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Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
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LAB#01
1.1. STATEMENT:
LAYOUT OF ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY LAB
1.2. SCOPE:
- To understand the lab equipment names and their functions
- To understand the position of equipment in the lab
1.3. THEORY:
1.3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY:
Environmental geology is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the
principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems. This field involves the study of
the interaction of humans with the geologic environment. Environmental geology is the
application of geological information to solve conflicts, minimizing possible adverse
environmental degradation or maximizing possible advantageous condition resulting from the
use of natural and modified environment.
IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY:
Environmental Geology is an important field because it is used for:
- Managing geological and hydrogeological resources such as fossil fuel, minerals, waters
(surface and subsurface) and land use.
- Defining and mitigating exposure of natural hazards on humans.
- Managing industrial and domestic waste disposal and minimizing or eliminating effects
of pollution.
- Studying the earth's surface through the disciplines of geomorphology.
- Performing associated activities, often involving litigation.
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Figure 1.1 Environmental interaction
Figure 1.2 Lab Layout
1.3.2. LAB LAYOUT:
1.4.LIST OF INSTRUMENTS:
1) Autoclave incubator
2) Oven
3) Paqualab
4) Electrical conductance meter (EC meter)
5) Sensodirect
6) PH meter
7) Paqualab photometer
8) Turbidity meter
9) Hot plate
10) Multi gas detector
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Figure 1.3 Autoclave
1.5.DETAILS OF INSTRUMENTS:
1.5.1. AUTOCLAVE INCUBATOR:
An autoclave is an instrument used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to
high pressure saturated steam at 121 °C for around 15–20 minutes depending on the size of the
load and the contents. Many autoclaves vary in size and function depending on the media they
are sterilizing.
USES OF AUTOCLAVE:
- Autoclaves are widely used in microbiology, medicine, body piercing, veterinary science,
dentistry, research and development for pharmaceutical and food production facilities and
prosthetic fabrication.
- These are the sterilization equipment of choice in laboratories and hospitals.
- Large autoclaves and units of smaller sizes may be used anywhere else that sterilization of
equipment is critical to ensuring the outcome of the process, the safety of personnel or the
public, such as in businesses which provide tattooing and body piercing services.
1.5.2.OVEN:
An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking or drying of a substance
and most commonly used for cooking. Different types of ovens are used for different purposes
but we use oven in our lab mostly for drying purpose.
USES OF OVEN:
- An autoclave is an oven-like device with features similar to a pressure cooker that allows the
heating of aqueous solutions to higher temperatures than water's boiling point in order to
sterilize the contents of the autoclave.
- A kiln is a high-temperature oven used in wood drying, ceramics and cement manufacturing
to convert mineral feedstock.
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Figure 1.4 Oven
Figure 1.5 Paqualab
1.5.3. PAQUALAB:
An incubator provides a controlled environment that regulates temperature, ventilation and
humility. It is used to care for premature babies, hatch poultry eggs and to cultivate
microorganisms. A laboratory incubator is also used for tissue culture, a type of clinical research
method that draws out tissue parts from animals or plants. A laboratory incubator is used in
genetic engineering, which is an extended application of tissue culture.
USES OF PAQUALAB:
- It is used for the culturing the, microorganisms environment.
- It is used for keeping premature in fact in the temperature same to that of their mother’s
womb.
Used for hatching eggs. An incubator is a device used to grow and maintain microbiological
cultures or cultures.
- Hospitals will always rely on neonatal incubators while the field of research and bio-
technology will mainly depend on laboratory incubators.
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Figure 1.6 EC Meter
Figure 1.7 Senso Direct
1.5.4. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY METER:
An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) measures the electrical conductivity in a solution. It
is commonly used in hydroponics, aquaculture and freshwater systems to monitor the amount of
nutrients, salts or impurities in the water.
USES OF EC METER:
- The electrical conductivity of water estimates the total amount of solids dissolved in water,
which stands for Total Dissolved Solids.
- The electrical conductivity of water is actually a measure of salinity. Excessively high
salinity can affect plants in the following ways:
1. Specific toxicity of a particular ion (such as Sodium)
2. Higher osmotic pressure around the roots prevents an efficient water absorption by the
plant.
1.5.5. SENSODIRECT:
The SensoDirect is designed for multipurpose operation and measures PH/Redox, dissolved
oxygen and conductivity/TDS. It incorporates an intuitive user interface, large, easy to read
display and is supplied with a sturdy handy case with electrodes, buffer solution and accessories.
USES OF SENSODIRECT:
It is used to measure:
- PH/Redox
- Dissolved oxygen and conductivity/TDS
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Figure 1.8 PH Meter
Figure 1.9 Photometer
1.5.6.PH METER:
A PH meter is an electronic instrument used for measuring the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of a
liquid (though special probes are sometimes used to measure the pH of semi-solid substances.
The pH of a river or lake is important in maintaining a proper ecological balance.
USES OF PH METER:
- Used in hospitals, universities Pharma companies, I.I.T, research institutes or laboratories.
- It is also used in the wine industry and in the process of the fermentation In Food Science in
the Pulp and Paper Industry in Chemical Research and Engineering.
1.5.7.PAQUALAB PHOTOMETER:
A photometer is an instrument for measuring light intensity or optical properties of solutions or
surfaces.
USES OF PHOTOMETER:
- Photometers are used to measure the different properties i.e., Illuminance, Irradiance,
absorption, Scattering, Reflection, Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, Luminescence.
- Whereas the microscope photometer can be used to measure the Vitrinite Coal
Reflectometry, Kerogen analysis, Mineralogy.
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Figure 1.10 Turbidty Meter
Figure 1.11 Hot plate
1.5.8.TURBIDITY METER:
A Turbidity Meter is a stationary or portable instrument for measuring suspended particulates in
a liquid or gas colloid. The measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality.
USES OF TURBIDITY METER:
- The turbidity meter is extensively used in the testing of domestic water supplies as these have
to be safe for human consumption.
- It is also used in the treatment process to access how hard filters will have to work to treat
rainwater from rivers. The process is useful in determining the quality and state of water.
- In rivers these meters are often used to find sediment and silt levels of the flowing water.
1.5.9.HOT PLATE:
A hot plate is a portable self-contained tabletop small appliance that features one, two or more
gas burners or electric heating elements. It is essentially an electric stove top that is used in the
laboratory.
USES OF HOT PLATE:
- A hot plate can be used as a standalone appliance, but is often used as a substitute for one of
the burners from an oven range or the cook top of a stove.
- This laboratory hot plate with magnetic stirrer is used for preparing chemicals used in
research. In laboratory settings, hot plates are generally used to heat glassware or its contents.
A hot plate is an adjustable heating source which is ideal for heating beakers, flasks, hot
water baths, and other flat-bottomed containers.
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1.5.10.MULTI GAS DETECTOR:
Multi-gas monitor capable of detecting O2, CO, H2S and combustible gases for a wide variety of
hazardous and confined space applications. It can accommodate either NiMH or alkaline
batteries, which are interchangeable.
USES OF MULTIGAS DETECTOR:
- Detects O2, H2S, CO and combustible gas and is used for confined space entry in industrial,
agricultural and other environments as
well as by fire and rescue personnel.
1.6.REFERENCES:
http://www.lovibond.com/en/pool/turbidity-meters
http://www.lovibond.com/en/pool/photometer
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oven
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_conductivity_meter
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_geology
Figure 1.12 Multi Gas Detector
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Figure 2.1 Autoclave
Figure 2.2 Autoclave
LAB#02
2.1. STATEMENT:
STERLIZATION OF LAB EQUIPMENT BY USING AUTOCLAVE
2.2. SCOPE:
- It is used for the treatment of biological waste
- Safety is provided by using autoclave
2.3. THEORY:
2.3.1. AUTOCLAVE:
An autoclave is an instrument used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to
high pressure saturated steam at 121 °C for around 15–20 minutes depending on the size of the
load and the contents. Many autoclaves vary in size and function depending on the media they
are sterilizing.
USES OF AUTOCLAVE:
- Autoclaves are widely used in microbiology, medicine, tattooing, body piercing, veterinary
science, dentistry, chiropody and prosthetic fabrication.
- Typical sterilization includes laboratory glassware, surgical instruments, medical waste and
patient care utensils.
- A notable growing application of autoclaves is in the pre-disposal treatment and sterilization
of waste material, such as pathogenic hospital waste.
- Autoclaves are also widely used to cure composites and in the vulcanization of rubber.
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Figure 2.3 Structure of Autoclave
2.4. STERILIZATION:
Sterilization is a term referring to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills all forms of
microbial life, including transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, etc.)
present on a surface, contained in a fluid, in medication, or in a compound such as biological
culture media. Sterilization can be achieved by applying the proper combinations of heat,
chemicals, irradiation, high pressure, and filtration.
