Investment can be defined in different aspects. These are:
Generally, investment is the application of money for earning more money.
Investment also means savings or savings made through delayed consumption.
In Finance, the purchase of a financial product or other item of value with an
expectation of favorable future returns. the practice of investment refers to the
buying of a financial product or any valued item with an anticipation that
positive returns will be received in the future.
In Business, the purchase by a producer of a physical good, such as durable
equipment or inventory, in the hope of improving future business.
According to economics, investment is the utilization of resources in order
to increase income or production output in the future. An amount deposited
into a bank or machinery that is purchased in anticipation of earning
income in the long run are both examples of investments.
Purchase of assets with the goal of increasing future income
Focuses on wealth accumulation
Appropriate for long-term goals
Investment is defined as a sacrifice made now to obtain a
return later. It is current consumption that is sacrificed.
Two forms of investment can be defined
◦ Real investment is the purchase of land, machinery, etc.
◦ Financial investment is the purchase of a "paper" contract
Real investments and financial investments are linked
◦ The share issue of a firm finances the purchase of capital.
◦ The commitment to a mortgage finances the purchase of
Financial investment can provide finance for real investment
decisions. Financial investment can guide real investment
decisions. The most important feature of financial investments
is that they carry high market liquidity. The method used for
evaluating the value of a financial investment is known as
Tangible in nature
Some are useful for further production. Capital goods like plant
Some of them like ornaments are not useful.
Used for consumption or production of goods and services
It can be used for further creation of assets e.g. shares and
Marketable and Non marketable investment
Investments listed on stock exchanges are easily marketable.
Non marketable securities are not traded in market such as bank
Transferable and Non transferable investment
Generally marketable securities are transferable and non-
marketable securities are non transferable.
It helps in making investment decisions.
Higher the risk, higher the expected return.
One can take decision only after analyzing entire process of investment
that starts with fund contribution and ends with getting expectations
Higher the time period of investment, lesser the uncertainties of
Cash has an investment opportunity when you
decide to invest it you are deprived of this
opportunity to earn a return on that cash.
When the general price level rises the
purchasing power of cash declines- larger the
increase in inflation, the greater the depletion
in the buying power of cash.
Some investors buy government securities or
deposit their money in bank accounts that are
In contrast, some others prefer to buy, hold
and sell equity shares even when they know
that they get exposed to risk.
Risk is the probability that the actual return
on an investment will be different from its
Using this definition of risk, you may
classify various investments into risk
Government securities would be seen as
risk free investments because the
probability of actual return diverging from
expected return is zero.
Identification of Investors’ Requirements:- Investors differ from each
other in terms of objectives , preferences and constraints. The foundation of
investment management is thus, collection of data relating to investors’
requirements. The analysis of this data gives an idea about the assets and
securities to be selected.
Formulation of Investment Policy and Strategy:- The policy will lay
down the different asset classes of investment viz shares, debentures, bonds
etc. and the proportion of funds to be invested in each class. After
formulating the investment policy, the next stage is to prepare the
investment strategy. Investment strategy will be formulated for income and
capital appreciation and for a level of risk tolerance. The investment
strategy will have to be correlated with the expectation of the capital
market and the individual sectors of industry. On the basis of investment
policies, strategy and investors’ expectations of the market, a particular
combination of investments is selected.
Execution of strategy:- Next strategy is the implementation and execution
of investment process. This process requires a lot of research, analysis and
judgment. The portfolio thus, constructed may relate to the needs of a
given level of income, liquidity, safety, high yielding growth stocks etc.
The success of the portfolio would depend upon the initiative, innovation
and judgment of the person constructing the portfolio.
Monitoring of Portfolio:- The performance of the portfolio is evaluated
and adjustments are made in the portfolio composition from time to time.
Thus is called monitoring and risk structuring of the portfolios. This
process is an adjustment of the components of the portfolio to improve the
performance to make it optimal and efficient. The changes in investors
conditions, market conditions and in industry performance are taken into
account in the portfolio adjustments.
◦ Set Investment policy:- Investment policy provides the raw material for
the Investment management. In this stage various investment assets are
identified and their features are connected. The goal of investment policy
is to decide which stock to be held in an investment portfolio. The
formulation of investment policy requires
Determination of amount invested.
Determination of investment objectives.
Identification of potential investment assets.
Consideration of attributes of various investment assets.
Allocation of investible funds to various investment categories.
◦ Conduct security analysis:-Its objective is to determine future risk and
return in holding various blends of individual securities. It helps in
generating efficient portfolio. To determine efficient portfolio expected
return level is chosen and assets are substituted until portfolio
combination with a smallest variance at that return level is found.
