Components of Food


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Components of Food

  1. 1. Components of Food
  2. 2. Components of Food  1. Food-it is the group of edible substances which provide energy to the living beings and repairs the old tissues and builds the new tissue.  2. Components of food –the various components of food are:-  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Fats  Water  Fibre  Vitamins  Minerals
  3. 3. Nutrients  Nutrients-these are organic or inorganic substances required for the survival of a living being. They include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals.  Diet-It is the amount of food taken by a person at a time.  Balanced diet- A diet containing all the nutrients and other components in proper proportion is called balanced diet.  Energy-Energy is the capacity to do work.  Deficiency diseases-The deficiency of one or more nutrients food for a long time may cause certain diseases /a disorder is known as deficiency diseases.  Malnutrition-If a person does not get adequate food or if his/her diet does not contain all the nutrients, he or she
  4. 4. Food Classification  Various food components are grouped in three classes:- 1. Energy giving food- carbohydrates and fats. 2. Body building food-proteins 3. Protective foods-vitamins and minerals
  5. 5. Carbohydrates  Carbohydrates-these are the compounds made up of three elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The main carbohydrates found in our food are in the form of glucose, other sugars and starch.  Sources of carbohydrates-these include cereals such as wheat, maize, rice, jawar, bajra, potatoes, sugar, honey, bread, jaggery, sugarcane, sugar –beet,  Functions of carbohydrates:  Carbohydrates such as starch and sugar provide most of the energy to our body.  It is the cheapest source of energy for the body.
  6. 6. Test for Starch/ Sugar  Test for the presence of starch: add a few drops of weak iodine solution in a test tube containing potato or wheat flour. The occurrence of blue black colour shows the presences of starch.  Test for the presences of sugar: Add a few drops of benedict’s solution into a test tube containing crushed pieces of bananas, grapes or apple and heat it. The formation of red precipitate shows the presence of glucose sugar in the given food item.
  7. 7. Fat  Sources of fats- some of the sources of fats are oil,ghee,milk,butter,eggs,meat etc.  Function of fats-Fats also gives us energy. Fats give much more energy as compared to carbohydrates.  Test of fats-Wrap the food item in a piece of paper and crush it. Now, straighten the paper. Appearance of an oily patch through which light is faintly visible shows the presence of fat.
  8. 8. Protein  Proteins-these are the complex compounds made up of carbon,hydrogen,oxygen,nitrogen and sulphur.  Sources of proteins-whole cereals such as wheat, ground- nuts, beans, pulses, fish eggs, meat, milk cheese, etc.  Function of proteins-Proteins are needed for the growth and repair of the body, they are also called body building food.  Test of proteins-Take some solution or solution of mash of the food item in the test-tube. Add a few drops (2- 3drops) of solution of copper sulphate to the test-tube. Now add 10 drops of solution of caustic soda to this test- tube.  Appearance of a violet colour indicates presence of Proteins in the food item.
  9. 9. Vitamins  Vitamins-They are a group of organic compounds essential in small amounts for maintaining normal health and development.  Functions-Vitamins help in protecting our body against diseases. They also help in keeping our eyes,bones,teeth and gums healthy.  Vitamins are of different kinds known by different names.  Some vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin D, and Vitamin E and vitamin K are fat soluble. Where as Vitamin B complex (such B1 ,B6 ,B12 etc.) and vitamin C are water soluble.
  10. 10. Minerals  Minerals-minerals are inorganic compounds (metal and non metal elements) required in small quantities.  Functions-Minerals form the chief building materials of structures such as bones and teeth. Each mineral is essential for proper growth of body and to maintain good health.
  11. 11. Roughage  Roughage-Roughage is also called dietary fibres. They consist of indigestible plant carbohydrates called cellulose present in plants.  Source-Salad,vegetables,fresh fruits, whole grains and pulses, beans etc.  Functions-Roughage is an essential component of our food and add to its bulk. Roughage does not provide to our body. Roughage helps our body get rid of undigested food and so help to prevent constipation.
  12. 12. Water  Water-water is very essential component of our body because:  A major portion of our body is formed of water.  It helps our body to absorb nutrients from food.  It is essential for most of the life processes or body functions.  It also helps in throwing out some wastes from body as urine and sweat.  Source-We drink water directly as well as we receive water from milk, tea, fruits, vegetable, cold drinks etc.