2.4.1. IMPORTANCE OF STERILIZATION:
Sterilization is very important process because it has wide uses and applications, some of the
Applications of sterilization are given as:
- Medicine and surgery
- Food
- Industry purposes
2.4.2. TYPES OF STERILIZATION:
 HEAT STERILIZATION:
Heat Sterilization can be:
1) DRY HEAT STERILIZATION
Dry heat sterilization of an article is one of the earliest forms of sterilization practiced. Dry heat,
as the name indicates, utilizes hot air that is either free from water vapour, or has very little of it,
and where this moisture plays a minimal or no role in the process of sterilization.
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2) MOIST HEAT STERILIZATION:
Heating an article is one of the earliest forms of sterilization practiced. Moist heat, as the name
indicates, utilizes hot air that is heavily laden with water vapour and where this moisture plays
the most important role in the process of sterilization.
 STEAM STERILIZATION:
A widely used method for heat sterilization is the autoclave, sometimes called a converter.
Autoclaves use steam heated to 121–134 °C (250–273 °F) under pressure (100 °C (212 °F) is the
maximum attainable at atmospheric pressure). To achieve sterility, a holding time of at least 15
minutes at 121 °C (250 °F) at 100 kPa (15 psi), or 3 minutes at 134 °C (273 °F) at 100 kPa (15
psi) is require. This is the time for which all the material being sterilised must be held at the
specified temperature; additional time is required to heat the material, unless finely ground.
2.5. PROCEDURE OF STERILIZATION BY AUTOCLAVE:
 Dip the element in the water
 Put the equipment in the water in the bucket like assembly of the autoclave.
 Operate the timer for the 30 minutes and adjust the temperature for the 1210
C.
 After 30 minutes there will be buzzer from the apparatus which will be the sign of the
sterilization of the equipment.
2.5.1. ADVANTAGES:
- Is used for the killing of hazardous materials from the daily used equipment.
- Provide safety against diseases
- The process is not so difficult
- Can be used for the treatment of wastes which is a big problem to the environment
- Have large number of applications in most of the industries
2.5.2. DISADVANTAGES:
- Autoclave is a good method for sterilization but as we move the sterilized equipment from
the autoclave it have contact with the moisture, resulting the initiation of the culturing of the
bacteria.
- Steam sterilization has some deleterious effects on some materials, including corrosion and
combustion of lubricants associated with dental hand pieces.
- High temperatures are not suitable for most materials.
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2.6. PRECAUTIONS:
Instruments that have undergone sterilization can be maintained in such condition by
containment in sealed packaging until use.
2.7. REFERENCES:
- Article of Sidra Roa PN Assistant Professor Department of Microbiology JJMMC,
Davangere (Last edited on June 2008)
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sterilization
- "No bugs please, this is a clean planet!". European Space Agency. 30 July 2002. Retrieved 7
August 2014
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Figure 3.2 Probe
LAB#03
3.1. STATEMENT:
DETERMINE THE PH AND TURBIDITY OF WATER SAMPLES BY USING PH
METER AND TURBIDITY METER
3.2. SCOPE:
- Good quality of water needs PH and Turbidity level according to standards.
- Using the TDS meter and the PH meter, determination of the quality of the water under
different physical parameters.
3.3. THEORY:
3.3.1. PH METER:
A PH meter is an electronic instrument used to measure the PH (acidity or alkalinity) of a liquid
(though special probes are sometimes used to measure the PH of semi-solid substances). A
typical PH meter consists of a special measuring probe (a glass electrode) connected to an
electronic meter that measures and displays the PH reading.
3.3.2. THE PROBE:
The PH probe measures PH as the activity of hydrogen ions surrounding a thin-walled glass bulb
at its tip. The probe produces a small voltage (about 0.06 volt per PH unit) that is measured and
displayed as PH units by the meter.
Figure 3.1 PH Meter
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3.4. PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE PH:
 First of all, start the PH meter.
 Now calibrate the PH meter.
 Take approximately 100 ml water sample in beaker of which PH has to measure.
 Dip the probe in water sample.
 PH meter display the reading continuously changing, when reading becomes constant, note
that reading.
-PH = 7 Neutral
-PH > 7 Basic
-PH < 7 Acidic
3.5. TURBIDITY:
The haziness of the water is known as the turbidity of the water. Turbidity is a measure of the
degree to which the water loses its transparency due to the presence of suspended particulates.
Turbidity is a principal physical characteristic of water and is an expression of the optical
property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed by particles and molecules rather than
transmitted in straight lines through a water sample. It is caused by suspended matter or
impurities that interfere with the clarity of the water. These impurities may include clay, silt,
finely divided inorganic and organic matter, soluble colored organic compounds, and plankton
and other microscopic organisms. Main causes of the turbidity are as under;
- Sediments from erosion
- Resuspended sediments from the bottom
- Waste discharge
- Algae growth
- Urban runoff
3.5.1. TURBIDITY METER:
Sensor uses light which passes in the water at right angle to detect the water's turbidity .Ensure
that the minimum amount of external light possible is exposed to the monitoring site. . The
turbidity meter will display readings directly in either nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) or
parts per million (PPM).For environmental or process monitoring, simply place the turbidity
sensor directly in the water and position it where the turbidity is to be monitored.
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Figure 3.3 Turbidity Meter
3.5.2. FEATURES OF TURBIDITY METER:
Turbidity Meter combines the turbidity sensor with a handheld meter that has a six digit LED
screen, 4-button control panel, and an internal 9V battery. The turbidity meter will display
readings directly in either nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) or parts per million (PPM). The
turbidity meter also includes an automatic shutoff feature to conserve battery power.
3.6. PROCEDURE OF DETERMINE TURBIDITY:
 Shaking the sample bottle well before analysis.
 The sample is simply poured into a glass tube.
 Then place the glass tube inside the instrument.
 The result is read directly from the instrument.
3.7. W.H.O STANDARDS:
 The WHO establishes that pH of drinking water should be in between 6 to 8.5.
 The WHO (World Health Organization), establishes that the turbidity of drinking water
shouldn't be more than 5 NTU.
 TDS < 200 mg/liter (Not Good)
 TDS 200-500 mg/liter (Fit)
 TDS 500-800 mg/liter (Moderate)
 TDS >800 mg/liter (Not Good)
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Figure 3.4 Locations of Samples
3.8. OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS:
TABLE#3.1
Sample
No.
Sample
location
Sample
ID
Smell/taste Color PH Potential
(mv)
Turbidity
(mg/lit)
Temp
(0
C)
1 Cant C-1 Taste less Colorless 6.98 54.5 2.44 19.2
2 Cant C-2 Taste less Colorless 7.08 50.4 1.56 22.3
3 Cant C-3 Taste less Colorless 7.64 26.6 2.21 20.1
4 F.F.UET Uet-3 Taste less Colorless 7.09 150.1 4.92 19.4
5 UET
Q hall
Uet-4 Taste less Colorless 7.15 247.4 5.41 20.4
6 Cant C-4 Taste less Colorless 7.12 48.5 1.28 20.0
7 UET
L hall
Uet-1 Taste less Colorless 7.43 35.7 5.29 19.93
8 UET SMG
hall
Uet-2 Taste less Colorless 6.64 69.0 6.21 19.7
9 Shalimar
link road
SL-1 Taste less Colorless 723 44.0 1.61 21.5
10 Shahdra SHD-1 Taste less Colorless 7.07 50.7 1.66 19.9
11 Sabzazar SBZ-1 Taste less Colorless 7.47 33.6 1.85 19.8
12 Johr town JT-1 Taste less Colorless 6.71 66.0 4.81 19.0
13 Valencia
town
VT-1 Taste less Colorless 7.17 46.7 0.43 19.4
14 Model town MT-1 Taste less Colorless 7.26 42.7 1.67 21.1
3.8.1. SAMPLES ARE COLLETED FROM:
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3.9. PH CHART:
Figure 3.5 PH Chart
3.10. TURBIDTY CHART:
Figure 3.6 Turbidity Chart
PH
Location
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3.11. COMMENTS:
The PH of the samples lies in the drinkable range, but the turbidity may vary. Although the
turbidity becomes vary but still it is drinkable and may need filters to make it safer for the health.
3.12. REFRENCES:
 Class lectures
 www.google.com/physical parameters of the drinking water
 http://www.lovibond.com/en/pool/turbidity-meters
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Figure 4.1 TDS Apparatus
LAB#04
4.1. STATEMENT:
DETERMINE THE TDS AND CONDUCTIVITY OF WATER SAMPLES BY USING
TDS METER AND CONDUCTIVITY METER
4.2. SCOPE:
- To determine the physical contamination (TDS and turbidity) of a given water sample
4.3. THEORY:
4.3.1. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS):
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) are solids in water that can pass through a filter. TDS is a measure
of the amount of material dissolved in water. This material can include carbonate, bicarbonate,
chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, organic ions, and other ions.
