Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. By: Christopher “Carlos” Reeve, 6th period Sp2H
  2. 2.  Pg. 1 – Qué vs. Cuál Pg. 2 – Ser Pg. 3 – Estar Pg. 4 – Gustar Pg. 5 – Transitional Words Pg. 6 – Imperfect Pg. 7 – Triggers Pg. 8 – Acabar de + Inf. Pg. 9 – Hace + Time + Que + Present Tense Pg. 10 – Verbos Como Gustar Pg. 11 – Reflexive Verbs Pg. 12 – Reflexive Verbs (Con’t) Pg. 13 – Tú Commands Pg. 14 – DOP Placement Pg. 15 – Preterite
  3. 3.  Qué – Used when asking for  Cuál – Usually used before es & definitions. forms of ser when not seeking a ¿Qué es una ciudad? What is a city? definition. ¿Qué significa "talanquera"? What does ¿Cuál es tu número de teléfono? What is  "talanquera" mean? your phone number? Qué is usually used before nouns.  ¿Cuál es tu problema? What is your (Although Cuál isn’t always incorrect problem? when used before nouns, & you will  Cuál is used to suggest a selection or here it sometimes used to mean choice from among a group. “which”)  ¿Cuál miras? Which one are you looking at? ¿Qué casa prefieres? Which house do you But, ¿Qué miras? What are you looking at? prefer?  ¿Cuál prefieres? Which one do you prefer? ¿Qué libro leíste? Which book did you read? But, ¿Qué prefieres? What do you prefer? Both mean ‘what’ or ‘which’.
  4. 4.  Doctor Ped  Descriptions, Origin de, Characteristics, Time, Occupation, Relationships, Possession de, Events, Dates  Ser means to be.  Ser is used to describe something permanent. Such as nationality.
  5. 5.  Estar  Estar means to be.  Estar is used to describe something temporary. Such as emotions.
  6. 6. Remember gustar is not like a regular verb. We only use thefollowing forms of the verb:Me gusta(n) Nos gusta(n)Te gusta(n) Os gusta(n)Le gusta(n) Les gusta(n) **Remember that me, te, le, nos, os, and les are Indirect Object Pronouns
  7. 7.  After – Después Always – Siempre During – Durante Finally – Finalmente First – Primero Later – Luego Now – Ahora Sometimes – A veces Soon – Pronto Again – Otra vez And –Y Also – También Second – Segundo But – Pero
  8. 8.  Uses:  Ongoing action [Was/Were]  Repeated action [Used to]  No definite beginning or end  Time/Date/Age/Feelings/Descriptions  Interrupted activity [Cuando]
  9. 9.  Todos los días - Everyday A menudo - Often A veces - Sometimes Siempre - Always Cada día - Daily Los lunes - Mondays Generalmente - Generally Mientras - As De vez en cuando - Occasionally Muchas veces - Often Frecuentemente - Frequently
  10. 10.  Acabar de + Inf. = To have just done something [In recent past].  Acabo de llevar a mi hermana a su casa. I just took my sister to her house.  Acabas de invitar a muchas muchachas. You have just invited many girls.  Cristina acaba de conversar con mi mamá. Christina has just spoken with my mom.  Nosotros acabamos de leer el libro. We just read the book.  Vosotros acabáis de escribir unas cartas. You-all have just written some letters.  Ellos acaban de nadar en el mar. They have just swum in the ocean.
  11. 11.  Hacer – To do. Hace + Time + Que + Present Tense  Hace un año que estudio español. I have been studying Spanish for one year.  Hace dos años que ellas estudian inglés. They have been studying English for two years. Hace + Time + Que + No + Present Tense  Hace un año que no estudio español. I havent studied Spanish for a year.  Hace dos años que ellas no estudian inglés. They havent studied English for two years.
  12. 12. The following verbs are conjugated just like gustar. encantar to love, like a lot, faltar to lack fascinar to fascinate gustar to like molestar to bother interesar to interest importar to care about doler to hurt (A mí) me gusta la fruta. Fruit is pleasing to me. (I like fruit) (A mí) me importan las notas. My grades matter to me.
  13. 13.  A verb is reflexive when the subject and object are the same. YOU are the ‘do-er’ and ‘receiver’ of the action. When a verb is reflexive, the infinitive ends in “se”.  Despertarse – To wake.  Levantarse – To raise.  Acostarse – To lay down.  Afeitarse – To shave. ▪ Lavar (To wash)  Lavarse (To wash oneself). ▪ Rascar (To scratch)  Rascarse (To scratch oneself).
  14. 14.  Conjugate Reflexive Verbs: The ending “se” is dropped and the verb is conjugated normally.  Lavarse: ▪ Yo me lavo. [I wash (myself)]. ▪ Tú te lavas. [You wash (yourself)]. ▪ Él se lava. [He washes (himself)].
  15. 15. Affirmative Negative IrregularPut the verb into the “tú” Conjugate the verb as the Di No digasform and drop the “s”. “yo” form and then add a Haz No hagas “s”. Ve No vayas Pon No pongas Sal No salgas Se No seas Ten No tengas Ven No vengasEx: Ex: No digas Do not sayTú comes  ¡Come! - Eat! Tomo  No tomes. No hagas Do not¡Come la sopa mientras Trabajo  No trabajes. No vayas Do not goeste calientita¡ No pongas Do not put No salgas Do not leaveEat the soup while it is No hables mucho. No seas Do not bestill warm! No contestes las No tengas Do not haveTú hablas  ¡Habla! - preguntas. No vengas Do not comeSpeak
  16. 16.  A direct object reflects the action of the verb.  DOP answers to the question of what is being received by the verb. DOP and IOP attach to the affirmative command.  When you change the syllabification of a verb, an accent mark is added to the “antepenúttima” (3rd to last syllable). ▪ I hit the car. (Car is being hit) ▪ I drive the car. (Car is receiving action of drive) ▪ Me estoy banando. ▪ Estoy banandome. ▪ Me estoy cepillando. ▪ Estoy cepillandome.
  17. 17.  It’s a perfected action in the past.  “Snapshot”  Beginning and/or ending.