Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Pianists Primer Body

339 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Pianists Primer Body

  1. 1. KEYBOARD SYMMETRY Any pianist worth his or her salt knows that the keyboard is symmetrical around both D and G#. This useful fact allows you to invert any one-hand figure and practice it with both hands simultaneously. Many times there is a slight variant that trades off exact symmetry for improved musicality. The key point is always to use identical fingerings in both hands. Increases the efficiency in your use of time Balances your strong hand against your other Helps to achieve exact rhythm 1
  2. 2. PLAYING DRUNK You should have one or two pieces in your permanent repertoire that you play very well even when very drunk. For those who don’t drink that would be one or two pieces you play very well even under very stressful circumstances. You can be sure that at some point your best friend, who should know better, will insist that you play, brushing aside excuses that you have just drunk a bottle of Jack Daniels or have just undergone surgery. 2
  3. 3. POOR PINKY The smallest if not the weakest finger, the pianist’s pinky deserves extra attention. Frequently it has the greatest responsibility – such as supporting the treble and bass lines. Support it with the movement of the hand, wrist and arm. Avoid concert-circuit tricks such as playing octave passages with the thumb and middle fingers. This has probably been the primary cause of the complete loss of use of the right hand for some pianists. Consider a genetic mutation or manipulation that swaps the fingers in such a way that the thumbs are on the outside. Would this enable a new breed of Super-Pianist? Will pianists in the future have pinky extensions or transplants to enable a thumb to pinky interval of a twelfth, equaling Rachmaninoff ’s prodigious finger span? 3
  4. 4. THE RING FINGER The ring finger is the weakest and least independent finger, because it shares a tendon with the middle finger. Its independence and strength can be gauged by the quality of your middle and ring finger trill, the hardest trill except possibly for the pinky and ring finger trill. Professionals in the know recommend that you not avoid or work around this finger, because it will improve through practice. This is the same reason an eye patch is always placed over the good eye: to improve the weaker eye. It could be beneficial to overuse the ring finger slightly to accelerate improvement, but this must not conflict with the development of your own consistent and natural fingering method. 4
  5. 5. EIGHTY FIVE PERCENT Never perform pieces that require one hundred percent of your theoretical peak performance. The other fifteen percent is to account for any combination of bad luck, bad conditions or bad headache. The exception to this rule is when you’re playing in an informal setting, on a piano you know intimately and with a forgiving and forgetful audience. You may find it helpful to build a select group of sympathetic people for whom you can try out your most challenging material before you attempt it in concert. 5
  6. 6. SEXUAL PERFORMANCE Don’t have sex before performing; it takes the “edge” off the performance. I’ve heard that some professional athletes also follow this advice, and I understand that beta blockers sacrifice this “edge” for manageable nerves. Start being nervous well before the concert; don’t think negatively but do think about performing and try to get some adrenalin going. When you do start playing you will still have an “edge” but you won’t have to contend with a sudden flood of adrenalin. Don’t be alarmed should your hands shake or should you make new and unusual mistakes at the start. Most important is to survive the first piece with panic at bay and your ability to concentrate intact. 6
  7. 7. BEFORE THE CONCERT Never drink alcohol or eat a large meal before a concert. Do not practice on the day of the concert. If you aren’t well prepared, practicing on the same day will simply illustrate for you the things that will go wrong — inciting panic when it is too late to have any benefit. It is best to warm up with “dry-run playing,” wherein you play very lightly and without pedaling. Don’t allow friends to coerce you into an attempt at being sociable before a concert. Allow yourself the luxury of being a bit of a loner or grouch. You must keep distractions and irritations to a minimum. Find a true friend who can help you by driving you to the concert or by coming backstage to give you the green light signal. 7
  8. 8. WHAT TO BRING Concert clothes unless you plan to wear them Concert programs and miscellany unless already provided Talcum powder or chalk for moist hands Handkerchief to mop up excess blood, sweat, tears and mucous Sheet music in case of memory lapse Portable heater if needed, for cold hands; hot running water will suffice Tuning wrench and two rubber dampers unless you have checked the piano recently, in case any note is out of tune with itself 8