A certain level of these ions in water is necessary for aquatic life. Changes in TDS
concentrations can be harmful because the density of the water determines the flow of water into
and out of an organism's cells. However, if TDS concentrations are too high or too low, the
growth of much aquatic life can be limited, and death may occur. High concentrations of TDS
may also reduce water clarity, contribute to a decrease in photosynthesis, combine with toxic
compounds and heavy metals, and lead to an increase in water temperature.
TDS is used to estimate the quality of drinking water, because it represents the amount of ions in
the water. Water with high TDS often has a bad taste and/or high water hardness, and could
result in a laxative effect.
4.3.2. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS:
To measure TDS, the water sample is filtered, and then the filtrate (the water that passes through
the filter) is evaporated in a pre-weighed dish and dried in an oven at 180o
C, until the weight of
the dish no longer changes. The increase in weight of the dish represents the total dissolved
solids, and is reported in milligrams per liter (mg/l).
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4.4. FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS
4.4.1. GEOLOGY AND SOIL IN THE WATERSHED:
Some rock and soil release ions very easily when water flows over them; for example, if acidic
water flows over rocks of calcareous shales, calcium (TDS will increase. However, some rocks,
such as quartz-rich granite, are very resistant to dissolution, and don’t dissolve easily when water
flows over them.
4.4.2. URBAN RUNOFF:
During storm events, pollutants such as salts from streets, fertilizers from lawns, and other
material can be washed into streams and rivers and dissolved solids are carried through storm
drains to creeks and rivers.
4.4.3. SOIL EROSION:
Soil erosion is caused by disturbance of a land surface. Soil erosion can be caused by Building
and Road Construction, Forest Fires, Logging, and Mining. The eroded soil particles may
contain soluble components that can dissolve and be carried by storm water to surface water.
This will increase the TDS of the water body.
4.4.4. DECAYING PLANTS AND ANIMALS:
As plants and animals decay, dissolved organic particles are released and can contribute to the
TDS concentration. High TDS concentrations in water are also unsuitable for many industrial
applications.
4.5. PROCEDURE:
 Take beakers in which samples have to collect and clean them.
 Note the weight the empty beakers.
 Take different samples of water of 60 ml from different places in these beakers.
 Again note the weight the beakers containing the water samples.
 Now heat the beakers until all the water in the beakers evaporates.
 After complete evaporation of water, note the weight of empty beakers again. Beakers before
and after the heating gives the value of TDS (total dissolved solids).
 Now difference in the weights of empty
 TDS = Wt. after heating – Wt. before heating
4.5.CONDUCTIVITY STANDARDS:
- Ultra-pure water = 5.5×10-6
s/m
- Drinking water = 0.005 – 0.05 s/m
- Sea water = 5 s/m
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4.6. TDS STANDARDS:
- Fresh water ˂1000 mg/l
- Breakish water = 1000 – 3000 mg/l
- Sea water = 73500 mg/l
4.7. OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS:
Sample
#
Sample
location
Sample
ID
Intial
weight
of
beaker
Final
weight
of
beaker
TDS
mg/l
(ppm)
Conductivity
µs/cm
TDS
Ppm
µs/cm 0.67
TDS
Meter
(ppm)
1 Cant 1 C-1 30.59 30.599 475 619 455 518
2 Cant 2 C-2 42.47 42.489 480 709 475 506
3 Cant 3 C-3 32.08 32.094 350 474 318 396
4 F.F.UET Uet-3 51.74 51.759 410 492 330 455
5 UET
Q hall
Uet-4 37.93 37.958 710 1044 699 769
6 Cant C-4 32.09 32.105 395 535 358 435
7 UET
L hall
Uet-1 30.147 30.1775 763 1063 712 807
8 UET SMG
hall
Uet-2 50.78 50.803 595 800 536 623
9 Shalimar
link road
SL-1 30.59 30.611 545 735 492 621
10 Shadara SHD-1 37.95 37.963 365 372 250 468
11 Sabzazar SBZ-1 37.8 37.967 235 262 176 213
12 Johr town JT-1 51.74 51.756 290 396 265 326
13 Valencia
town
VT-1 30.147 30151 816 1085 726 905
14 Model
town
MT-1 42.47 42.475 1017 1400 938 1169
4.8. W.H.O STANDARDS:
An aesthetic objective of ≤500 mg/L has been established for total dissolved solids (TDS) in
drinking water by WHO. At higher levels, excessive hardness, unpalatability, mineral deposition
and corrosion may occur. At low levels, however, TDS contributes to the palatability of
water. Most people think of TDS as being an aesthetic factor. In a study by the World Health
Organization, a panel of tasters came to the following conclusions about the preferable level
of TDS in water:
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4.9. TDS CHART:
Figure 4.2 TDS Chart
Taste of Water with Different TDS Concentrations
Level of TDS (milligrams per litre) Rating
Less than 300 Excellent
300 - 600 Good
600 - 900 Fair
900 - 1,200 Poor
Above 1,200 Unacceptable
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4.10. REFRENCES:
- www.En.wikipedia.org/wiki
- www.water-research.net
- Lab briefing
- https://water.tallyfox.com/answer/permissible-range-total-dissolve-solid-tds-drinking-water
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Figure 5.2 Paqualab Photometer
LAB#05
5.1. STATEMENT:
DETERMINE QUANTITY OF POTASIUM (K) AND MAGNESIUM (Mg)
IN GIVEN WATER SAMPLE
5.2. APPARATUS:
Paqualab Photometer
5.3. RELATED THEORY
5.3.1. PAQUALAB PHOTOMETER
A photometer is an instrument for measuring light intensity or optical properties of solutions or
surfaces. Depending on the purpose, a variety of filters can be used to measure light of specific
wavelengths. A photometer can also be used to measure ambient light, or only a narrow beam
that comes directly from a source such as the Sun.
5.3.2. IMPORTANCE OF MAGNESIUM:
Magnesium is one of the most important minerals found in human’s body, which is involved in
cellular energy production, enzyme activity; it also regulates the spread of nerve impulses.
Magnesium is important for muscular (especially when one’s got crumps) and nervous system
activity, also for the bone structure. Magnesium regulates the metabolism of other minerals; it
also controls the uptake of such substances as: calcium, potassium, phosphorus, copper, vitamin
C and zinc.
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5.3.3. IMPORTANCE OF POTASSIUM:
Potassium is the most important cation in human’s body; it is also called mineral of the heart. It
regulates blood pressure, maintains normal fluid balance, it is important for nervous system and
heart muscle work, potassium acts as an electrolyte. Potassium directly affects the heart muscle
cells and nerve impulse function, therefore cardiac contractions change when potassium level
changes. It was estimated that consuming more potassium decreases level of risk hypertension
related diseases- stroke, heart attack and kidney failure.
5.3.4. DRINKING WATER:
Drinking water (or potable water) is water safe enough to be consumed by humans or used with
low risk of immediate or long term harm. Over large parts of the world, humans have inadequate
access to potable water and use sources contaminated with disease vectors, pathogens or
unacceptable levels of toxins or suspended solids. Drinking or using such water in food
preparation leads to widespread acute and chronic illnesses and is a major cause of death and
suffering worldwide in many different countries. Reduction of waterborne diseases and
development of safe water resources is a major public health goal in developing countries.
5.3.5. SOURCES OF POTASIUM:
Seawater contains about 400 ppm potassium. It tends to settle, and consequently ends up in
sediment mostly. Rivers generally contains about 2-3 ppm potassium. This difference is mainly
caused by a large potassium concentration in oceanic basalts
Potassium occurs in various minerals, from which it may be dissolved through weathering
processes. Examples are feldspars (orthoclase and microcline) and chlorine minerals which are
most favorable for production purposes. Some clay minerals contain potassium.
5.3.6. SOURCES OF MAGNESIUM:
Magnesium is present in seawater in amounts of about 1300 ppm. After sodium, it is the most
commonly found cation in oceans. Rivers contains approximately 4 ppm of magnesium. Dutch
drinking water contains between 1 and 5 mg of magnesium per liter.
A large number of minerals contains magnesium, for example dolomite and magnesite.
Magnesium is washed from rocks and subsequently ends up in water. Magnesium has many
different purposes and consequently may end up in water in many different ways.
5.3.6. W.H.O STANDARDS:
Magnesium Mg 50.0 mg/L
Potassium K no limit listed
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
26 | P a g e
5.4. PROCEDURE
 Take 10 ml of sample and put that into the test tube.
 Take one potassium tablet, crushed and dissolved it in the sample.
 A cloudy solution will form that indicates the presence of potassium.
 Keep solution for 5 minutes without agitation.
 Take another test tube and add some distilled water in it.
 Now turn on the Paqualab and put the distilled water test tube in it while it will show the
reading 100.
 Then immediately take out the distilled water and put the sample water test tube in the
Paqualab.
 Note down the reading when it becomes constant.
 By using the table find out the value of potassium in milligram.
Figure 5.2 Water Samples
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
27 | P a g e
5.5. D ATA:
Sr.
No.
