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Hashtags & Retweets: Using Twitter to aid Community, Communication and Casual (informal) Learning

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Hashtags & Retweets: Using Twitter to aid Community, Communication and Casual (informal) Learning

  1. Hashtags & Retweets Using Twitter to aid Community, Communication, and Casual (informal) Learning @Reedyreedles | Peter Reed: Lecturer (LearningTechnology), University of Liverpool
  2. @Reedyreedles
  3. @Reedyreedles Rise of Social Networking Sites (SNSs)
  4. @Reedyreedles Lack of Twitter research Easy to find lots of …
  5. @Reedyreedles Lack of Twitter research But not much research into howTwitter is being used with students
  6. @Reedyreedles PLE Personal Learning Environments There is some talk about learners integrating various tools to develop (Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2011; Hall, 2009).
  7. @Reedyreedles This research… Investigating student’s attitudes, perceptions and activity toward the use of Twitter to support learning and teaching. In doing so; Informal Learning Personal Learning Environments Digital Natives & Immigrants
  8. @Reedyreedles This research… Proposes the 3Cs of Twitter (TC3) in Education: Community Communication Casual (Informal) Learning
  9. The Literature
  10. @Reedyreedles The Internet & Social Media… Increased use of the Internet over time (Roblyer et. al, 2010) Pew Research (US) demonstrates reliance on the Internet…
  11. @Reedyreedles The Internet & Social Media… In 2001… 76% teens would miss the Internet Improved relationships for 48% 32% make new friends on Internet
  12. @Reedyreedles The Internet & Social Media… In 2007… 93% teens use Internet ‘as a venue for social interaction’ Decreasing use of email in favour of SNSs @ @ @ @
  13. @Reedyreedles Defining Social Media… Web-based services allowing; (1) Public or semi-public profile (2) Connect (3) Interact (Boyd & Ellison, 2008).
  14. @Reedyreedles Defining Social Media… Social Constructivism Communities of Practice
  15. @Reedyreedles Social Media & the Digital Divide @ Students check SNSs and email with equal regularity, but Faculty check email more (Robblyer et al., 2010) A digital divide?
  16. @Reedyreedles Natives or Residents? CC-BY-SA
  17. @Reedyreedles Social Media impacting on development of PLEs (Hall 2009, Dabbagh & Kitsantas 2011) ‘Blurring of boundaries’ between personal, social spaces and formal learning contexts. PLEs can ‘help integrate formal and informal learning’ in HE. Social Media & PLEs
  18. @Reedyreedles The Formal & The Informal Institutionally Sponsored Highly Structured Prescribed Learning Framework Specific LearningTasks Learner Owned Social Relaxed Personal Choice
  19. @Reedyreedles The Formal & The Informal Institutionally Sponsored Highly Structured Prescribed Learning Framework Specific LearningTasks Learner Owned Social Relaxed Personal Choice Faculty often see these separately, but… ‘eLearning is rarely seen as separate of special by learners’ (Hall 2009)
  20. @Reedyreedles The Formal & The Informal Institutionally Sponsored Highly Structured Prescribed Learning Framework Specific LearningTasks Learner Owned Social Relaxed Personal Choice The way students blend and deploy informal and formal tools ‘underpins their assemblage of a meaningful PLE’ (Hall 2009)
  21. @Reedyreedles What is Twitter Launched in 2006 140 Character limit Follow/Be Followed Additional Functionalities
  22. @Reedyreedles Twitter in Edu… The few authors actively integratingTwitter within the curriculum agree it can have a positive impact on student engagement
  23. @Reedyreedles Good Practice in UG Edu… 7 Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education; 1. Encourages student-faculty contact 2. Encourages cooperation among students 3. Encourages active learning 4. Gives prompt feedback 5. Emphasizes time on task 6. Communicates high expectations 7. Respects diverse talents and ways of learning Chickering & Gamson (1999)
  24. @Reedyreedles Junco et al (2011)… Structured use ofTwitter, including detailed explanations and hands-on training. Identified positive impact; ‘Twitter helped students feel more comfortable asking questions they may not be comfortable with asking in class’.
