The Ground Operations Standard for Airports. The tools, equipment and basic things they use in airport to operate their services. Some of this slide show the real situations at KLIA (Kuala Lumpur International Airport)
EQUIPMENTS AND FACILITIES
FOR AIRPORT OPERATIONS
1. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER
The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent
collisions, organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and
provide information and other support for pilots
2. PAYPHONE BOOTHS
IDD and STD calls can be made from telephones booths
1 Malaysian Coins
2 Time Reach payphone cards
RM 20.00 (USD 5.30)
RM 30.00 (USD 7.90)
3. AIRPORT CHECK-IN COUNTER
Passengers usually hand over any baggage that they do not wish or
are not allowed to carry on to the aircraft's cabin
receive a boarding pass before they can proceed to board their
Complimentary luggage trolleys
They are available within the baggage reclaim area and the Main Terminal
Hand luggage trolleys
They are available outside the arrival gates and are for elderly passengers and
those with heavy hand luggage.
Car park trolleys
They are available at the Covered Car Park, and can be found at specific nests on
all floors. Passengers, however, are not allowed to take the trolleys into aerotrain
5. FLIGHT INFORMATION DISPLAY SYSTEM (FIDS)
Is a computer system used in airports to
display flight information to passengers
Each line on an FIDS indicates a
different flight number accompanied by:
i. the airline name/logo and/or its IATA
or ICAO airline designator
ii. the city of origin or destination, and any
iii. the expected arrival or departure time
or the updated time (reflecting and
iv. the gate number
v. the check-in counter numbers or the
name of the airline handling the check-
vi. the status of the flight, such as
"Landed", "Delayed", and "Boarding".
6. AIRPORT LAGEND
Airport signs & wayfinding systems are guides to show visitors
7. KLIA TV
While customers are waiting for their flight or waiting for the arrival of
their loved ones, they can enjoy the entertaining programmes
8. AUTO TELLER MACHINES (ATM)
To withdraw the money or do other things such as prepaid top
up, transaction and others.
11. SELF CHECK IN
Airport check-in uses service counters
found at commercial airports handling
commercial air travel.
The check-in is normally handled by an
airline itself or a handling agent working on
behalf of an airline.
Passengers usually hand over any
baggage that they do not wish or are not
allowed to carry on to the aircraft's cabin
and receive a boarding pass before they
can proceed to board their aircraft.
Catering includes the unloading of unused
food and drink from the aircraft, and the
loading of fresh food and drinks for
passengers and crew.
The meals are typically delivered in
Meals are prepared mostly on the ground
in order to minimize the amount of
preparation (apart from chilling or
reheating) required in the air.
Chocks are used to prevent an aircraft
from moving while parked at the gate or
in a hangar.
Chocks are placed in the front ('fore')
and back ('aft') of the wheels of landing
gear. They are made out of hard wood
or hard rubber.
Corporate safety guidelines in the USA
almost always specify that chocks must
be used in a pair on the same wheel
and they must be placed in physical
contact with the wheel.
TANK TRUCK AIRCRAFT REFUELER
Aircraft refuelers can be either a
self-contained fuel truck, or a
hydrant truck or cart.
Fuel trucks are self-
contained, typically containing up to
10,000 US gallons of fuel and have
their own pumps, filters, hoses, and
A hydrant cart or truck hooks into a
central pipeline network and
provides fuel to the aircraft.
There is a significant advantage
with hydrant systems when
compared to fuel trucks, as fuel
trucks must be periodically
Some of the most common beacons are:
Flashing white and green for civilian land airports.
Flashing white and yellow for a water airport.
Flashing white, yellow, and green for a heliport.
Two quick white flashes followed by a green flash
identifies a military airport.
APPROACH LIGHT SYSTEMS
Approach light systems are
primarily intended to provide a
means to transition from
instrument flight to visual flight
The system configuration
depends on whether the runway
is a precision or non-precision
Some systems include
sequenced flashing lights, which
appear to the pilot as a ball of
light traveling toward the run-
way at high speed.
Approach lights can also aid
pilots operating under VFR at
Runway Edge lights
Single row of white lights on either side of runway edge
If Instrument Runway
Yellow for last 2,000 feet (or half, whichever is less)
HIRLs (High Intensity Runway Lights )
MIRLs (Medium Intensity Runway Lights)
LIRLs (Low Intensity Runway Lights )
Three ways to ID (identify) runway at night:
Displaced threshold lighting – green lights on either side to indicate
beginning of runway
Row of green lights
Row of red lights
REILs(Runway End Identifier Lights)
Consists of a pair of synchronized flashing lights located laterally on each
side of the runway threshold.
Either omnidirectional or unidirectional facing the approach area.
In – Runway Lighting
Centerline, touchdown zone, and taxiway turnoff lights
White until 3,000 ft
3,000 – 1,000 ft. alternating red and white
Last 1,000 ft. RED
Blue lights that line both side of taxiway
Can be green
CONVEYOR BELT LOADER
Conveyor belt loaders are vehicles with
movable belts for unloading and loading of
baggage and cargo of aircraft.
A Conveyor belt loader is positioned to the
door sill of an aircraft hold (baggage
compartment) for the operation.
Conveyor belt loaders are used for narrow
body aircraft (e.g. 737) and bulk hold of
wide body aircraft (e.g. 767 and 747).
PASSENGER BOARDING STAIR (PAX STEP)
Sometimes referred to as
ramps', 'stair car' or 'aircraft
steps', provide a mobile
means to traverse between
aircraft doors and the
LAVATORY SERVICE VEHICLES
Lavatory service vehicles
empty and refill
aircraft. Waste is stored
in tanks on the aircraft
until these vehicles can
empty them and get rid
of the waste.
After the tank is
emptied, it is refilled with
a mixture of water and a
called 'blue juice‘.
Instead of a self-powered
vehicle, some airports
carts, which are smaller