Sample
Location
Sample
ID
“K” Concentration “Mg” Concentration
Paqualab
reading
(%age)
Table
reading
(mg/L)
Remarks Paqualab
reading
(%age)
Table
reading
(mg/L)
Remarks
1 Shahdra SH-1 32 5.6 Slightly
hard
64 9.0 Moderately
hard
2 Johar
town
JT-1 92 1.8 Moderately
hard
60 10.0 Moderately
hard
3 Shalimar SH-2 36 5.0 Slightly
hard
56 11.5 Slightly hard
4 Cant-III C-III 39 4.7 Slightly
hard
62 9.5 Moderately
hard
5 Q-hall UET-5 39 4.7 Slightly
hard
61 10.0 Moderately
hard
6 Sabzazar SB-1 57 3.5 Slightly
hard
60 10.0 Moderately
hard
7 Model
town
MT-1 25 6.8 Slightly
hard
69 7.0 Moderately
hard
8 SMG UET-2 36 5.0 Slightly
hard
62 9.5 Moderately
hard
9 L-hall UET-1 35 5.2 Slightly
hard
63 9.5 Moderately
hard
10 Valencia V-1 44 4.3 Slightly
hard
64 9.0 Moderately
hard
11 FF-UET UET-4 69 2.9 Moderately
hard
60 10.0 Moderately
hard
12 Cant-IV C-IV 37 4.9 Slightly
hard
64 9.0 Moderately
hard
13 Cant-I C-I 41 4.5 Slightly
hard
59 10.5 Slightly hard
14 Cant-II C-II 36 5.0 Slightly
hard
61 10.0 Moderately
hard
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
28 | P a g e
GRAPH FOR K CONCENTRATION:
Figure 5.3 K Concentration Graph
GRAPH FOR Mg CONCENTRATION:
Figure 5.4 Mg Concentration Graph
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
ConcentrationofK
Location
K Concentration
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
MgConcentration
Location
Mg Concentration
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
29 | P a g e
5.6. PRECAUTIONS:
 Sample bottles were either rinsed three times with source water before collecting the sample
or rinsed with 70% methanol to minimize the risk of external contamination.
 Prior to sample collection, the well was pumped for approximately 10 minutes. This exercise
ensured that the sample was representative of the aquifer and not the standing water in the
well.
5.7. REFRENCES:
- Literature: Joseph E. Zerwekh, a, , Clarita V. Odvinaa, Lisa-Ann Wuermser, a and Charles
Y.C. Paka Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research, and the Department of
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at
Dallas, Texas
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drinking_water
- http://www.livestrong.com/article/86292-foods-rich-potassium-magnesium/
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drinking_water_quality_standards
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
30 | P a g e
LAB#06
6.1. STATEMENT:
TO FIND THE DIRECTION OF GROUND WATER MOVEMENT AND HYDRAULIC
GRADIENT OF WELLS BY USING THREE POINTS METHOD
6.2. PROCEDURE:
1. Choose an intermediate well
2. Project well 1 on line between well 2 and well 3.
3. Flow line is perpendicular to equipotential line, so draw a perpendicular from well 2 to the
equipotential line.
4. Now find out the hydraulic gradient by using the following formula:
i =
i =
It shows that the direction of the ground water is towards Well 2.
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
31 | P a g e
Figure 7.5 Multi gas detector
LAB#07
TO FIND OUT THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION BY USING MULTIGAS
DTECTOR
7.1. APPARATUS:
Multi gas detector
7.2. RELATED THEORY:
7.2.1. MULTI GAS DETECTOR:
A gas detector is a device which detects the presence of various gases with in an area usually as
part of the system to warn about the gases which might be harmful to humans and animals. Gas
detectors can be used to detect combustable toxic oxygen and carbon dioxide gases.
7.2.2. PRINCIPLE:
Gas detectors measure and indicate the concentration of certain gases in an air via different
technologies. Typically employed to prevent toxic exposure and fire, gas detectors are often
battery operated devices used for safety purposes. They are manufactured as portable or
stationary (fixed) units and work by signifying high levels of gases through a series of audible or
visible indicators, such as alarms, lights or a combination of signals. While many of the older,
standard gas detector units were originally fabricated to detect one gas, modern multifunctional
or multi-gas devices are capable of detecting several gases at once. Some detectors may be
utilized as individual units to monitor small workspace areas, or units can be combined or linked
together to create a protection system.
As detectors measure a specified gas concentration, the sensor response serves as the reference
point or scale. When the sensors response surpasses a certain pre-set level, an alarm will activate
to warn the user. There are various types of detectors available and the majority serves the same
function: to monitor and warn of a dangerous gas level. However, when considering what type of
detector to install, it is helpful to consider the different sensor technologies.
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
32 | P a g e
7.2.3. TYPES OF RISKS FROM GASES:
Basically there are three categories of risk
 EX:
Risk of explosion by flammable gases
 OX:
Oxygen Risk of increase of flammability by oxygen enrichment
 TOX:
Risk of poisoning by toxic gases.
7.4. PROCEDURE:
The procedure for the multi gas detector is very simple.
- Before taking the reading one should calibrate the apparatus to get the exact readings.
- After calibrating the apparatus is kept in air and the measure button is pressed.
- The apparatus shows the readings of different gases with a small time of interval.
- There is an alarm which starts sounding when there is efficiency in the level of gases.
7.5. OBSERVATIONS & CALCULATIONS:
S. No Gases to be Measured Normal Values Observed Values
1 O2 20.95% 20.60%
2 CO Trace (0.05% is fatal) -
3 CO2 0.038% 0.04%
4 NO Trace -
5 NO2 0.02 ppm -
7.6. APPLICATIONS:
The followings are the applications of Multi Gas Detector
- Pulp and paper industry
- Refineries and petrochemical plants including offshore drilling and plant shutdowns
- Sewers and manholes
- Coalmines
- Landfills operations
- Waste water treatment plant
- Marine and offshore oil wells
- Trenches and railcars
- Tunnels
- Power plants
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
33 | P a g e
7.8. COMMENTS:
The multi gas monitor instrument was out of order so we can’t perform the experiment by
ourselves. We only took the readings which were provided by our teacher.
7.9. REFRENCES:
- Notes of University of Saskatchewan lab manual
- http://www.jjstech.com/gasdepr.html
- Class notes
- http://www.thomasnet.com/articles/instruments-controls/How-Gas-Detectors-Work
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_detector
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
34 | P a g e
LAB#08
8.1. STATEMENT:
ESTIMATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER SAMPLES
BY USING PAQUALAB
8.2. SCOPE:
Checking of the suitability of the water on the basis of the biological parameters testing of the
drinking water collected from the different localities of Lahore city.
APPARATUS:
- Paqualab
- Filter papers
- Suction pump beaker
- Steel paltes
- Lauryl sulphate
- Hot plate
- Water samples
Figure 8.2 Total ApparatusFigure 8.6 Paqualab
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
35 | P a g e
8.3. RELATED THEORY:
8.4. COLIFORM BACTERIA:
Coliform bacteria are commonly found in soil, on vegetation, and in surface water. They also
live in the intestines of warm-blooded animals and humans. Some coliform bacteria strains can
survive in soil and water for long periods of time. Coliform bacteria will not likely cause illness.
However, because coliform bacteria are most commonly associated with sewage or surface
waters, the presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water indicates that other disease-causing
organisms (pathogens) may be present in the water system. There are main two different groups
of coliform bacteria, each has a different level of risk.
 Total Coliform
 Fecal Coliform
8.4.1. TOTAL COLIFORM:
These types of bacteria are commonly found in the environment (e.g. soil or vegetation) and are
generally harmless. If only total coliform bacteria are detected in drinking water, the source is
probably environmental, and fecal contamination is not likely. However, if environmental
contamination can enter the system, there may be a way for other pathogens to enter the system.
Therefore, it is important to determine the source and resolve the problem.
8.4.2. FECAL COLIFORM:
These types of bacteria are a sub-group of the total coliform group. They appear in great
quantities in the intestines and feces of people and animals. The presence of fecal coliform in a
drinking water sample often indicates recent fecal contamination, meaning that there is a greater
risk that pathogens are present than if only total coliform bacteria are detected.
8.4.3. DETECTION OF COLIFORM IN THE DRINKING WATER:
Since bacterial contamination cannot be detected by taste, smell, or sight, all drinking water
wells should be tested at least annually for coliform bacteria. A coliform bacteria test is also
recommended immediately if:
• A sudden change occurs in your water’s taste, appearance or odor.
• The water turns cloudy after rainfall or the top of the well was flooded.
• Family members are experiencing unexplained flu-like symptoms.
Figure 8.3 Water Samples
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
36 | P a g e
8.5. PROCEDURE:
1. Take lauryl tryptose sulphate broth of 1.05g for 30 ml of water
2. Boil it for 15 minutes at 121 C
3. Add a few drops of lauryl sulphate to each filter paper
4. Pour 100 ml of water through that paper
5. Using suction pump pull the water towards the beaker
6. The filter paper is collected and kept on the Paqualab for 24 hours
7. The bacteria can be seen the paper
8. The blue colour shows foli coliform and the pink shows coliform
TABLE#8.1:
Sample No. Sample
Location
Sample
ID
Container
No.
