Cognitive Psychology Impact
Impact of Cognitive Psychology on Human-Computer Interaction
Larry A. Ball
COMP325-V1WW
Profes...
Cognitive Psychology Impact
Abstract
Cognitive psychology is the study of how human problem solving, memory, and perceptio...
Cognitive Psychology Impact
Impact of Cognitive Psychology on Human-Computer Interaction
Dual-Modal Presentation of Text
P...
Cognitive Psychology Impact
The authors go on to discuss the various human attention models, stressing again the
influence...
Cognitive Psychology Impact
1) The dual-modal presentation of network relationships will result in superior
comprehension ...
Cognitive Psychology Impact
• content must be business, news, or science related
• content written in German or English
• ...
Cognitive Psychology Impact
emotional response. Visual complexity was measured by how much a JPEG of the screenshot
source...
Cognitive Psychology Impact
References
Shuang, X., Xiaowen, F., Brzezinski, J., & Chan, S. (2008). Development of a Dual-M...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Comp325 v1 ww-ball-2-1

294 views

Published on

Psychology of Web development

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
294
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
28
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Comp325 v1 ww-ball-2-1

  1. 1. Cognitive Psychology Impact Impact of Cognitive Psychology on Human-Computer Interaction Larry A. Ball COMP325-V1WW Professor Atekoja January 28, 2012 1
  2. 2. Cognitive Psychology Impact Abstract Cognitive psychology is the study of how human problem solving, memory, and perception is linked to internal mental states and physiological processes. Human-Computer Interaction is the study and design of the interaction between humans and computers. This paper presents a discussion of the impact of cognitive psychology on the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Three journal articles will be reviewed that apply cognitive psychology in order to study HCI. The first deals with using two modes of information presentation compared to textual information only. The second article explores the objective and subjective effects of visual complexity in web documents. Finally, the impact of web page symmetry on perceived aesthetics is the topic of the last article reviewed. 2
  3. 3. Cognitive Psychology Impact Impact of Cognitive Psychology on Human-Computer Interaction Dual-Modal Presentation of Text Presentation of information via text only is inappropriate in situations where the individual has cognitive impairment of reading and comprehension, the individual is using a mobile device, or the individual is driving an automobile with a screen in the dash – small screen scenarios (Shuang, Xiaowen, Brzezinski & Chan, 2008). In such cases presentation of information via a multimodal interface (across multiple senses) may provide a solution. The authors go one to quote Eimer “… research in cognitive psychology shows that visual and auditory perceptual processing is closely linked” (p. 776). The objectives of the study were two- fold: (a) to develop a dual-mode interface that improves the effectiveness of mental integration of information from different modalities, and (b) to test its effectiveness by comparing the new interface with the commonly used textual display (p. 777). However, the objectives are clouded by statements referring to small screens such as “..dual-modal presentation of textual information that describes network relationships for small screens” and “Results of this study will help to address the usability problems associated with small-screen computers and the mobile information access via handheld devices”, which are not even tested in the study. In my opinion this is one flaw in the study, they study the effects of a visual interface with diagrams and pictures along with audio statements of questions on a normal PC monitor it is assumed, since nothing is stated to the contrary. 3
  4. 4. Cognitive Psychology Impact The authors go on to discuss the various human attention models, stressing again the influence of cognitive psychology and its interest in complex multitasking across different sensory channels. Some research has shown decreased performance of tasks when two or more are performed at the same time. It is pointed out that there exists immense literature showing humans are better at dividing their mental resources across senses – especially visual and auditory, than information delivered via one or the other sense. They proceed to conduct a literature review with strong evidence that “processing spatial and verbal information concurrently does not cause competition of cognitive resources” (p. 778) and that “… multimedia presentation can improve learners’ engagement without increasing their cognitive load…” (p. 779). A brief paragraph is devoted to the problems (at the time of the study) with mobile computing power and the lack of research and development of multimodal interfaces for mobile devices. Another discussion of the proposed memory model the study is based on strongly links it to cognitive psychology research methodologies. The methodology of the study would be to convert the “network relationships” in the text to diagrams and present the rest of the text with audio. The study itself used sample questions from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) presented on a web site developed by the authors. Thirty subjects were selected from a Midwest university in the United States and consisted of alumni, faculty, staff, as well as graduate and undergraduate students. Two groups consisting of randomly assigned subjects (factoring in balance in gender and native language) were the textual display (T-mode) group and the “graphics + voice” display (GV-mode) group – “only the internal relationship and related entities were converted to graphics” (p. 785). The hypotheses asserted are as follows: 4
