Innovative practice


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This Innovative Practice session introduces learners on the PGCert at Edge Hill to notions of technology enhanced learning, and encourages participants to reflect and action plan to enhance their future practice.

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Innovative practice

  1. 1. Peter Reed 22 nd March, 2011 Innovative Practice PGC TL HE
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes This session is aligned to all 5 learning outcomes for the module, but particularly LO2: 2. Critical reflection upon and justification of the selection and deployment of technology to support learning in their specialist area/s Reflections will feed into Action Plan
  3. 3. What we’re going to cover… Introduction TEL & EHU Student Expectations ePedagogy Online Discussion Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL)
  4. 4. What is elearning or TEL to you?
  5. 5. “ Any online facility or system that directly supports learning and teaching. This may include a formal VLE, an institutional intranet that has a learning and teaching component, a system that has been developed in-house or a particular suite of specific individual tools” UCISA 2010 Survey What is eLearning/TEL
  6. 6. “ E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching” Wikipedia What is eLearning/TEL
  7. 7. Benefits of TEL Affords learners decisions around time, place and pace. Cost Recruitment/Retention Skills & Employability Student Achievement Inclusion Widening Participation
  8. 8. TEL at Edge Hill eAdministration (Baseline) Online Learning Blended Learning
  9. 9. Do you have any experience of online learning and/or online teaching? What tools/technologies? How was it used? Positives/Negatives? Can you see its potential? How many people on Facebook/Twitter?
  10. 10. Student Expectations of HE As part of a Digital Ethnography course, over 200 students at Kansas State University collaborated to summarise some of the most important characteristics of students today – how they learn, what they need to learn, their goals, hopes, dreams, what their lives will be like, and what kinds of changes they will experience in their lifetime. Watch their video on YouTube
  11. 11. Student Expectations of HE - Activity <ul><li>Use a 2x2 grid: </li></ul><ul><li>In groups, consider YOUR expectations of when you were a student, and compare against OUR STUDENTS’ expectations…. </li></ul><ul><li>What about the comparison in use of technology between us and our students….. </li></ul>Your Expectations of HE & Tech Student Expectations of HE & Tech Students Tech Use Your actual Tech Use
  12. 12. Student Expectations of HE - Activity So what does this tell us? Is there a disconnect? <ul><li>JISC Student Expectations Study - suggests technology should: </li></ul><ul><li>Support established methods of teaching and administration; </li></ul><ul><li>Act as an additional resource for research and communication; </li></ul><ul><li>Be a core part of social engagement and facilitate f2f friendships at University </li></ul>
  13. 13. A Closer Look at Our Students Edge Hill University Students eLearning Survey (Lindsey Martin, eLearning Strategy & Development Manager) Nearly 75% - Bb at least 3 days a week 750 responses 80% access ‘a lot’ and find Bb ‘very important’ 47% think Facebook could be used Who here is on Facebook? And your Students?
  14. 14. A Closer Look at Our Students But are they all tech savvy? – Prensky thinks so… How many people can relate to this cartoon? Marc Prensky (2001) introduced the concept of Digital Immigrants' and Digital Natives CIBER Report is on a similar wavelength
  15. 15. A Closer Look at Our Students
  16. 16. What we’re going to cover… Introduction TEL & EHU Student Expectations ePedagogy Online Discussion Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL)
  17. 17. Online Education and ePedagogy… Watch this video of Bill Gates discussing in person education vs online education In response to the shift towards online education, as well as more recent pressures of ‘Internationalising the Curriculum’ a number of ‘models’ have emerged to provide a framework for the development of online curricula…
  18. 18. Online Education and ePedagogy… <ul><li>SOLSTICE Model </li></ul><ul><li>The Conceptualisation Cycle: Terry Mayes </li></ul><ul><li>The Conversational Model: Diana Laurillard </li></ul><ul><li>Salmon’s 5 Stage Model – We’ll look at this later </li></ul>Distance education is changing from paper based methods. New models largely influenced by Social Learning theories: Social Constructivism & Communities of Practice
  19. 19. Online Education and ePedagogy… <ul><li>The SOLSTICE Model </li></ul><ul><li>… blends theoretical and practical solutions to the development and use of technology within curriculum. It is based around three elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Concept : </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose + Audience = Form </li></ul><ul><li>People : </li></ul><ul><li>New Academic Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Place : </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Learning Spaces </li></ul>
  20. 20. Online Education and ePedagogy… <ul><li>The Conceptualisation Cycle - Mayes & Fowler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on Social Learning Theories, Mayes & Fowler argue that TEL involves a cycle of Conceptualisation, Construction and Dialogue. </li></ul></ul>Conceptualisation : &quot; refers to the users' initial contact with other peoples' concepts &quot;. Construction : &quot; refers to the process of building and combining concepts through their use in the performance of meaningful tasks .&quot; Application : &quot; the testing and tuning of conceptualisations through use in applied contexts &quot;. Primary Secondary Tertiary
  21. 21. Online Education and ePedagogy… <ul><li>3. The Conversational Model - Laurillard </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of conversation theory, constructivism and reflective practice </li></ul><ul><li>Involves Teacher – Student exchange of ideas/concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential level – practice, test </li></ul>
