Alternative Talk Titles Changing the Learners’ Vocabulary behavior The Systematic Noticing of Collocations The Central Learning Strategy from the Lexical Approach Making Lexical Autonomy your Aim SLA using Lexical Notebooks Helping Learners Study Lexis Holistically Noticing Language Patterns
“Once the learner has arrived at an intermediate level of language learning however, progress does not always appear to be so marked, and making the transition from intermediate to the upper-intermediate or advanced level sometimes proves frustrating for many learners.”“For some they may feel they have arrived at a plateauand making further progress seems elusive, despite theamount of time and effort the learner devotes to it.”(Moving Beyond the Plateau, J.C.Richards)
a) There is a gap between receptive and productivecompetence.b) There are persistent fossilized language errors. c) Fluency may have progressed at theexpense of complexity d) The learner has a limited vocabularyrange. e) Language production may be adequate but often lacks the characteristics of natural speech.
Another dimension of vocabulary development which is essential if students are to make a successful transition to the advanced level is to expand what has been called their collocational competence.One of the key problems in helping learners improve theirvocabulary is finding effective ways for them to help rememberwords they have encountered. How can we help learners movewords from short-term to long-term memory? One clue is fromresearch on memory. ……… our mental lexicon is highlyorganised and efficient, and that items that are relatedsemantically are stored together. This is why it is much easier torecall a list of words that are grouped or organized in ameaningful way, as compared with trying to recall a set of wordsthat are simply organized alphabetically.
1. Language and building up a volume of lexis2. Introduction of the Lexical Notebook3. Maintenance of Lexical NotebooksRecognition - Build up the system - ExplorationOutcomes and Results of this Research
Stage 1: Language and Change Course book (resources) needs to be lexically rich Activities that train learners to notice collocations Regular activities for student to remember lexis Give class time and making learners note down lexis
Stage 2: IntroductionMaterial1.A Notebook2.Helpful Inserts (Dowling 2004)3.List of lexis/collocations4.Example/Model of a Lexical Notebook (if possible)5.INSTRUCTION - Categorising
Stage 3: MaintenanceTeacher continues to teach lexisand remind students to take notesStudents complete notebooksoutside classLN are brought into class andcollected for checking andfeedback.
What were the results of the students’ work? Were learners able to complete Lexical Notebooks?
Theme/TopicVerb + Nouns This student used different colours Lexical Notebook Organisation Themed and Syntactic categories
1. Main EntriesCollocation/Lexis+ Meaning+ Phrase using the collocation
2. Main Entries Like TakeNo definitionsTranslation GetKey Word Organization
ResultsControl v Treatment group•The Treatment LN group improved their lexical test scores- the control group’s level was maintained (Lexical Profile Test)Lexical Notebook (Treatment Group)•15 adults - 6 completed the notebook over the period. 9 students stopped due to time commitments•The records of the 6 students varied considerably.•LN rating of difficulty 2.67 Average (1 to 5) for difficulty (not easy or difficult)
Entry ResultsLearners could notice the most frequent syntactic collocation combinations
Formulaic LanguageWord SequencesBetween 90% and 95% of the sequences found in all the sample contained 2 to 5 wordsThe student who made the most effort wrote more longer word sequencesHigh Frequency words (Top 2000 lexemes)Learners repeatedly noted down a high frequency words Smallest sample 40% - Largest sample 64%
Lexical Notebook IssuesConsider the Cost-Benefits of the strategy•A heavy onus/weight is placed on the teacher.•Class conditions may have to be modified•Materials need to be improved/adapted to attend to a higher volume of lexical phrases•Students become familiar with something new, ‘collocations’ and they improve.
Alternative Talk Titles Changing the Learners’ Vocabulary behaviour The Systematic Noticing of Collocations The Central Learning Strategy from the Lexical Approach Making Lexical Autonomy your Aim SLA using Lexical Notebooks Helping Learners Study Lexis Holistically Noticing Language Patterns
ReferencesDowling, S. 2004. ‘Lexical Notebooks’. Teaching English, BBC and British Council: SubmEllis, N. C. 2002. Frequency Affects in Language Processing. A Review with ImplicationFowle, C. 2002. ‘Vocabulary Notebooks: implementations and outcomes’. ELT Journal VKim, D. 2007. ‘Implementing a lexical approach through a lexis notebook: A pilot study’.Lewis, M. 1997. ‘Implementing the Lexical Approach, putting theory into practice’. Hove, UK: LMartinez, R. and Murphy, V.A. 2011. Effect of Frequency and Idiomaticity on Second LMcCrostie, J. 2007. ‘Examining learner vocabulary notebooks’. ELT Journal Vol 61/3,Schmitt, N. Schmitt, D. and Clapham, C. 2001. ‘Developing and exploring the behaviorWalters, J. and Bozkurt, N. 2009. ‘The effect of keeping vocabulary notebooks on vocabuWray, A. 2000. ‘Formulaic sequences in second language teaching; principles and practice