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European Values Study Netherlands: Past, Present and Futures

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This presentation was used at the Brown Bag Lunch at the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI) at The Hague, and at the Sociology Colloquium at Tilburg University to update scholars about the upcoming data release of the European Values Study 2017, of which the Netherlands is part of.

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European Values Study Netherlands: Past, Present and Futures

  1. 1. Tim Reeskens | NIDI | November 7, 2018 European Values Study: Past, Present & Futures
  2. 2. • EVS 2017 data release is looming around the corner • Getting updated about the past, present and future of EVS • A brief history of the EVS • 2017 Dutch data collection • Data cleaning and data release • First findings based on 2017 Dutch data • Impact PhD-project Intake of Presentation 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 2
  3. 3. • It all started with these two Founding Fathers A Brief History of the European Values Study Ruud de Moor Jan Kerkhofs 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 3
  4. 4. • What kind of value pattern exists in Europe? • Is Europe a cultural unity? • Do Christian values continue to permeate European life and culture? • Is a coherent alternative meaning system replacing that of Christianity? • What are the implications for European unity? Why This Study? 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 4
  5. 5. • Explorative studies • In-depth interviews • Group discussions • Archive search • Pilots • Final survey in 1981 • Interviews based on random samples; N ≥ 1,000; 18+ • Identical (translated) questionnaires • Coordination: Gallup London EVS Project Design 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 5
  6. 6. EVS Questionnaire religion morality politics society family education work leisure 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 6
  7. 7. A Growing Project • Almost 40 years of values research • A growing number of countries • Impressive scope of the study • Highest methodological standards • Data freely accessible (GESIS) • Growing integration with WVS • Overlap of 60% of questionnaire 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 7
  8. 8. • Getting this project going: funding • Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) • Tilburg School for Social and Behavioral Sciences (TSB) • European Values Study Foundation (EVS) • Dealing with constraints: going for mixed methods • Sample size: 1236 (vs. 1200 respondents) • Working towards the 1 September 2017 deadline • Translating questionnaire • Getting classifications right • Instructing interviewers The EVS 2017 in the Netherlands 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 8
  9. 9. 911/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar • Fieldwork organization: I&O Research • Sample drawn by Statistics Netherlands (CBS): 1000 + 250 + 250 • Emphasis on realized sample, more than on response rate • Aiming at approx. 600 respondents • Long process: 31 August 2017 to 1 March 2018 • Both reserve batches used • Realized sample: 686 respondents (response rate close to 50 percent) • Weights calculated by CBS, no ‘exotic’ coefficients Method 1: Face-to-Face (CAPI)
  10. 10. 1011/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar • Fieldwork organization: CentERdata • Aiming at 2000 respondents Method 2: Online (CAWI) (1) Core Block A Block B Block C Block D Group 1 X X X Group 2 X X X Group 3 X X X Group 4 X X X Group 5 X X X Group 6 X X X
  11. 11. 1111/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar • Fieldwork: 11 September 2017 to 31 October 2017 • Response: 2034 respondents (out of 2515 ~ 80.9%) • Additional funding: completing the matrix (January 2019) • Leveraging the panel structure: Cambridge Analytica & GDPR Method 2: Online (CAWI) (2) Core Block A Block B Block C Block D Group 1 X X X + + Group 2 X X + X + Group 3 X X + + X Group 4 X + X X + Group 5 X + X + X Group 6 X + + X X
  12. 12. 1211/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar • How to analyze the Mixed Method data? • Finding a harmonized strategy (with CH, DE, FI & IS) • Multiple imputation (?) • Using block dummies on completed interviews (?) • Dealing with attrition • First things first: having the data available Current Challenges
  13. 13. After the Dutch Data Collection 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 13
  14. 14. 1411/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar From Data Collection to Data Release ODS MDS1 MDS2a MDS2b IDS Raw dataset Integrated dataset Harmonized dataset Anonymized dataset Modified dataset Central teams National teams Public release
  15. 15. 1511/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar National Team: From ODS to MDS1 ODS MDS1 MDS2a MDS2b IDS 1.Save (un-edited) ODS for preservation 2.Check and edit ODS 3.Standardise edited ODS 4.Upload results to myEVS Country-specific syntax file
  16. 16. 1611/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar Central Team: From MDS1 to IDS ODS MDS1 MDS2a MDS2b IDS 1. Deposit and Ingest check 2. Data processing 3. Data harmonization 4. Data anonymization 5. Generate IDS
  17. 17. Harmonization through SERISS 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 17
  18. 18. • Horizon 2020 project • Involving major European survey infrastructures • ESS, EVS, SHARE, GGP, CESSDA, WAGEINDICATOR • Aims • Addressing key challenges for cross-national data collection • Breaking down barriers between social science infrastructures • Embracing the future of the social sciences • Impact on data collection, harmonization, cleaning and dissemination Synergies for Europe’s Infrastructure in Social Sciences 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 18
  19. 19. Educational cleavage in social attitudes • Next to debates in society, much scholarly attention • Dutch books edited by De Lange et al (2015) and Van der Werfhorst (2015); SCP reports • Bovens & Wille (2011): Diploma Democracy • Inglehart & Norris (2017): Winners and losers of globalization Has there been a polarization of social attitudes between higher and lower educated individuals in the Netherlands, with respect to relevant social and political values and attitudes? Ahead of Data Release: First Project 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 19
