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Tema 1 lapiz de grafito

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Tema 1 de la asignatura técnicas de expresión grafico-plástica

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Tema 1 lapiz de grafito

  1. 1. Lápiz de grafito Tema 1
  2. 2. DESCRIPCIÓN DE LA TÉCNICA, MODO DE EMPLEO, UTILES Y SOPORTES <ul><li>En la Edad Media se utilizaban para escribir varillas hechas de metales como la plata el plomo y el estaño con trazos muy finos . </li></ul><ul><li>Los primeros lápices mediados XVI Gran Bretaña varillas de grafito colocadas entre láminas de madera </li></ul><ul><li>Difusión del lápiz: 1761 (Alemania) Gaspar Faber funda la actual Faber-Castell </li></ul><ul><li>Finales XVIII Nicolas Conté hornean varillas de grafito mezcladas con artilla obteniendo las gramas de dureza </li></ul>
  3. 3. MODO DE EMPLEO <ul><li>Se utilizan para dibujo a línea con distintos grosores y durezas y para claroscuro creando gamas tonales : entrecruzando líneas, sombreado con líneas en una sola dirección, difuminado por frotamiento de la líneas </li></ul><ul><li>Grado de dureza viene dado por las letras H= Hard B=Black junto con números </li></ul><ul><li>Los lápices H son duros para ideales dibujo lineal . </li></ul><ul><li>Los lápices B son blandos, más oscuros para favorecer el sombreado del dibujo. </li></ul><ul><li>Hay fabricantes que ofrecen minas de distinto grosor (0,3 hasta 5,7 mm) cuya dureza sigue la misma numeración que los lápices, las mas finas se usan con portaminas </li></ul>
  4. 4. ÚTILES Además de los lápices se usan gomas de borra r de varios tipos: Goma de borrar convencional, gomas moldeables, no erosionan el papel, gomas de vinilo, gomas de arte. Difuminos : papel de estraza enrollado hasta formar un cilindro de punta cónica, se limpian con una rasqueta de lija. Se usan para difuminar trapos y bastoncillos de algodón. Sacapuntas y cuchillas para afilar los lápices
  5. 5. SOPORTES Los papeles que una textura ligeramente rugosa favorecen el dibujo tonal : Papel Ingres, Canson, Torreón Los papeles con superficie dura que puede ser mate o satinada favorecen la precisión de la línea, BASIK
  6. 6. ESTILO O PRÁCTICA ARTISTICA, ÉPOCA, ARTISTAS DESTACADOS <ul><li>Esta técnica se ha utilizado para abocetar, realizar estudios y dibujos preparatorios, También como paso previo a la realización de trabajos en otras técnicas: lápices de color, acuarela óleo etc… Y también mezclado con otras técnicas acuarela, gouache, lápices de color… </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>ÉPOCA: El lápiz de grafito se comenzó a usar a finales del Siglo XVIII </li></ul><ul><li>Ejemplos de artistas XIX: Retratos de Dominique Ingres, dibujos de paisaje y de trabajadores Van Gogh. </li></ul><ul><li>Ejemplos artistas Siglo XX. Retratos Picasso, Giacometti, Hockney, dibujos de plantas y habitaciones Antonio López </li></ul>
  7. 7. TÉCNICAS: DIBUJO A LÍNEA SOBRE DISTINTOS SOPORTES
  8. 8. TÉCNICAS: DIBUJO A LÍNEA SOBRE DISTINTOS SOPORTES
  9. 9. TÉCNICAS: DIBUJO A LÍNEA con efecto de sombrado
  10. 10. TÉCNICAS: sombreado
  11. 11. TÉCNICAS: sombreado
  12. 12. TÉCNICAS: sombreado como paso previo al color
  13. 13. Estudio del natural
  14. 14. Papel con color y realces a tiza
  15. 15. Lápiz mezclado con otras técnicas
  16. 16. Gericault
  17. 17. Dominique Ingres
  18. 18. Dominique Ingres
  19. 19. En una carta a su hermano Theo, Vincent Van Gogh decía: &quot;el dibujo es la espina dorsal de la pintura&quot;
  20. 20. Vincent Van Gogh
  21. 21. Vincent Van Gogh
  22. 22. Egon Schiele
  23. 26. Picasso retrato de Igor Stravinsky
  24. 27. Picasso retrato Serguei Diaghilev y Alfred Seligsberg
  25. 28. Picasso de Apollinaire
  26. 29. Hockney retrato de Gjertson David Anderson
  27. 30. Hockney esqueleto
  28. 31. Antonio López, Membrillero
  29. 32. Antonio López, calabazas
  30. 33. Antonio López, habitación
  31. 34. Antonio López, Edificio en construcción
  32. 35. Antonio López, bodegón

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