this Data Visualization tool.
  43. 43. FOLKLORE 100 43Monday, April 29, 13To encourage community-building and collaboration, the assignment had students comment on each others’ notes, and “like” them (if they wanted).This helped with assessment as well. We discuss this more in the paper.
  44. 44. SUSTAINABILITY44Monday, April 29, 13The second case at UW–Madison was in a class on Sustainability, where two graduate students built an elaborate three-role collaborative interactive tour of six buildings oncampus where six issues in sustainability that the course covered throughout the semester: electricity, carbon, LEED, waste, water, and health. The buildings represented arange of challenges for these, from age of building (oldest and newest on campus) to primary usage (from offices to science labs). Students self-grouped into threes, each takingon one of three roles that had an associated “superpower” — the Engineer could “see through” walls and floors to understand hidden infrastructure, the Naturalist had “Nature’slanguage” and could communicate and understand natural systems, and the Historian had “time travel” and could talk to the ghosts of characters that once inhabited thebuildings and campus.Each group was tasked with following a linear tour of buildings with game-like activities and individual and group challenges at each (e.g. “Use a utility meter and this Jan 1reading to calculate the electricity used in this building since then”). They were given a short survey after each building, and a longer one at the end of the activity. The 2-3 houractivity was revisited in class discussion throughout the semester as course themes were covered (e.g. “Remember when you were in the mechanical room of [oldest campusbuilding], and saw defunct wood fired boilers next to the current steam pipes...?”). As this paper is being written, the course is still underway, so only preliminary results fromsurveys are available for analysis. Initial evaluation is bolstered by author observations over six implementation sessions.
  45. 45. FIBERS CLASS45Monday, April 29, 13Map out where on the prairie the fibers for their projects come fromIn Fall 2012, Hark and her project assistant, Art Department MFA student Angela Richardson, wrote a proposal to explore using digital media to do field research with students in Hark’sSustainable Forms class. Hark and Richardson worked with the ENGAGE team to design learning activities through which students would address the issue of sustainable practice bydeveloping a deep understanding of a particular, local place.
  46. 46. STUDENT-CREATED GAMES46Monday, April 29, 13Instructors found that many of the students want to create such an activity to showcase course concepts as a final project. There have been >120students doing this since 2011, more than half (60+) in Spring 2013.
  47. 47. LIBRARY 47Monday, April 29, 13And departments outside of courses are getting into it as well. Here’s one created by Ian Benton in the Library to teach literature research on the Webof Science.
  48. 48. THEN, NOW,WOW48Monday, April 29, 13Much of the funding that supports this mobile-enhanced learning that we’re using in the university, comes from partners outside of the university, whofund tools that can get folded back into platform. It’s an awesome model for an open-source tool.
  49. 49. Participatory Scaling•Sustained by use•Frequent engagement of user-designers•Users dictate key features•Collaborative Design•Open Source•Community Owned49Monday, April 29, 13So, that’s what we’ve got. There’s more in the paper, of course, which we’re happy toshare.
  50. 50. 50Monday, April 29, 13Come talk to us more in person about this and other video games for learning atGLS.
  51. 51. 51Monday, April 29, 13Oh, and while you’re in San Francisco, check out some of the local games that we found here (we had no idea and involvement in them, so we can’tvouch for what you’ll find)
  52. 52. 52Monday, April 29, 13Golden Gate Park Quest —BlackGirlsCode
  53. 53. 53Monday, April 29, 13This one we knew about — California Dreamin, by Juan Rubio, Barry Joseph (GlobalKids)