  9. 9. TUNING A SINGLE PITCH Required: A tuning wrench and two rubber dampers It is unpleasant and distracting when a note (pitch) that uses two or more strings is out of tune with itself. This is caused by pin slippage, notched strings, tension imbalance or sudden temperature or humidity changes. Almost always, one string or pin will have slipped (gone flat) relative to the others. First decide which one has slipped, then adjust it with the minimum of pin movement. A pianist is often forbidden from correcting this, as carelessness can weaken the pins or make the problem recur should a tension imbalance be introduced. For three-string notes, tune the outside strings to the middle, but if you’re certain the middle string is out, use another as the reference. Ask your technician to help you acquire this essential skill, and then deploy it only when necessary, without permission, and always with the utmost care and professionalism. 9
  10. 10. ENCORES Encores are two (sometimes one or three) pieces that are programmed and practiced just like the others, except: Encores are not listed on the program. Encores are to be played if the audience feels that you’ve done a good job, even when you don’t completely agree. Sometimes an audience will congratulate you simply for your hard work and courage; if they insist, you should comply. Encores should be single-movement pieces on the brief side. You can play a big warhorse piece like L’Isle Joyeuse as an encore only if your performance is triumphant. Encores should generally not be contingent on anything; if you are merely stalwart you can not play or risk playing badly. Encores should be reliable pieces for you, or you need reliable alternates that can be substituted at the very last minute. 10
  11. 11. BODY LANGUAGE or: Crouching Pianist, Hidden Message? Superfluous physical activity is to be avoided while playing. Much of a pianist’s practice time is spent alone, with no witnesses. Once a bad habit becomes unconscious it can be impossible to break. Avoid talking, muttering, humming, groaning, whistling, loud breathing, sighing, tapping, stamping, flailing, gyrating, scowling and of course the overly dramatic falling off the bench. Other body language tricks, which I find unnecessary or worse, are crouching to give the illusion of quiet dynamics and leaning to give the illusion of volume swell. Such tricks are no substitute for the real thing. Physical movement is sometimes called for to support the performance. An example is shifting weight onto the left or right buttock, to move your center of gravity toward the extreme left or right of the keyboard, when a passage requires it. Also acceptable is the Lisztian eyes closed and nose heavenward. 11
  12. 12. SMARTER NOT HARDER Your brain must be fully engaged while practicing and performing. It is true that improper practice can be much worse than no practice at all. Rote learning and reliance on “muscle memory” can be dangerous and lead to the dreadful halted performance. More important than practicing exactly three hours daily is to ensure than every minute invested works (however slowly) toward your goals. Important tools are the Rule of Segments (to break down difficult material into segments) and the Rule of Three. The Rule of Three states that if you can’t play a segment three times in a row correctly you need to continue working on it. These tools must be married to the Rule of Connectivity, where each segment’s last note or beat is the next segment’s first, to insure motion and phrase connectivity. 12
  13. 13. THE AUDIENCE Your listeners should not be punished for expressing appreciation. Current performance practice is stuffy in this regard; in the past it was normal for an exuberant first movement to be applauded. Acknowledge all applause with a bow, nod, smile or wave. Try not to have anyone in your direct line of sight, not usually a problem for pianists. People in close proximity and in your line of sight may distract you with sudden movements or other behavior, however unintentional it may be. Unlikely though it may seem, watch out for sabotage, or even better, enlist a friend to help. I experienced it myself, only discovering it after repeated listening to a live recording of mine. Expect it in competitive environments. You may in dire circumstances find it necessary to make a short list of the unwelcome, but there is no shame in this. Performing is one of, if not the most difficult things you will ever do. 13
  14. 14. THE RIGHT FOOT That’s what you want to start off on. Unless you are a virtuoso, veteran or consummate performer you would be well advised to give special attention to the piece that starts the concert. If you falter and lose your concentration you may find yourself in the dreadful state where you are dwelling on past mistakes and are doomed to make new ones. The worst that can happen is that you panic and don’t finish the concert or that you play consistently badly. This is why the first piece in a program should be in a medium to slow tempo, or be something you are very comfortable with. Watch for bad tendencies such as pushing the tempo just beyond where it should be. If your first piece goes well you may find that you enter the ideal state where you are inspired, concentrated and may even play better in concert than you do usually. 14
  15. 15. SOSTENUTO PEDAL The middle pedal on a concert grand is called the sostenuto pedal. Since you often can’t rely on having one, you might forgo its use altogether. One alternative that will serve you well is to learn the half-pedal technique. In this technique you quickly lift the damper (sustain) pedal a small amount to partially dampen the sustained notes. Because the lower strings are fatter and vibrate more widely, this dampens the upper pitches while sustaining the lower ones. This is usually the desired effect, and can achieve what is sometimes referred to in music theory as a pedal point (this term refers to the foot pedal register of an organ). This requires some practice and each piano’s pedal will have a different point at which it gives the exact effect you desire. There are exceptions of course: for example in Albeniz’s El Albaicín, at bar 253, which starts with a low Bb octave sustained over a long period. This passage benefits so much from the sostenuto pedal that it is worth using it whenever possible. 15
