Copyright: University Kuala Lumpur (Malaysian Institute of AviationTechnology)
Its refers to the force either within or external to a person
that arouse enthusiasm and persistence pursue a certain
Employee motivation affects productivity and parts of
manager job is to channel motivation towards the
accomplishment of organizational goals.
“MOTIVATION IS ABOUT CULTIVATING YOUR HUMAN CAPITAL.THE
CHALLENGE LIES NOT IN THE WORK ITSELF,BUT IN YOU,THE
PERSON WHO CREATES AND MANAGES THE WORK ENVIRONMENT.
People have needs such as for recognition, achievement
and monetary gain. Its will create an internal tension that
motivates specific behaviour with which to fulfill the need.
• Creates desire to fulfill needs
• Results in actions to fulfill needs
• Satisfy needs: intrinsic or extrinsic rewards.
Satisfaction a person receive in the
process of peforming of particular
Ex : praised such as well done,good
Given by another person typically a
manager and include high position,
pay increases and bonuses
“THEREARETWOTHINGS PEOPLEWANT MORETHAN RELATIONAND
-MARY KAY ASH,FOUNDER MARY KAY COSMETICS
Theory developed by Abraham Maslow. He
proposed that people are motivated by multiple
needs and that these needs exist in a hierarchical
• Basic human needs include food, water &
oxygen. In the organizational setting, these
are reflected in the needs for adequate
heats. air and base salary to ensure survival.
• Needs include a safe and secure physical
and emotional environment and freedom
from threats. Organizational workplace its
reflect to safe jobs, fringe benefits ,and job
• Desire to be accepted by one’s peers, have
friendship, be a part of group and be loved. In
Organizational these influence to desire for
good relationship with coworkers and positive
relationship with managers.
• Desire for a positive self-image and to
appreciation from the others.within
organization its reflect an increased in
responsibility,high status and credit to
contributions to the organizations.
• Developing one’s full potential,increasing
one’s competent and becoming better
person.in organization its providing people
opportunities to grow,be creative,and
acquire training for challenges.
Clayton Alderfer proposed a modification of Maslow’s
theory in an effort to simplify it and response to criticism of
its lack of empirical verification.
The needs for physical well-being.
The needs for satisfactory
relationship with others
The needs that focus on the
development of human potential and
the desire for personal growth and
The ERG and Maslow’s need hierarchy are similar
because both are presume that individuals move up the
hierarchy one step at time.
The ERG model therefore is less rigid than Maslow’s need
hierarchy, suggesting that individuals may move down as
well as up the hierarvchy, depending to their ability to satisfy
Aldefer reduce the number of hierarchy to three and
proposed that movement up the hierarchy is more complex,
reflecting a frustration-regression principle.
The idea that failure to meet a high-order need may cause a
regression to an already satisfied lower-order need.
Develop by Frederick Herzberg. Herzbeg interviewed
hundreds of workers about times when they were highly
motivated to work and other times when they were
dissatified and unmotivated.
• Presence or absence of job dissatifiers
working conditions, pay, company policies
and interpersonal relationship.
• When hygiene factor are poor, work
• Good hygiene factor cause people to
become highly satisfied and motivated in
• Factors that influence job satisfaction
based on fulfillment of high-level needs
such as achievement, recognition,
responsibility, and opportunity to
Develop by David McClelland, proposed that certain type
of needs are acquired during the individuals life time. In the
words, people are not born with these needs to may learn
them through their life experience.
• Desire to
difficult, attain a
high standard of
• Desire to form
Need for power
• Desire to
for others and
Process theory explain how people select behavioral
action to meet their needs and determine whether their
choice were successful.
important in this area include goal-setting, equity theory,
and expectancy theory.
Described by Edwin Locke and Gary Latham, proposed
that managers can increase motivation and enhance
performance by setting specific, challenging goals, then
helping their people track their progress towards goal
achievement by providing timely feedback.
People know what to work toward, so they can direct efforts
towards the most important plan or activities to accomplish the
Goal Specificity is the clarity and precision of the goals. Refers to the
degree to which goals are concrete and unambiguous.
Ex : what u want and when u want start and finished it.
Goal acceptance means that employees have to buy into the goals
and be committed to them. Having people participate insetting goals
is a good way to increase acceptance and commitment.
Ex : Manager and workers are running the bussiness together.
Goal Difficulty is the extent to which a goal is challenging and requires
effort. This means that you cannot have goals that you cannot reach,
but at the same time you cannot have goals that are so easy that you
surpass them quickly. You need to be realistic about the goals that you
Focused on individuals perceptions of how fairly they
are treated compared with others.
Develop by J. Stacy Adams, proposed that people are
motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect
Ex ; people evaluate equity by a ratio of inputs to
Expectancy theory says that motivation depends on two
things--how much we want something and how likely we
think we are to get it?
Depends on the individual’s expectations about their
ability to perform task and received desired rewards.
Reinforcement is defined as anything that
causes a certain behaviors to be repeated or
Reinforcement theory is simply looks at the
relationship between behavior and its
Behavior modification is the technique by which
reinforcement theory is used to modify human
Slow work rate
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This pursues task efficiency by reducing the number of
tasks one person must do.
Task are designed to be simple, repetitive and
The worker has more time to concentrate on doing more of
same routine task. Workers with low skill levels can perform
the job, and the organization achieves a high level of
As a motivational technique, job simplification has failed.
people dislike routine and boring jobs and react in a number
of negative ways, including sabotage, absenteeism and
Systematically moves employee from one job to another,
thereby increasing the number
Of different task an employee performs without increasing the
complexity of any one job.
As companies break away from ossified job categories,
workers can perform several jobs, thereby reducing labor cost
and giving people opportunities to develop new skills. job
rotation also gives companies greater flexibility.
Ex ; Rotate job every several time.
Its combines a series of tasks into one new, broader job.
This type of design is a response to the dissatisfaction of
employee with oversimplified jobs.
Instead of only one job, an employee may be responsible
for three or four and will have more time to do them. Job
enlargement provides job variety and a greater challenge
Ex : Mechanics who changes the oil, greases the car, airs
rhe tires, air filters.
Based on Maslow’s need hierarchy and Herzberg’s two-
This incorporates high-level motivators into the work,
including job responsibility, recognition, and opportunities
for growth, learning, and achievement.
In an enriched job, employees have control over the
resources necessary for performing it, make decisions on
how to do the work, experience personal growth , and set
their own work pace.
Enriched jobs have improved employee motivation and
satisfaction, and the company has benefits from higher
long-term productivity, reduce cost, and happier.
Make employees feel like partners
• When people feel and experience ownership of
something, they look out for it, protect it, and pour
themselves into it.
Be clear about rewards and recognition
• Be clear about rewards for hitting those goals. Plan
their goals beyond wildest imagination.
Put heart and soul into your team
• “ People don’t care how much you know, until they
know how much you care.”
• This is because when you care about employee s, you
create an atmosphere where they care about you and
Always expect the best from employees
• Research has found that in an organization, our
expectations of others can be tied directly to productivity,
profitability and MOTIVATION.
Build a motivated workforce
• People are motivated to do what is in their best interest.
Its imperative that you continually look for ways to engage
your people .
• Employees feel motivated to work hard.
Show employees how the business operates
• To succeed in today’s business environment, the
employees need to know more about business than just
how to do their jobs.They need to know how it operates.