  25. @Reedyreedles Junco et al (2011)… Aligned to 7 Principles; Improved contact with Faculty (Principle 1) Improved communication between students (Principle 2) Promoted active learning (Principle 3) Prompt feedback (Principle 4) Maximise time on task (Principle 5) Communicate high expectations (Principle 6) Respect for diversity (Principle 7)
  26. @Reedyreedles The Student Voice… SteveWheeler asked students at Uni of Plymouth about Twitter use in education… CC-BY-NC-ND | Used with Permission
  27. The Methodology
  28. @Reedyreedles Methodology… IntroducedTwitter as a voluntary tool for five different modules with the rider to enhance communication. #MM5362 | #MM5361 #6ABL2303 | #6G5Z2001 #63MM6301
  29. @Reedyreedles Questionnaire… A questionnaire was sent to students, which was split into 3 categories: Student Profile Online Access Use of Social Networking Sites
  30. The Results
  31. @Reedyreedles Student Profile 42 RESPONSES 32 Male 10 Female 88% Aged 18-21
  32. @Reedyreedles Main device for Internet access 13 1 13 8 6 1
  33. Time Spent Online / week 2 4 6 8 10 12 61-70 41-50 31-40 21-30 11-20 <10 51-60 Hours online / No. of respondents
  34. Time Spent Online / week 1 2 3 4 5 6 61-70 41-50 31-40 21-30 11-20 <10 51-60 Hours online ~50% of respondents spend between 11 – 30 hours online per week (n=22), although some spend considerably less and considerably more. The mean time spent online was 33 hours per week.
  35. Time Spent Online by Activity 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 <10% 11-30% 31-50% 51-70% 71-90% 90%> Social Networking Gaming Shopping News Banking Study Time online
  36. Time Spent Online by Activity 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 <10% 11-30% 31-50% 51-70% 71-90% 90%> Social Networking Study Time online
  37. Time Spent Online by Activity 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 <10% 11-30% 31-50% 51-70% 71-90% 90%> Social Networking Gaming Shopping News Banking Study Respondents perform a range of tasks online with few taking up large percentages of overall activity. Gaming, Shopping, News and Banking are the activities with least amount of time. Much more even distribution of time spent on Social Networking and Study
  38. Percentage Time Spent on Study Activities 2 4 6 8 10 12 71-90% 51-70% 31-50% 11-30% <10% 90%> Frequency 14 33% 26% 19% 14%
  39. Percentage Time Spent on Study Activities 2 4 6 8 10 12 71-90% 51-70% 31-50% 11-30% <10% 90%> Frequency 14 33% 26% 19% 14% 14% of respondents spend less than 10% of overall Internet time in activities related to Study. This was the most common response (n=14) was between 31-50%, however 19% (n=11) engage in activities related to Study in over 50% of their overall time online. This question demonstrates the range of practices related to study amongst the respondents.
  40. Smartphone Use None 15% iPhone 31% (n=13) Blackberry 13% (n=8) Android 33% (n=14) Other 85% Percentage Respondents with Smartphones
  41. Smartphone Use None 18% iPhone 27% Blackberry 32% Android 23% Other 82% Percentage Respondents with Smartphones This question gives us an idea as to Smartphone uptake amongst respondents. Not much separating Android/Apple use. 14% (n=6) of respondents do not own a smartphone.
  42. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 <10% 11-30% 31-50% 51-70% 71-90% 91%> Percentage Internet Access via Smartphone Frequency
  43. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11-30% 31-50% 51-70% 71-90% 91%> Percentage Internet Access via Smartphone Frequency This question highlights the range of overall usage of Internet access via smartphones amongst respondents. 57% of smartphone users (n=24) access the Internet <50% (of overall time online) on their devices, however 43% (n=18) rely on smartphones far more.
  44. Facebook Twitter 33 24 9 18 Active users of SNS before this course Active Not active
  45. Facebook Twitter 16 10 6 12 Facebook Twitter Not active 6 12 Active 16 10 Active users of SNSs before this course Active Not active 79% of respondents (n=33) are active Facebook users Only 58% of respondents are activeTwitter users. This could demonstrate the larger market share of Facebook amongst the student population. An additional question identified 100% of existing Facebook users had used the platform to discuss course related information on an informal basis.