  16. 16. PIANO PORTABILITY I sure wish my Steinway grand were portable — but if it were, it wouldn’t be a Steinway of course. Pianists should regard with envy musicians who may easily cart around their lovely acoustic instruments. Given that we must usually make do with the one provided at a given venue, pianists must learn to quickly adapt to an astonishing variety of different instruments. The only exception is the tiny, fortunate minority who are able to add requirements regarding the piano in their contracts and bookings. It really is quite a disadvantage that is often not considered by non-pianists. The fine level of intimacy one gains from years of familiarity with an instrument is often difficult to translate onto a very different one. Pianos can be extremely bright, dull, loud or quiet. Sometimes the dynamic control of the different registers is uneven, for example when the bass has a tendency to completely drown the treble. Sometimes the action and pedals are so different that you feel as if you are fighting the instrument. 16
  17. 17. ACTION ADVENTURE The action on a grand is quite different from that of an upright piano. In part because the hammers on a grand are pushed directly upward to hit the strings, its action can be characterized as “meatier,” or “heavier.” This is a good thing in general I think, as a heavier action aids in the development of overall strength and dynamic control. However, you may run into the odd piece that benefits from or almost requires the lighter action of an upright. A case in point is Debussy’s Poissons d’or, which evokes goldfish with a very fast tremolo effect. It is substantially more difficult to play on a grand. If you don’t practice regularly on a grand you may find the adjustment difficult if you just plop yourself down to perform on one. I suppose this is true for uprights as well. Playing on many varieties of piano should enable you to quickly adapt to whatever circumstances you encounter. 17
  18. 18. PAIN AND PROPER TECHNIQUE This is not a guide to piano technique. Hopefully you have had an excellent grounding in proper technique by a good teacher. That said, I must stress this because of its importance: If it hurts, stop immediately. Playing the piano is not supposed to be painful. Frequent performers may contend with fatigue, and the unfortunate may have to deal with numbness, caused by repetitive stress injury or carpal tunnel syndrome. These are no laughing matters for a pianist, and so I must again stress the importance of learning proper technique from a good teacher. 18
  19. 19. POKING AND PRODDING Although it may seem silly or insensitive, this is one game my teacher and I played to improve my concentration. The game consisted of my playing the piano while my teacher tried to disrupt my concentration. He would do this by rummaging about the room noisily and occasionally poking or prodding me. In reality, one must be able to survive the many obstacles to concentration. These may come in the form of phones ringing, pagers beeping, doors shutting, loud coughing, chairs scraping, or children crying. It is essential that these things not throw you off, and any method or tool for this purpose is worth a try at least. 19
  20. 20. PRACTICE MODES These are the practice modes I find most useful. Dress Rehearsal is to act as if you were performing — the entire program, no stopping, surviving mistakes as best you can. Drill Down is to stop at every significant error, dissecting as finely as is required to address the problem. Memorization Mode is to learn to play a piece without the score, stopping to consult it as needed. Free Improvisational is to explore beyond the score, in order to comprehend it more completely. Maximum Coverage is to play as much of your repertoire as possible, omitting repeats and “easy” or rock-solid material. Discovery Mode is to play unfamiliar music, and Featured Composer is to explore your repertoire one composer at a time. 20
  21. 21. IMPROVISATION One valid criticism I’ve heard jazz musicians level at classical musicians relates to improvisation and the overly literal treatment of the score. Improvisation is not the sole purview of jazz music, although you might think so from current performance practice. Historically, musicians were expected to improvise ornamentation, repeat variations, and even harmonization and accompaniment. I believe this was often done “on the fly.” A solo pianist can use improvisation as a practice tool, to help develop compositional literacy, to dissect passages, to compose your own cadenzas, or to “raise the bar” by making difficult sections even more so. Hint: when you lower the bar after raising it you can make difficult material seem easier, and even turn the impossible into the difficult but doable. 21