No. of
Bacteria
Colony
WHO/
Remarks
1 Shahdra SH-1 B-2 0 Drinkable
2 Johertwon JT-1 B-6 0 Drinkable
3 Shalimar SH-2 S-4 0 Drinkable
4 Cantt-III C-III B-4 2 Not Drinkable
5 Q-hall UET-5 B-3 0 Drinkable
6 Sabzazar SB-1 B’-3 0 Drinkable
7 Model town MT-1 B-11 0 Drinkable
8 SMG UET-2 S’-1 0 Drinkable
9 L-hall UET-1 S-6 0 Drinkable
10 Vlencia V-1 S-11 0 Drinkable
11 FF-uet UET-4 S-3 0 Drinkable
12 Cant-IV C-IV S-10 0 Drinkable
13 Cant-I C-I B-9 0 Drinkable
14 Cant-II C-II S-1 0 Drinkable
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
37 | P a g e
BACTERIA COLONY IN CANTT-ΙΙΙ:
8.6. PRECAUTIONS:
 Only blue and pink colour should be noted only
 The expiry date should be checked on the sulphate before using
 The sample should not be kept for than 24 hours
8.7. COMMENTS:
The lauryl sulphate used in this lab was expired and hence the results were not accurate. Also the
cantt-ΙΙΙ were noted to have bacteria which shows that it is considered to be not drinkable.
8.8. REFRENCES:
- https://www.health.ny.gov/environmental/water/drinking/coliform_bacteria.htm
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coliform_bacteria
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fecal_coliform
- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11777581
Figure 8.7 Cantt 3 Bacteria
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
38 | P a g e
LAB#09
9.1. STATEMENT:
DIRECTIONS OF GROUND WATER FLOW WITHIN MAPPED AREA
9.2. DATA:
Well No. Surface Elevation
(ft.)
Water Table (ft.) Elevation of water
table (ft.)
1 755 55 700
2 740 60 680
3 710 20 690
4 690 10 680
5 690 30 660
6 750 50 700
7 730 70 640
8 780 72 708
9 730 30 700
10 760 60 700
11 780 60 720
12 750 70 680
13 760 35 725
14 750 30 720
15 750 50 700
16 740 25 715
17 725 25 700
18 750 50 700
19 760 65 695
20 680 50 630
21 660 50 610
22 740 60 680
23 700 40 660
24 700 25 675
25 710 30 680
26 720 55 665
A 750 60 690
B 750 100 650
Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56
39 | P a g e
9.3. ANSWERS:
Ans 10-9:
From Well A to Well B
Ans 10-10:
A) Well B (100 ft.)
B) Spring occours when peizometric surface is above or near the surface elevation
Ans 10-11:
The waste finds its way towards Jones Farm house
Ans 10-12:
40 ft.
Ans 10-13:
1000 ft.
Ans 10-14:
i = i= 0.04
Ans 10-15:
Q= KiA
= 10×0.04×(200×5000)
= 400,000 ft3
/day
9.4. COMMENTS:
For the complete questions see the page attached with this lab. Also a contour map is being
drawn which shows elevation of the same height or depth.

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Environmental Engineering Slides

  • 1. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 1 | P a g e LAB#01 1.1. STATEMENT: LAYOUT OF ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY LAB 1.2. SCOPE: - To understand the lab equipment names and their functions - To understand the position of equipment in the lab 1.3. THEORY: 1.3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY: Environmental geology is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems. This field involves the study of the interaction of humans with the geologic environment. Environmental geology is the application of geological information to solve conflicts, minimizing possible adverse environmental degradation or maximizing possible advantageous condition resulting from the use of natural and modified environment. IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY: Environmental Geology is an important field because it is used for: - Managing geological and hydrogeological resources such as fossil fuel, minerals, waters (surface and subsurface) and land use. - Defining and mitigating exposure of natural hazards on humans. - Managing industrial and domestic waste disposal and minimizing or eliminating effects of pollution. - Studying the earth's surface through the disciplines of geomorphology. - Performing associated activities, often involving litigation.
  • 2. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 2 | P a g e Figure 1.1 Environmental interaction Figure 1.2 Lab Layout 1.3.2. LAB LAYOUT: 1.4.LIST OF INSTRUMENTS: 1) Autoclave incubator 2) Oven 3) Paqualab 4) Electrical conductance meter (EC meter) 5) Sensodirect 6) PH meter 7) Paqualab photometer 8) Turbidity meter 9) Hot plate 10) Multi gas detector
  • 3. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 3 | P a g e Figure 1.3 Autoclave 1.5.DETAILS OF INSTRUMENTS: 1.5.1. AUTOCLAVE INCUBATOR: An autoclave is an instrument used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121 °C for around 15–20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents. Many autoclaves vary in size and function depending on the media they are sterilizing. USES OF AUTOCLAVE: - Autoclaves are widely used in microbiology, medicine, body piercing, veterinary science, dentistry, research and development for pharmaceutical and food production facilities and prosthetic fabrication. - These are the sterilization equipment of choice in laboratories and hospitals. - Large autoclaves and units of smaller sizes may be used anywhere else that sterilization of equipment is critical to ensuring the outcome of the process, the safety of personnel or the public, such as in businesses which provide tattooing and body piercing services. 1.5.2.OVEN: An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking or drying of a substance and most commonly used for cooking. Different types of ovens are used for different purposes but we use oven in our lab mostly for drying purpose. USES OF OVEN: - An autoclave is an oven-like device with features similar to a pressure cooker that allows the heating of aqueous solutions to higher temperatures than water's boiling point in order to sterilize the contents of the autoclave. - A kiln is a high-temperature oven used in wood drying, ceramics and cement manufacturing to convert mineral feedstock.
  • 4. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 4 | P a g e Figure 1.4 Oven Figure 1.5 Paqualab 1.5.3. PAQUALAB: An incubator provides a controlled environment that regulates temperature, ventilation and humility. It is used to care for premature babies, hatch poultry eggs and to cultivate microorganisms. A laboratory incubator is also used for tissue culture, a type of clinical research method that draws out tissue parts from animals or plants. A laboratory incubator is used in genetic engineering, which is an extended application of tissue culture. USES OF PAQUALAB: - It is used for the culturing the, microorganisms environment. - It is used for keeping premature in fact in the temperature same to that of their mother’s womb. Used for hatching eggs. An incubator is a device used to grow and maintain microbiological cultures or cultures. - Hospitals will always rely on neonatal incubators while the field of research and bio- technology will mainly depend on laboratory incubators.
  • 5. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 5 | P a g e Figure 1.6 EC Meter Figure 1.7 Senso Direct 1.5.4. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY METER: An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) measures the electrical conductivity in a solution. It is commonly used in hydroponics, aquaculture and freshwater systems to monitor the amount of nutrients, salts or impurities in the water. USES OF EC METER: - The electrical conductivity of water estimates the total amount of solids dissolved in water, which stands for Total Dissolved Solids. - The electrical conductivity of water is actually a measure of salinity. Excessively high salinity can affect plants in the following ways: 1. Specific toxicity of a particular ion (such as Sodium) 2. Higher osmotic pressure around the roots prevents an efficient water absorption by the plant. 1.5.5. SENSODIRECT: The SensoDirect is designed for multipurpose operation and measures PH/Redox, dissolved oxygen and conductivity/TDS. It incorporates an intuitive user interface, large, easy to read display and is supplied with a sturdy handy case with electrodes, buffer solution and accessories. USES OF SENSODIRECT: It is used to measure: - PH/Redox - Dissolved oxygen and conductivity/TDS
  • 6. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 6 | P a g e Figure 1.8 PH Meter Figure 1.9 Photometer 1.5.6.PH METER: A PH meter is an electronic instrument used for measuring the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of a liquid (though special probes are sometimes used to measure the pH of semi-solid substances. The pH of a river or lake is important in maintaining a proper ecological balance. USES OF PH METER: - Used in hospitals, universities Pharma companies, I.I.T, research institutes or laboratories. - It is also used in the wine industry and in the process of the fermentation In Food Science in the Pulp and Paper Industry in Chemical Research and Engineering. 1.5.7.PAQUALAB PHOTOMETER: A photometer is an instrument for measuring light intensity or optical properties of solutions or surfaces. USES OF PHOTOMETER: - Photometers are used to measure the different properties i.e., Illuminance, Irradiance, absorption, Scattering, Reflection, Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, Luminescence. - Whereas the microscope photometer can be used to measure the Vitrinite Coal Reflectometry, Kerogen analysis, Mineralogy.