◦ Valuation of Securities:- Investment value is generally taken to be the
present worth to the owners of future benefits from investments. An
appropriate stet of weights have to be applied with the use of forecasted
benefits to estimate the value of investment assets.
Comparison of the value with the current market price of the asset
allows the determination of the relative attractiveness of the assets.
◦ Portfolio Construction:-It involves the following step :
(1)Deciding the diversification level.
(2)Considering the investment timing.
(3)Selection of Investment timing.
(4)Allocation of investible funds to investment assets.
(5)Acquisition of assets.
o Portfolio Evaluation and Revision:- It is continuous process. After selection
of portfolio the next step is that of evaluation from time to time depending on
market conditions. The primary motive of evaluation is to improve performance.
Effective portfolio evaluation requires an investor to balance what he has against
The primary objective of investment is to increase the rate of return and to
reduce the risk. The other objectives are:
Income:- Main objective is to earn income in form of dividend yield or
interest. Investment should earn reasonable and expected return on the
Capital appreciation:-The other important objective of investment is
appreciation in the capital invested over a period of time. Capital
appreciation can be achieved by following:-
Forms Of Return :- The returns expected from securities may be of two
Periodical Cash Receipts
Safety and Security Of Funds:- Another important consideration in
making investment is that fund so invested should be safe and secure . The
investment should be capable for redemption as and when due.
Liquidity:- Before making the investment, the investor should consider the
degree of liquidity require. Certain securities are capable of being sold in
the readily available market and some securities may not be so liquid.
Tax considerations:- Before making the investment, investors should also
take into consideration the provisions of income tax, capital gain tax and
wealth tax to minimize his tax burden and avail all tax exemptions
available to him.
Total return on investment expressed as a
percentage of the amount of money
Investments usually earn
higher rates of return than
Return is the profit or income generated by
savings and investing.
Once an appropriate amount of
liquid assets are reached
goals from saving to
Risk- uncertainty regarding the outcome of
a situation or event.
Investment Risk- possibility that an
investment will fail to pay the expected
return or fail to pay a return at all
All investment tools carry some level of risk
Normally risk involved in investments either loss of profit or lower profit than
Speculation is a baseless guess and may result in a very high profits or high
loss. The risk in case of speculation is very high.
The motive of investment is achievement of appreciation.
The motive of speculation is achievement of profits through price changes.
If securities are purchased and investor does not expect an immediate return on
it and waits for long term benefit, it is termed as investment.
If a person expects immediate returns on his investment and dispose of the
in a short period, it is known as speculation.
Money market securities
◦ Primary and secondary stock markets
◦ Primary market: a market where newly issued securities are traded
Initial public offering (IPO): the first offering of a firm’s stock to the
◦ Secondary market: a market where existing stocks are traded.
Types of stock investors
◦ Institutional investors: professionals who are responsible for investing the
money of a financial institution on behalf of their clients
◦ Portfolio managers: employees of financial institutions who make
◦ Individual investors: individuals who invest a portion of their own money.
◦ Day traders: investors who buy stocks and then sell them on the same day.
Return from investing in bonds is in the form of coupon payments and price
Return from investing in mutual funds comes from coupon or dividend
payments generated by the portfolio of the fund.
Publicly traded indexes: Securities whose values move in tandem with
a particular stock index representing a set of stocks.
One of the most popular is the Standard & Poor’s Depository Receipt
(S.P.D.R, also called Spider)
◦ Buying a home or purchasing rental property or land
◦ Return from investing in real estate comes in the form of rent payments
and selling the property for a higher price than paid for it
Safety: Every investor wants to be insured of the safety of principle amount
which he is investing. An ideal investment programme must be consistent with the
objectives preferences and constraints of the investor. To minimize risk and to
ensure safety , the investor should diversify his investment
Liquidity: Investor must insure a minimum liquidity in his investment to meet
contingencies. The investor should keep a part of his total investment in the form of
readily saleable securities.
Regularity and stability of income: Regularity of income at a stable and
consistent rate is essential in investment programme.
Stability of purchasing power: Investors should balance their investment
programmes to fight against any purchasing power instability. Any rational
investor knows that money is losing its value by the extent of rise in prices.
Capital appreciation: The ideal growth stock is the right issue in the right
industry bought at the right time. The investor should try and forecast which
securities will appreciate in future.
Tax benefits: The investor should plan their investment in such a way that the
tax liability is minimum. Investor should concerned about the return on
investment as well as the burden of taxes on such investment.
Legality: Investor should aware of the various legal provisions relating to the
purchase of investment. The safest way to invest in securities issued by UTI,
Tangibility: Most of investor prefer to keep a part of their money invested in
tangible securities such as building machinery etc. Tangible property does not
yield income, the only satisfaction is the pride of possession.