  22. 22. KNOW THE SCORE Unless you are working with a conductor or composer, you are the final arbiter of the scores you are working with. You should be able to easily distinguish a repeat variation from a typographical error. Posthumous works deserve extra care; for example most editions of Chopin’s Nocturne in E minor haven’t what my piano teacher and I settled on as the “right notes.” Hint: bar 24, last beat, right hand, C natural, A natural. Study of music theory, however you wish to do it, is crucial to assist you in determining a composer’s intention. Usually you can only be certain of pitches and note values. The publisher or editor, not the composer, often adds or changes tempi, dynamics, phrasing, articulation, pedaling, and fingering. Occasionally a pedantic revisionist sees fit to grind his axe on another’s music. In J. S. Bach’s Prelude No. 1 (W.T.C.), if bar 23 has a G in the bass it should be elided. Bach thought it acceptable to pass from F# to Ab directly. The Schwenke edition made this “correction” and it still misleads the unsuspecting musician. 22
  23. 23. ADAPT THE SCORE As with ancient religious texts, a literal or fundamentalist treatment of the score is a grievous error. It fails to acknowledge the true intent and mening of the music, which the score is meant to illuminate, not embody. You should use the extra bass notes on a Bösendorfer when a low A is a substitute for G#; this is just one clear example of the need to understand the intent of a note. Treat fingering and pedaling marks as helpful advice, nothing more. Be not afraid to shuffle notes freely between the hands. A favorite example of my own invention (certainly discovered by others too) is in Chopin’s Ballade No. 4, bar 223, where the middle notes of each three-note group in the right hand, except the first, is taken with the left. I find difficulties abound and I’ll gladly use all the help I can get. Tricks like this can be considered a pianist’s trade secrets and I fear some aren’t published and never become common knowledge. Pianists with small hands need their own special bag of tricks. I’ve heard that Alicia de Larrocha has a span of an octave only, which you certainly wouldn’t know from listening to her. 23
  24. 24. WRONG NOTES All pianists play at least an occasional wrong note. The difference between a good and a great player perhaps lies in the quality of their wrong notes. If the interpretation is transcendent the audience certainly should be more forgiving. One classic anecdote I heard tells a story of Liszt making an unmistakable error on a passage’s climactic high note. Rather than continue onward, Liszt wheels back around, improvising a re- approach to the error, and with a grand flourish, plays it correctly the second time. There is no improvement on this inspired method of dealing with a mistake. Don’t be discouraged by what I call the tyranny of the recording, where it may seem that most players play note perfectly, even in the most difficult pieces. In reality these recordings are often edited or chosen carefully from among many. Musicality is the goal, not artificial “perfection.” 24
  25. 25. MEMORIZATION While some think that memorization is required for solo performances, this is not a law set in stone. It is better to perform with the aid of a score than not to perform. It is better to perform with a score than to halt in confusion and consult the score. Do practice handling the score smoothly. It is quite acceptable to use a score for avant-garde works and works that are lengthy or not suited to memorization. One trick I’ve relied on is to use the score as a fallback. In this case I turn the pages myself but only when convenient, relying on memory when the hands are simply too busy to turn them. Perhaps the most treacherous to memorize are pieces where a section repeats several times, each with a slightly different ending or modulation which carries you forward or back. Missing such an ending causes a distressing looping or truncation of the piece, and can be very difficult to survive gracefully. 25
  26. 26. STAGE Once you know it is time to begin, walk confidently onstage, try to smile, perhaps placing one hand on the piano, and bow deeply at the waist with arms at your side. Then, position yourself at the piano and sit. If you are wearing tails you may at the same time fling them ceremoniously behind you. Take your time to get situated and gather your nerves; you can buy extra time if needed by fiddling with the bench and such. Take three very deep breaths. Once you are ready to begin, you should place your hands and feet in their starting positions and then wait for silence, or perhaps wait for the pounding of your heart to subside. Hearty applause deserves a long bow. Should you be blessed with the need to play encores, they should be announced as loudly as is comfortable just before playing them. 26
  27. 27. DIGITAL VS. ANALOG Pianists are for the most part analog creatures. They may be transformed into digital entities by such things as the glorified player piano, the Yamaha Disklavier. This hybrid machine digitally and precisely captures the manipulations of the keys and pedals, also known as performance capture, which can then be reproduced exactly, ad infinitum, on the analog piano. A lazy individual could purchase and not play this instrument, thus avoiding the need to hire (or bribe) musicians, take lessons, or even go to concerts. This is not in the best interests of the art form. You should consider carefully the degree to which you agree to be digitized. My Steinway is not digital, thank you very much. Nor is it MIDI compatible, nor does it require frequent upgrading or rebooting. Nor do I think this is a problem. In the light (and dark) of recent local power crises, I for one appreciate the qualities of such an instrument as I play on it by candlelight. 27