  • 7. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 7 | P a g e Figure 1.10 Turbidty Meter Figure 1.11 Hot plate 1.5.8.TURBIDITY METER: A Turbidity Meter is a stationary or portable instrument for measuring suspended particulates in a liquid or gas colloid. The measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality. USES OF TURBIDITY METER: - The turbidity meter is extensively used in the testing of domestic water supplies as these have to be safe for human consumption. - It is also used in the treatment process to access how hard filters will have to work to treat rainwater from rivers. The process is useful in determining the quality and state of water. - In rivers these meters are often used to find sediment and silt levels of the flowing water. 1.5.9.HOT PLATE: A hot plate is a portable self-contained tabletop small appliance that features one, two or more gas burners or electric heating elements. It is essentially an electric stove top that is used in the laboratory. USES OF HOT PLATE: - A hot plate can be used as a standalone appliance, but is often used as a substitute for one of the burners from an oven range or the cook top of a stove. - This laboratory hot plate with magnetic stirrer is used for preparing chemicals used in research. In laboratory settings, hot plates are generally used to heat glassware or its contents. A hot plate is an adjustable heating source which is ideal for heating beakers, flasks, hot water baths, and other flat-bottomed containers.
  • 8. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 8 | P a g e 1.5.10.MULTI GAS DETECTOR: Multi-gas monitor capable of detecting O2, CO, H2S and combustible gases for a wide variety of hazardous and confined space applications. It can accommodate either NiMH or alkaline batteries, which are interchangeable. USES OF MULTIGAS DETECTOR: - Detects O2, H2S, CO and combustible gas and is used for confined space entry in industrial, agricultural and other environments as well as by fire and rescue personnel. 1.6.REFERENCES: http://www.lovibond.com/en/pool/turbidity-meters http://www.lovibond.com/en/pool/photometer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oven http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_conductivity_meter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_geology Figure 1.12 Multi Gas Detector
  • 9. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 9 | P a g e Figure 2.1 Autoclave Figure 2.2 Autoclave LAB#02 2.1. STATEMENT: STERLIZATION OF LAB EQUIPMENT BY USING AUTOCLAVE 2.2. SCOPE: - It is used for the treatment of biological waste - Safety is provided by using autoclave 2.3. THEORY: 2.3.1. AUTOCLAVE: An autoclave is an instrument used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121 °C for around 15–20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents. Many autoclaves vary in size and function depending on the media they are sterilizing. USES OF AUTOCLAVE: - Autoclaves are widely used in microbiology, medicine, tattooing, body piercing, veterinary science, dentistry, chiropody and prosthetic fabrication. - Typical sterilization includes laboratory glassware, surgical instruments, medical waste and patient care utensils. - A notable growing application of autoclaves is in the pre-disposal treatment and sterilization of waste material, such as pathogenic hospital waste. - Autoclaves are also widely used to cure composites and in the vulcanization of rubber.
  • 10. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 10 | P a g e Figure 2.3 Structure of Autoclave 2.4. STERILIZATION: Sterilization is a term referring to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills all forms of microbial life, including transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, etc.) present on a surface, contained in a fluid, in medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media. Sterilization can be achieved by applying the proper combinations of heat, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure, and filtration. 2.4.1. IMPORTANCE OF STERILIZATION: Sterilization is very important process because it has wide uses and applications, some of the Applications of sterilization are given as: - Medicine and surgery - Food - Industry purposes 2.4.2. TYPES OF STERILIZATION:  HEAT STERILIZATION: Heat Sterilization can be: 1) DRY HEAT STERILIZATION Dry heat sterilization of an article is one of the earliest forms of sterilization practiced. Dry heat, as the name indicates, utilizes hot air that is either free from water vapour, or has very little of it, and where this moisture plays a minimal or no role in the process of sterilization.
  • 11. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 11 | P a g e 2) MOIST HEAT STERILIZATION: Heating an article is one of the earliest forms of sterilization practiced. Moist heat, as the name indicates, utilizes hot air that is heavily laden with water vapour and where this moisture plays the most important role in the process of sterilization.  STEAM STERILIZATION: A widely used method for heat sterilization is the autoclave, sometimes called a converter. Autoclaves use steam heated to 121–134 °C (250–273 °F) under pressure (100 °C (212 °F) is the maximum attainable at atmospheric pressure). To achieve sterility, a holding time of at least 15 minutes at 121 °C (250 °F) at 100 kPa (15 psi), or 3 minutes at 134 °C (273 °F) at 100 kPa (15 psi) is require. This is the time for which all the material being sterilised must be held at the specified temperature; additional time is required to heat the material, unless finely ground. 2.5. PROCEDURE OF STERILIZATION BY AUTOCLAVE:  Dip the element in the water  Put the equipment in the water in the bucket like assembly of the autoclave.  Operate the timer for the 30 minutes and adjust the temperature for the 1210 C.  After 30 minutes there will be buzzer from the apparatus which will be the sign of the sterilization of the equipment. 2.5.1. ADVANTAGES: - Is used for the killing of hazardous materials from the daily used equipment. - Provide safety against diseases - The process is not so difficult - Can be used for the treatment of wastes which is a big problem to the environment - Have large number of applications in most of the industries 2.5.2. DISADVANTAGES: - Autoclave is a good method for sterilization but as we move the sterilized equipment from the autoclave it have contact with the moisture, resulting the initiation of the culturing of the bacteria. - Steam sterilization has some deleterious effects on some materials, including corrosion and combustion of lubricants associated with dental hand pieces. - High temperatures are not suitable for most materials.
  • 12. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 12 | P a g e 2.6. PRECAUTIONS: Instruments that have undergone sterilization can be maintained in such condition by containment in sealed packaging until use. 2.7. REFERENCES: - Article of Sidra Roa PN Assistant Professor Department of Microbiology JJMMC, Davangere (Last edited on June 2008) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sterilization - "No bugs please, this is a clean planet!". European Space Agency. 30 July 2002. Retrieved 7 August 2014
  • 13. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 13 | P a g e Figure 3.2 Probe LAB#03 3.1. STATEMENT: DETERMINE THE PH AND TURBIDITY OF WATER SAMPLES BY USING PH METER AND TURBIDITY METER 3.2. SCOPE: - Good quality of water needs PH and Turbidity level according to standards. - Using the TDS meter and the PH meter, determination of the quality of the water under different physical parameters. 3.3. THEORY: 3.3.1. PH METER: A PH meter is an electronic instrument used to measure the PH (acidity or alkalinity) of a liquid (though special probes are sometimes used to measure the PH of semi-solid substances). A typical PH meter consists of a special measuring probe (a glass electrode) connected to an electronic meter that measures and displays the PH reading. 3.3.2. THE PROBE: The PH probe measures PH as the activity of hydrogen ions surrounding a thin-walled glass bulb at its tip. The probe produces a small voltage (about 0.06 volt per PH unit) that is measured and displayed as PH units by the meter. Figure 3.1 PH Meter
  • 14. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 14 | P a g e 3.4. PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE PH:  First of all, start the PH meter.  Now calibrate the PH meter.  Take approximately 100 ml water sample in beaker of which PH has to measure.  Dip the probe in water sample.  PH meter display the reading continuously changing, when reading becomes constant, note that reading. -PH = 7 Neutral -PH > 7 Basic -PH < 7 Acidic 3.5. TURBIDITY: The haziness of the water is known as the turbidity of the water. Turbidity is a measure of the degree to which the water loses its transparency due to the presence of suspended particulates. Turbidity is a principal physical characteristic of water and is an expression of the optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed by particles and molecules rather than transmitted in straight lines through a water sample. It is caused by suspended matter or impurities that interfere with the clarity of the water. These impurities may include clay, silt, finely divided inorganic and organic matter, soluble colored organic compounds, and plankton and other microscopic organisms. Main causes of the turbidity are as under; - Sediments from erosion - Resuspended sediments from the bottom - Waste discharge - Algae growth - Urban runoff 3.5.1. TURBIDITY METER: Sensor uses light which passes in the water at right angle to detect the water's turbidity .Ensure that the minimum amount of external light possible is exposed to the monitoring site. . The turbidity meter will display readings directly in either nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) or parts per million (PPM).For environmental or process monitoring, simply place the turbidity sensor directly in the water and position it where the turbidity is to be monitored.