  22. 22. Pedagogical Problems… Activity <ul><li>Pedagogy should drive the implementation of any technological implementation – it should be fit-for-purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Read through the handout (pedagogical problems and technological solutions). </li></ul><ul><li>Identify some pedagogical problems you think might be solved (or helped) by introducing some form of technology in your own practice. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Online Discussion Who has experience (student or tutor) of online discussion? Positive or negative? Why? What has and has not worked for you?
  24. 24. Online Discussion <ul><li>Subscription to Social Constructivism? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we want to achieve? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fit-for-purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful Discourse? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gilbert & Dabbagh (2005) define ‘Meaningful Discourse’ as </li></ul>Before we look at some good practice guidelines, let’s review the PGCert discussion boards…. What Strategies could have been implemented? “ the ability of learners to demonstrate critical thinking skills by (a) relating course content to prior knowledge and experience, (b) interpreting content through the analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of others’ understanding, and (c) making inferences .”
  25. 25. Online Discussion – Good Practice <ul><li>Check List for Good Practice: </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome, develop ownership and an online learning community (of practice) </li></ul><ul><li>Stress importance of discussion in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce reflection for learning activities </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation – must do, should do, could do (Atherton) or ‘Spark’ (Salmon) </li></ul><ul><li>Embed discussion forums within/amongst content </li></ul><ul><li>Structure activities to clearly ‘instruct’ learners to read, reflect, apply prior knowledge and experience, and post! You could also instruct participant to reply to posts. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Online Discussion – Good Practice - Reflection   Description - what happened? Feelings - What were you thinking and feeling? Evaluation? - What was good and bad about the experience? Analysis - What sense can you make out of the situation? Conclusion - What else could you have done? Action plan - If it arose again what would you do? Gibbs (1988) cyclical model of reflection cited in Ghaye and Lillyman (1997:26)
  27. 27. Online Behaviour – that 5 Stage Model thing… Salmon’s 5 Stage Model relates to the incremental and progressive use of online discussion. Model can be translated into different contexts, not just online discussion.
  28. 28. Online Behaviour – Contingency Contingency in Tutoring (Wood and Wood, 1996) Based on the premise: “ if the child succeeds, offer less help; if s/he gets into trouble, offer more help” Align with ideas of ‘Weaving’ which involves summarising and synthesising the content of multiple responses, opposed to responding to individual posts.
  29. 29. Online Discussion If we returned back to the PGCert discussion boards, what would you do to influence the discussion?
  30. 30. Conclusion… Introduction TEL & EHU Student Expectations ePedagogy Online Discussion Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL)
  31. 31. Action Plan Assignment requires ‘ critical review/reflection ’ to ‘ improve the activity you focused on ’ and include ‘ PD needs’ <ul><li>Take this opportunity to: </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on your teaching episode </li></ul><ul><li>Begin an action plan relating to the use of technology in your practice (see handout for plan). </li></ul>
  32. 32. Activity <ul><li>Online Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Read the blog post & comments </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Is it okay to be a technologically illiterate teacher ’ </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Post your thoughts about the authors ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree or disagree? And why? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you been ‘pushed’ into using technology? How did it feel? </li></ul>
  33. 33. References Brown. T, (2010) 2010 Survey of Technology Enhanced Learning for Higher Education in the UK. UCISA CIBER Information Behaviour of the Research of the Future - JISC Exploring Tangible Benefits of eLearning - JISC Student Expectations Study - Laurillard, D. (2002) Rethinking university teaching: a conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies (2nd ed.). London: RoutledgeFalmer Mayes, J.T. & Fowler, C.J.H. ‘Learning Technology and Usability: A Framework for Understanding Courseware’. Interacting With Computers 11, 485-497, 1999  Prensky. M (2001) Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon. 9 (5) Wikipedia (eLearning definition) -
  34. 34. References for online discussion Atherton, J. S (2009) Learning and Teaching; Must/should/could learn [On-line] UK: Available: Accessed: 29 July 2009 - Beaudoin, M (2002) Learning or lurking? Tracking the ‘invisible’ online student. Internet and higher Education 5 (2002) 147-155.   Berge (1995) The Role of the Online Instructor/Facilitator -   Gilbert, P & Dabbagh. N (2005) How to Structure Online Discussion for Meaningful Discourse: a case study. British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 36, No 1, 2005. Salmon, G. (2000). E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online. London: Kogan Page. Salmon, G. (2002). E-Tivities: The key to active online learning. Oxford: RoutledgeFalmer. Wood, D. & Wood, H. (1996) Vygotsky, Tutoring and Learning, Oxford Review of Education, 22(1), 5-16.