  46. Should staff use SNS with Students? Yes No Indifferent 19 11 13 12 128
  47. 60% 12% 14% 14% Preferred single method of communication Email Facebook Moodle Twitter
  48. 59% 4% 23% 14% Preferred single method of communication Email Facebook Moodle Twitter Although many respondents are happy to use SNS to communicate, Email still carries the most weight as a preferred method for formal teacher- student communication (60%), followed byVLE (14%). 26% of respondents favoured SNS as their preferred method of communication. All respondents in the 25-34 age category preferred email
  49. Comments related to use of Twitter Ease of communication Speed of communication Infrequent email use Mobile Notifications Public Forum Links/Retweets Informal & Relaxed Moodle for important info Distraction Coded comments of benefits of usingTwitter in edu… voluntarily left 2 negative comments….
  50. Actual usage of Twitter Students were asked a series ofYes / No questions related to if, and how, they have usedTwitter as part of their studies. Have you contacted a tutor? > Was this useful? Have you contacted other students? Have you accessed a link from the tutor? Yes No 15 15 17 21 27 25 21 /
  51. Actual usage of Twitter However…. All those that engaged found it a positive experience… More students engaged with fellow students than with tutor… And more people accessed links that were active.
  52. Feedback
  53. The Discussion
  54. @Reedyreedles Hashtags Encouraging students to tweet on a voluntary basis did not sufficiently instill the importance of including a hashtag. Holding on to the Informal? #MM5362 | #MM5361 #6ABL2303 | #6G5Z2001 #63MM6301
  55. @Reedyreedles Reliance on Email… Contradicting Pew findings? StudentTweets increased at formative assessment opportunities@ @ @ @
  56. @Reedyreedles A Digital Divide? Natives & Immigrants or Residents &Visitors?
  57. A Digital Divide? Digital Literacies If we recognise RESIDENTS & VISITORS we must also recognise the need to support and develop so all students can harness THE SOCIAL WEB
  58. Social Media & PLEs? Students are already using social media tools in the formation of their own Personal Learning Environments 72% 45%
  59. Future developments Archiving of tweets is important to measure and analyse later. Consider Martin Hawkesey’sTAGS Explorer…. Training critical to wider uptake (Dabbagh & Kitsantis).
  60. Two more things…. If Students are already usingTwitter, are there ethical issues involved in archiving their tweets/discussions? If PLEs are indeed personal and these tools are informal, do we run the risk of disengaging students by formalising them through structure?
  61. Any Questions?
  62. @Reedyreedles Credits & References Boyd, danah m., & Ellison, N. B. (2008). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210-230. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x Chickering,A.W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1999). Development and Adaptations of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. New Directions forTeaching and Learning, 1999(80), 75-81. doi:10.1002/tl.8006 Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2011). Personal Learning Environments, social media, and self- regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 15(1), 3-8. Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.06.002 Hall, R. (2009).Towards a Fusion of Formal and Informal Learning Environments : the Impact of the Read / WriteWeb. Learning, 7(1), 29-40.
  63. @Reedyreedles Credits & References Junco, R., Heiberger,G., & Loken, E. (2011).The effect ofTwitter on college student engagement and grades. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(2), 119-132. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00387.x Kassens-Noor, E. (2012).Twitter as a teaching practice to enhance active and informal learning in higher education:The case of sustainable tweets. Active Learning in Higher Education, 13(1), 9-21. doi:10.1177/1469787411429190 Lenhart, A., Madden, M., Smith,A., & Mcgill,A. (2007). Teens and Social Media. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2007/Teens-and-Social-Media.aspx Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 1. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6. doi:10.1108/10748120110424816 Roblyer, M. D., McDaniel, M.,Webb, M., Herman, J., &Witty, J.V. (2010). Findings on Facebook in higher education: A comparison of college faculty and student uses and perceptions of social networking sites. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(3), 134-140. Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.03.002
  64. @Reedyreedles Credits & References Selwyn, N. (2009).The digital native – myth and reality. Aslib Proceedings, 61(4), 364-379. doi:10.1108/00012530910973776 Vygotsky, L. (2002). Play and its role in the Mental Development of the Child, 1-18. White, D., & Le Cornu, A. (2011).Visitors and Residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday, 16(9). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/3171/3049
  65. @Reedyreedles Credits & References Internet & Social Media arrow via Clip art Natives or Residents: Children with iPad: CC-BY-SA Flickr User Ant McNeill

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