  5. 5. Cognitive Psychology Impact 1) The dual-modal presentation of network relationships will result in superior comprehension performance as compared to pure textual display 2) The perceived ease of use of the dual-modal presentation of network relationships will be greater than that of pure textual display 3) The perceived usefulness of the dual-modal presentation of network relationships will be greater than that of pure textual display (p. 781). The study’s methodology was for both groups to take the pretest in textual format, and then a second test was given in T-mode and GV-mode to the respective groups. The interface format was an HTML frame document, with an upper frame containing the problem description, and the lower frame listing the questions, so that the mode of information transmission was visible during the problem solving process. The average number of correct answers for the GV- mode group increased 143%. Users’ perceptions of ease of use and usefulness were significantly higher among the GV-mode group as well. The authors conclude with the suggestion that this type of dual mode information delivery might serve useful on mobile devices, with the limiting and problematic factor of screen size. Symmetry and aesthetics in website design Tuch, Bargas-Avila & Opwis looked in depth at the effect of symmetry on aesthetics and surprisingly found some very different results between genders (2010). They expected that vertically symmetrically designed webpages would have a higher aesthetic perception. 60 participants mainly composed of undergraduate psychology students from the University of Basel in Switzerland were distributed among two groups with 15 of each gender in each group (p. 1833). 60 web pages were selected and then filtered based on the following criteria: 5
  6. 6. Cognitive Psychology Impact • content must be business, news, or science related • content written in German or English • content unfamiliar to Swiss students • easy to manipulate symmetry using the tool Adobe Photoshop CS3 40 total screenshots, 20 symmetrical and 20 asymmetrical were shown in random order, once to get a initial rating on beauty, and then again but this time rated on seven items – three classical, three expressive, and one manipulation. Various rating systems were used to measure symmetry and aesthetic perception in both the “classical and expressive dimension” (p. 1833). There was no relationship between gender and vertical symmetry ratings found, but the authors did observe that … asymmetrically designed websites were considered less beautiful and achieved lower scores on the classical and expressive dimensions … These results suggest that prior findings on symmetry from experimental psychology are also highly relevant for real websites. Moreover, the study indicates that the effect only occurs among male participants (p. 1835). A limitation of the study is noted that there was no interaction with the website during the study, only screenshots and visual impressions were formed. Visual complexity of websites Tuch, Bargas-Avila, Opwis & Wilhelm conducted an in depth study of the effects on users’ experience, physiology, and memory (2009). The methodology of the study is based on much research over the past decade in the overlap of psychophysiology and HCI – to measure 6
  7. 7. Cognitive Psychology Impact emotional response. Visual complexity was measured by how much a JPEG of the screenshot source would compress in bytes. The authors state a correlation exists, but in my opinion this does not prove causation. Static screenshots and lack of interactivity really limit the findings of this study to impressions of static websites, while modern websites use JavaScript and CSS3 animations for beautiful, intuitive interactivity for the visitor. Start pages with low visual complexity were rated as more pleasurable and less arousing. Furthermore, participants performed better on search and recognition tasks on start pages with low visual complexity. These results suggest that relatively simple start pages are not only more favorable to users but that they are also better remembered (recognized) than more complex ones. Moreover, the study indicates that compressed file size (e.g. JPEG) is an easy way of obtaining an index for assessing visual complexity and provides a good predictor for users’ first impressions of a website (p. 712). Conclusion The three studies presented research that is useful to keep in mind when designing websites. While only one of the studies provided any interactivity, the research focused on the cognitive processing and more effective results from dual sensory interfaces. This was the most exciting and strongest link to cognitive psychology as the methodology of the experiment was influenced by that field. The last study reinforces my opinion that clean, minimalistic-tending interface and layouts in web design combined with front-end web development to add interactivity and reveal more specific content via JavaScript is a modern approach to web development. 7
  8. 8. Cognitive Psychology Impact References Shuang, X., Xiaowen, F., Brzezinski, J., & Chan, S. (2008). Development of a Dual-Modal Presentation of Texts for Small Screens. International Journal Of Human-Computer Interaction, 24(8), 776-793. doi:10.1080/10447310802537566 Tuch, A. N., Bargas-Avila, J. A., & Opwis, K. (2010). Symmetry and aesthetics in website design: It’s a man’s business. Computers In Human Behavior, 26(6), 1831-1837. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.07.016 Tuch, A. N., Bargas-Avila, J. A., Opwis, K., & Wilhelm, F. H. (2009). Visual complexity of websites: Effects on users’ experience, physiology, performance, and memory. International Journal Of Human-Computer Studies, 67(9), 703-715. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.04.002 8

×