  28. 28. LIVE RECORDING It is difficult to listen carefully to yourself while playing. If you don’t, though, you have no hope of playing really well. One tool you can and should employ to this end is to record and listen to your playing. It may be painful at first but is guaranteed to bring things to light. Counting time along with the playback may help uncover rhythmic irregularities. If you can record your live performances, you should do so. Hopefully these recordings will serve as a permanent memorial to your bravery and artistry. At the very worst they will serve as a record of difficult lessons learned. Either way, it is easy to forget both your moments of inspiration and your moments of despair, and a live recording will bring these memories back, vividly. Eventually you will be able to gather your best performances into a collection and proudly publish them as your own live recordings. 28
  29. 29. THE PROGRAM My teacher always rolled his eyes when he told me of pianists who would program lengthy recitals consisting solely of the late works of Liszt. From an audience’s perspective, a narrative arc or at least contrast is important. Rather than treat the concert as some sort of platform from which you lecture a class, think of it as a journey or even as an opportunity to tell a story. A recital of all Liszt, Ravel, Chopin or Beethoven should not be lacking in contrast. I often divide the program into two halves separated by a short intermission. These halves can then be divided again into two or three parts, grouping the pieces so that the audience does not feel required to applaud after each one. The groups should preferably be chosen so that they have some sort of arc or some contrast. Treat each group as a single piece with several movements, especially when constructed by you of disparate parts. 29
  30. 30. MUSIC Music seems to me both a mysterious and magical phenomenon. Perhaps the most abstract of all the art forms, it seems universal and ubiquitous. Why can five notes arranged just so trigger strong emotions in some people? Why is “pushing air” such an important art form? Rhythmic pulse may have a deep connection to the beating of the human heart and the cosmological clock. I firmly believe (without any proof) that music can induce spiritual and even physical healing. Fascinating studies on music’s effect on people range from the alleged “Mozart Effect” on children’s abilities in mathematics to comparing brain physiology of musicians. I think my own musical capabilities have something to do with language and mathematics. Sometimes when I am improvising it seems as though I enter a cerebral “alpha state”, and the music begins to flow through me. Understanding the brain is clearly essential in understanding why music is so important to so many of us. 30
  31. 31. WHY BOTHER Given the difficulties inherent in live performance, you may indeed wonder, why bother. Whether or not society seems to hold the arts in high regard, the challenge and joy of live performance should be its own reward. Artists of the caliber of Martha Argerich and Lang Lang are most certainly enviable and deserving of admiration and respect. But, should you teach a single student, perform a single concert or write a single article on music, you too are part of a great tradition and should take pride in its survival and evolution through the centuries. The piano is a truly marvelous instrument and will be around for the foreseeable future. In spite of what some futurists may say, it will always require a human musician to play it beautifully. 31
  32. 32. INDEX Action Adventure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Adapt the Score . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 The Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Before the Concert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Body Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Digital vs. Analog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Eighty Five Percent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Encores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Improvisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Keyboard Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Know the Score . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Live Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Memorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Pain and Proper Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Piano Portability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Playing Drunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Poking and Prodding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Poor Pinky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Practice Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 The Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 The Right Foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 The Ring Finger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Sexual Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Smarter not Harder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Sostenuto Pedal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Tuning a Single Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 What to Bring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Why Bother . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Wrong Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

×