  • 15. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 15 | P a g e Figure 3.3 Turbidity Meter 3.5.2. FEATURES OF TURBIDITY METER: Turbidity Meter combines the turbidity sensor with a handheld meter that has a six digit LED screen, 4-button control panel, and an internal 9V battery. The turbidity meter will display readings directly in either nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) or parts per million (PPM). The turbidity meter also includes an automatic shutoff feature to conserve battery power. 3.6. PROCEDURE OF DETERMINE TURBIDITY:  Shaking the sample bottle well before analysis.  The sample is simply poured into a glass tube.  Then place the glass tube inside the instrument.  The result is read directly from the instrument. 3.7. W.H.O STANDARDS:  The WHO establishes that pH of drinking water should be in between 6 to 8.5.  The WHO (World Health Organization), establishes that the turbidity of drinking water shouldn't be more than 5 NTU.  TDS < 200 mg/liter (Not Good)  TDS 200-500 mg/liter (Fit)  TDS 500-800 mg/liter (Moderate)  TDS >800 mg/liter (Not Good)
  • 16. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 16 | P a g e Figure 3.4 Locations of Samples 3.8. OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS: TABLE#3.1 Sample No. Sample location Sample ID Smell/taste Color PH Potential (mv) Turbidity (mg/lit) Temp (0 C) 1 Cant C-1 Taste less Colorless 6.98 54.5 2.44 19.2 2 Cant C-2 Taste less Colorless 7.08 50.4 1.56 22.3 3 Cant C-3 Taste less Colorless 7.64 26.6 2.21 20.1 4 F.F.UET Uet-3 Taste less Colorless 7.09 150.1 4.92 19.4 5 UET Q hall Uet-4 Taste less Colorless 7.15 247.4 5.41 20.4 6 Cant C-4 Taste less Colorless 7.12 48.5 1.28 20.0 7 UET L hall Uet-1 Taste less Colorless 7.43 35.7 5.29 19.93 8 UET SMG hall Uet-2 Taste less Colorless 6.64 69.0 6.21 19.7 9 Shalimar link road SL-1 Taste less Colorless 723 44.0 1.61 21.5 10 Shahdra SHD-1 Taste less Colorless 7.07 50.7 1.66 19.9 11 Sabzazar SBZ-1 Taste less Colorless 7.47 33.6 1.85 19.8 12 Johr town JT-1 Taste less Colorless 6.71 66.0 4.81 19.0 13 Valencia town VT-1 Taste less Colorless 7.17 46.7 0.43 19.4 14 Model town MT-1 Taste less Colorless 7.26 42.7 1.67 21.1 3.8.1. SAMPLES ARE COLLETED FROM:
  • 17. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 17 | P a g e 3.9. PH CHART: Figure 3.5 PH Chart 3.10. TURBIDTY CHART: Figure 3.6 Turbidity Chart PH Location
  • 18. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 18 | P a g e 3.11. COMMENTS: The PH of the samples lies in the drinkable range, but the turbidity may vary. Although the turbidity becomes vary but still it is drinkable and may need filters to make it safer for the health. 3.12. REFRENCES:  Class lectures  www.google.com/physical parameters of the drinking water  http://www.lovibond.com/en/pool/turbidity-meters
  • 19. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 19 | P a g e Figure 4.1 TDS Apparatus LAB#04 4.1. STATEMENT: DETERMINE THE TDS AND CONDUCTIVITY OF WATER SAMPLES BY USING TDS METER AND CONDUCTIVITY METER 4.2. SCOPE: - To determine the physical contamination (TDS and turbidity) of a given water sample 4.3. THEORY: 4.3.1. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS): Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) are solids in water that can pass through a filter. TDS is a measure of the amount of material dissolved in water. This material can include carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, organic ions, and other ions. A certain level of these ions in water is necessary for aquatic life. Changes in TDS concentrations can be harmful because the density of the water determines the flow of water into and out of an organism's cells. However, if TDS concentrations are too high or too low, the growth of much aquatic life can be limited, and death may occur. High concentrations of TDS may also reduce water clarity, contribute to a decrease in photosynthesis, combine with toxic compounds and heavy metals, and lead to an increase in water temperature. TDS is used to estimate the quality of drinking water, because it represents the amount of ions in the water. Water with high TDS often has a bad taste and/or high water hardness, and could result in a laxative effect. 4.3.2. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS: To measure TDS, the water sample is filtered, and then the filtrate (the water that passes through the filter) is evaporated in a pre-weighed dish and dried in an oven at 180o C, until the weight of the dish no longer changes. The increase in weight of the dish represents the total dissolved solids, and is reported in milligrams per liter (mg/l).
  • 20. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 20 | P a g e 4.4. FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS 4.4.1. GEOLOGY AND SOIL IN THE WATERSHED: Some rock and soil release ions very easily when water flows over them; for example, if acidic water flows over rocks of calcareous shales, calcium (TDS will increase. However, some rocks, such as quartz-rich granite, are very resistant to dissolution, and don’t dissolve easily when water flows over them. 4.4.2. URBAN RUNOFF: During storm events, pollutants such as salts from streets, fertilizers from lawns, and other material can be washed into streams and rivers and dissolved solids are carried through storm drains to creeks and rivers. 4.4.3. SOIL EROSION: Soil erosion is caused by disturbance of a land surface. Soil erosion can be caused by Building and Road Construction, Forest Fires, Logging, and Mining. The eroded soil particles may contain soluble components that can dissolve and be carried by storm water to surface water. This will increase the TDS of the water body. 4.4.4. DECAYING PLANTS AND ANIMALS: As plants and animals decay, dissolved organic particles are released and can contribute to the TDS concentration. High TDS concentrations in water are also unsuitable for many industrial applications. 4.5. PROCEDURE:  Take beakers in which samples have to collect and clean them.  Note the weight the empty beakers.  Take different samples of water of 60 ml from different places in these beakers.  Again note the weight the beakers containing the water samples.  Now heat the beakers until all the water in the beakers evaporates.  After complete evaporation of water, note the weight of empty beakers again. Beakers before and after the heating gives the value of TDS (total dissolved solids).  Now difference in the weights of empty  TDS = Wt. after heating – Wt. before heating 4.5.CONDUCTIVITY STANDARDS: - Ultra-pure water = 5.5×10-6 s/m - Drinking water = 0.005 – 0.05 s/m - Sea water = 5 s/m
  • 21. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 21 | P a g e 4.6. TDS STANDARDS: - Fresh water ˂1000 mg/l - Breakish water = 1000 – 3000 mg/l - Sea water = 73500 mg/l 4.7. OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS: Sample # Sample location Sample ID Intial weight of beaker Final weight of beaker TDS mg/l (ppm) Conductivity µs/cm TDS Ppm µs/cm 0.67 TDS Meter (ppm) 1 Cant 1 C-1 30.59 30.599 475 619 455 518 2 Cant 2 C-2 42.47 42.489 480 709 475 506 3 Cant 3 C-3 32.08 32.094 350 474 318 396 4 F.F.UET Uet-3 51.74 51.759 410 492 330 455 5 UET Q hall Uet-4 37.93 37.958 710 1044 699 769 6 Cant C-4 32.09 32.105 395 535 358 435 7 UET L hall Uet-1 30.147 30.1775 763 1063 712 807 8 UET SMG hall Uet-2 50.78 50.803 595 800 536 623 9 Shalimar link road SL-1 30.59 30.611 545 735 492 621 10 Shadara SHD-1 37.95 37.963 365 372 250 468 11 Sabzazar SBZ-1 37.8 37.967 235 262 176 213 12 Johr town JT-1 51.74 51.756 290 396 265 326 13 Valencia town VT-1 30.147 30151 816 1085 726 905 14 Model town MT-1 42.47 42.475 1017 1400 938 1169 4.8. W.H.O STANDARDS: An aesthetic objective of ≤500 mg/L has been established for total dissolved solids (TDS) in drinking water by WHO. At higher levels, excessive hardness, unpalatability, mineral deposition and corrosion may occur. At low levels, however, TDS contributes to the palatability of water. Most people think of TDS as being an aesthetic factor. In a study by the World Health Organization, a panel of tasters came to the following conclusions about the preferable level of TDS in water:
  • 22. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 22 | P a g e 4.9. TDS CHART: Figure 4.2 TDS Chart Taste of Water with Different TDS Concentrations Level of TDS (milligrams per litre) Rating Less than 300 Excellent 300 - 600 Good 600 - 900 Fair 900 - 1,200 Poor Above 1,200 Unacceptable
  • 23. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 23 | P a g e 4.10. REFRENCES: - www.En.wikipedia.org/wiki - www.water-research.net - Lab briefing - https://water.tallyfox.com/answer/permissible-range-total-dissolve-solid-tds-drinking-water
  • 24. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 24 | P a g e Figure 5.2 Paqualab Photometer LAB#05 5.1. STATEMENT: DETERMINE QUANTITY OF POTASIUM (K) AND MAGNESIUM (Mg) IN GIVEN WATER SAMPLE 5.2. APPARATUS: Paqualab Photometer 5.3. RELATED THEORY 5.3.1. PAQUALAB PHOTOMETER A photometer is an instrument for measuring light intensity or optical properties of solutions or surfaces. Depending on the purpose, a variety of filters can be used to measure light of specific wavelengths. A photometer can also be used to measure ambient light, or only a narrow beam that comes directly from a source such as the Sun. 5.3.2. IMPORTANCE OF MAGNESIUM: Magnesium is one of the most important minerals found in human’s body, which is involved in cellular energy production, enzyme activity; it also regulates the spread of nerve impulses. Magnesium is important for muscular (especially when one’s got crumps) and nervous system activity, also for the bone structure. Magnesium regulates the metabolism of other minerals; it also controls the uptake of such substances as: calcium, potassium, phosphorus, copper, vitamin C and zinc.