  20. 20. • EVS waves: 1999, 2008 and 2017 for the Netherlands • Survey data: Face-to-face interviews (all waves) • Increasing educational gaps: • Lower educated: Primary and lower secondary (33.2 percent) • Middle educated: Higher secondary education (33.5 percent) • Higher educated: Tertiary education (33.3 percent) • ANCOVA ~ analysis of covariance Year (1999, 2008, 2017), Education (lower, middle, higher), Interaction between year and education • F-tests to test the significance of each main and interaction effect Analytical Strategy 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 20
  21. 21. 2111/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar • If you had to choose, which one of the things on this card would you say is most important? [And which would be the next most important?] A. Maintaining order in the nation B. Giving people more say in important government decisions C. Fighting rising prices D. Protecting freedom of speech Postmaterialism (1)
  22. 22. Postmaterialism (2) Year: F(2) = 2.711; p = 0.067 Education: F(2) = 37.376; p < 0.001 Year * Education: F(4) = 1.541; p = 0.188 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 22
  23. 23. 2311/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar • How often do you pray outside of religious services? 1 = never 2 = less often 3 = several times a year 4 = at least once a month 5 = once a week 6 = more than once a week 7 = every day Religiosity (1)
  24. 24. Religiosity (2) Year: F(2) = 5.424; p = 0.004 Education: F(2) = 83.043; p < 0.001 Year * Education: F(4) = 1.196; p = 0.310 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 24
  25. 25. 2511/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar • Please tell me for each of the following whether you think it can always be justified, never be justified, or something in between Claiming state benefits which you are not entitled to | Cheating on tax if you have the chance | Avoid a fare on public transport | Taking the drugs marijuana or hashish | Someone accepting a bribe in the course of their duties | Homosexuality | Abortion | Divorce | Euthanasia | Suicide 1 = never – 10 = always Moral Permissiveness (1)
  26. 26. 2611/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar Moral Permissiveness (2) Year: F(2) = 51.387; p < 0.001 Education: F(2) = 152.157; p < 0.001 Year * Education: F(4) = 1.243; p = 0.290
  27. 27. 2711/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar • A job is alright but what most women really want is a home and children 1 = agree strongly | 2 = agree | 3 = disagree | 4 = disagree strongly Gender Equality (1)
  28. 28. Gender Equality (2) Year: F(2) = 22.871; p < 0.001 Education: F(2) = 184.165; p < 0.001 Year * Education: F(4) = 1.787; p = 0.129 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 28
  29. 29. 2911/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar • On this list are various groups of people. Could you identify any that you would not like to have as neighbors? People of a different race | Muslims | Immigrants/Foreign workers | Drug addicts | Homosexuals | Jews Intolerance: Identify at least one of the three highlighted in green Intolerance (1)
  30. 30. Intolerance (2) Year: F(2) = 26.185; p < 0.001 Education: F(2) = 43.710; p < 0.001 Year * Education: F(4) = 1.038; p = 0.386 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 30
  31. 31. 3111/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar • Tell me, for each item listed below, how much confidence you have in them, is it a great deal, quite a lot, not very much or none at all? The church | The armed forces | The education system | The press | Trade unions | The police | Parliament | Civil service | The social security system | The European Union | The justice system 1 = None at all | 2 = Not very much | 3 = Quite a lot | 4 = A great deal Political Trust (1)
  32. 32. Political Trust (2) Year: F(2) = 19.652; p < 0.001 Education: F(2) = 67.975; p < 0.001 Year * Education: F(4) = 8.286; p < 0.001 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 32
  33. 33. • First exploration looks promising • Worlds apart? Yes! • Growing worlds apart (polarization)? No! • Particularly something going on with political trust • Evidently, more research needed! • Not only between groups, also within groups (polarization) Tentative Results 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 33
  34. 34. Should we Talk of a Full Educational Divide? (1) 1. Structural differences • Segmentation (substantial groups) • Segregation • Social (friends/partner) • Geographical (cities/neighborhoods) • Stratification • Wealth (income) • Well-being (health) 2. Attitudinal differences • Norms and values • Religion • Political attitudes Deegan-Krause (2007) 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 34
  35. 35. Should we Talk of a Full Educational Divide? (1) 3. Institutional differences • Societal participation • Organizations 4. Identity • Meritocracy • Higher educated: More identification • “Proof of inability” (Bovens et al., 2014) • Calimero complex (Van Heest, 2018) 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 35 Bovens, Dekker & Tiemeijer (2014)
  36. 36. • Cultural Capital? (Bourdieu, 1977) • Embodied (personality, speech, skills) • Objectified (clothes, belongings) • Institutionalized (education, specialized knowledge) • “The extent to which people value, demonstrate, and master the lifestyle of the cultural elite” (Van der Waal & De Koster, 2015) • How to measure CC? • Parental education? • Linguistic competence? • Cultural knowledge and activities? • Within-group differences (e.g. gender, ethnicity) And What Are the Underlying Mechanisms? 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 36
  37. 37. • Political trust • Populism (democratic or not?) • “Democracy = tyranny of majority vote” (Nieuwelink, Ten Dam & Dekker, 2018) • Particularly higher educated • Less emphasis on equality, justice, minority groups The End of Our Liberal Democracy? 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 37
  38. 38. So, to Conclude 11/07/2018NIDI - Brown Bag Seminar 38

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