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Class IV -States of Matter

Summary of chapter Solids,Liquid & Gas of class IV Science,

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Class IV -States of Matter

  1. 1. Solid, Liquids and Gases
  2. 2. States of matter  Any substance that has mass and occupies space is called matter.  Matter is made up of small particles.  Three states of matter  Solid  Liquid  Gas
  3. 3. States of matter Solid Liquids Gases Particles are packed very close to each other. Particles are not very closely packed Particles are very loose packed. Usually hard and have a fixed shape • Have no fixed shape and can flow. • They take the shape of the container they are poured into. • Have no fixed shape. • They occupy all the available space in a container. On Applying Force • Some solids can change their shape • Some solids can be bent or broken Liquids are also called fluids as it can flow from one place to another. Gases are also fluids
  4. 4. States of matter Pencil, book, chair, and marbles are some examples of solids. Water, milk, and juices are some examples of liquids. Air and cooking gas are some examples of gases.
  5. 5. Changes of State Condensation Gas Heat Cooling Solid Liquid FreezingMelting Evaporation • Matter can change from one state to another. • The process by which a solid changes to liquid is called melting. • The process by which a liquid changes into a vapour is called evaporation. • The process by which a gas changes into a liquid on cooling is called condensation. • The process by which liquid changes into a solid is called freezing.
  6. 6. Solute, Solvent and solution  The solid that dissolves in a liquid is called the solute.  The liquid in which the solute dissolves is called the solvent.  The liquid that we get when a solute dissolves in a solvent is called a solution. Solute + Solvent = Solution Solute Solvent Solution Sugar Milk Sweet Milk Salt Water Salty Water
  7. 7. Separation of Substances  Soluble substances are those substances that dissolve completely in water to form a solution. E.g. Salt ,Sugar  Soluble substances can be separated by heating. Salt solution Water evaporates and salt particles are left behind. Heated
  8. 8. Separation of Substances  Insoluble substances are those substances that do not dissolve completely in water. For example sand and chalk.  Insoluble substances can be separated a solution by the processes of 1. Filtration 2. Sedimentation 3. Decantation.
  9. 9. Separation of Substances  Filtration : Solution is passed through a filter paper. Liquid passes through the filter paper, while the soluble substance gets retained on the filter paper.  For example, sand and Water can be separated by filtration.
  10. 10.  Decantation is a fast method for separating a mixture of a heavier solid and a liquid.  For separating the mixture of water & sand, first, we should let the sand to settle on the bottom of the container (sedimentation). Then we pour off the water at the top into the other container. Separation of Substances