  • 25. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 25 | P a g e 5.3.3. IMPORTANCE OF POTASSIUM: Potassium is the most important cation in human’s body; it is also called mineral of the heart. It regulates blood pressure, maintains normal fluid balance, it is important for nervous system and heart muscle work, potassium acts as an electrolyte. Potassium directly affects the heart muscle cells and nerve impulse function, therefore cardiac contractions change when potassium level changes. It was estimated that consuming more potassium decreases level of risk hypertension related diseases- stroke, heart attack and kidney failure. 5.3.4. DRINKING WATER: Drinking water (or potable water) is water safe enough to be consumed by humans or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm. Over large parts of the world, humans have inadequate access to potable water and use sources contaminated with disease vectors, pathogens or unacceptable levels of toxins or suspended solids. Drinking or using such water in food preparation leads to widespread acute and chronic illnesses and is a major cause of death and suffering worldwide in many different countries. Reduction of waterborne diseases and development of safe water resources is a major public health goal in developing countries. 5.3.5. SOURCES OF POTASIUM: Seawater contains about 400 ppm potassium. It tends to settle, and consequently ends up in sediment mostly. Rivers generally contains about 2-3 ppm potassium. This difference is mainly caused by a large potassium concentration in oceanic basalts Potassium occurs in various minerals, from which it may be dissolved through weathering processes. Examples are feldspars (orthoclase and microcline) and chlorine minerals which are most favorable for production purposes. Some clay minerals contain potassium. 5.3.6. SOURCES OF MAGNESIUM: Magnesium is present in seawater in amounts of about 1300 ppm. After sodium, it is the most commonly found cation in oceans. Rivers contains approximately 4 ppm of magnesium. Dutch drinking water contains between 1 and 5 mg of magnesium per liter. A large number of minerals contains magnesium, for example dolomite and magnesite. Magnesium is washed from rocks and subsequently ends up in water. Magnesium has many different purposes and consequently may end up in water in many different ways. 5.3.6. W.H.O STANDARDS: Magnesium Mg 50.0 mg/L Potassium K no limit listed
  • 26. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 26 | P a g e 5.4. PROCEDURE  Take 10 ml of sample and put that into the test tube.  Take one potassium tablet, crushed and dissolved it in the sample.  A cloudy solution will form that indicates the presence of potassium.  Keep solution for 5 minutes without agitation.  Take another test tube and add some distilled water in it.  Now turn on the Paqualab and put the distilled water test tube in it while it will show the reading 100.  Then immediately take out the distilled water and put the sample water test tube in the Paqualab.  Note down the reading when it becomes constant.  By using the table find out the value of potassium in milligram. Figure 5.2 Water Samples
  • 27. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 27 | P a g e 5.5. D ATA: Sr. No. Sample Location Sample ID “K” Concentration “Mg” Concentration Paqualab reading (%age) Table reading (mg/L) Remarks Paqualab reading (%age) Table reading (mg/L) Remarks 1 Shahdra SH-1 32 5.6 Slightly hard 64 9.0 Moderately hard 2 Johar town JT-1 92 1.8 Moderately hard 60 10.0 Moderately hard 3 Shalimar SH-2 36 5.0 Slightly hard 56 11.5 Slightly hard 4 Cant-III C-III 39 4.7 Slightly hard 62 9.5 Moderately hard 5 Q-hall UET-5 39 4.7 Slightly hard 61 10.0 Moderately hard 6 Sabzazar SB-1 57 3.5 Slightly hard 60 10.0 Moderately hard 7 Model town MT-1 25 6.8 Slightly hard 69 7.0 Moderately hard 8 SMG UET-2 36 5.0 Slightly hard 62 9.5 Moderately hard 9 L-hall UET-1 35 5.2 Slightly hard 63 9.5 Moderately hard 10 Valencia V-1 44 4.3 Slightly hard 64 9.0 Moderately hard 11 FF-UET UET-4 69 2.9 Moderately hard 60 10.0 Moderately hard 12 Cant-IV C-IV 37 4.9 Slightly hard 64 9.0 Moderately hard 13 Cant-I C-I 41 4.5 Slightly hard 59 10.5 Slightly hard 14 Cant-II C-II 36 5.0 Slightly hard 61 10.0 Moderately hard
  • 28. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 28 | P a g e GRAPH FOR K CONCENTRATION: Figure 5.3 K Concentration Graph GRAPH FOR Mg CONCENTRATION: Figure 5.4 Mg Concentration Graph 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ConcentrationofK Location K Concentration 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 MgConcentration Location Mg Concentration
  • 29. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 29 | P a g e 5.6. PRECAUTIONS:  Sample bottles were either rinsed three times with source water before collecting the sample or rinsed with 70% methanol to minimize the risk of external contamination.  Prior to sample collection, the well was pumped for approximately 10 minutes. This exercise ensured that the sample was representative of the aquifer and not the standing water in the well. 5.7. REFRENCES: - Literature: Joseph E. Zerwekh, a, , Clarita V. Odvinaa, Lisa-Ann Wuermser, a and Charles Y.C. Paka Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research, and the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Texas - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drinking_water - http://www.livestrong.com/article/86292-foods-rich-potassium-magnesium/ - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drinking_water_quality_standards
  • 30. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 30 | P a g e LAB#06 6.1. STATEMENT: TO FIND THE DIRECTION OF GROUND WATER MOVEMENT AND HYDRAULIC GRADIENT OF WELLS BY USING THREE POINTS METHOD 6.2. PROCEDURE: 1. Choose an intermediate well 2. Project well 1 on line between well 2 and well 3. 3. Flow line is perpendicular to equipotential line, so draw a perpendicular from well 2 to the equipotential line. 4. Now find out the hydraulic gradient by using the following formula: i = i = It shows that the direction of the ground water is towards Well 2.
  • 31. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 31 | P a g e Figure 7.5 Multi gas detector LAB#07 TO FIND OUT THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION BY USING MULTIGAS DTECTOR 7.1. APPARATUS: Multi gas detector 7.2. RELATED THEORY: 7.2.1. MULTI GAS DETECTOR: A gas detector is a device which detects the presence of various gases with in an area usually as part of the system to warn about the gases which might be harmful to humans and animals. Gas detectors can be used to detect combustable toxic oxygen and carbon dioxide gases. 7.2.2. PRINCIPLE: Gas detectors measure and indicate the concentration of certain gases in an air via different technologies. Typically employed to prevent toxic exposure and fire, gas detectors are often battery operated devices used for safety purposes. They are manufactured as portable or stationary (fixed) units and work by signifying high levels of gases through a series of audible or visible indicators, such as alarms, lights or a combination of signals. While many of the older, standard gas detector units were originally fabricated to detect one gas, modern multifunctional or multi-gas devices are capable of detecting several gases at once. Some detectors may be utilized as individual units to monitor small workspace areas, or units can be combined or linked together to create a protection system. As detectors measure a specified gas concentration, the sensor response serves as the reference point or scale. When the sensors response surpasses a certain pre-set level, an alarm will activate to warn the user. There are various types of detectors available and the majority serves the same function: to monitor and warn of a dangerous gas level. However, when considering what type of detector to install, it is helpful to consider the different sensor technologies.
  • 32. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 32 | P a g e 7.2.3. TYPES OF RISKS FROM GASES: Basically there are three categories of risk  EX: Risk of explosion by flammable gases  OX: Oxygen Risk of increase of flammability by oxygen enrichment  TOX: Risk of poisoning by toxic gases. 7.4. PROCEDURE: The procedure for the multi gas detector is very simple. - Before taking the reading one should calibrate the apparatus to get the exact readings. - After calibrating the apparatus is kept in air and the measure button is pressed. - The apparatus shows the readings of different gases with a small time of interval. - There is an alarm which starts sounding when there is efficiency in the level of gases. 7.5. OBSERVATIONS & CALCULATIONS: S. No Gases to be Measured Normal Values Observed Values 1 O2 20.95% 20.60% 2 CO Trace (0.05% is fatal) - 3 CO2 0.038% 0.04% 4 NO Trace - 5 NO2 0.02 ppm - 7.6. APPLICATIONS: The followings are the applications of Multi Gas Detector - Pulp and paper industry - Refineries and petrochemical plants including offshore drilling and plant shutdowns - Sewers and manholes - Coalmines - Landfills operations - Waste water treatment plant - Marine and offshore oil wells - Trenches and railcars - Tunnels - Power plants
  • 33. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 33 | P a g e 7.8. COMMENTS: The multi gas monitor instrument was out of order so we can’t perform the experiment by ourselves. We only took the readings which were provided by our teacher. 7.9. REFRENCES: - Notes of University of Saskatchewan lab manual - http://www.jjstech.com/gasdepr.html - Class notes - http://www.thomasnet.com/articles/instruments-controls/How-Gas-Detectors-Work - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_detector
  • 34. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 34 | P a g e LAB#08 8.1. STATEMENT: ESTIMATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER SAMPLES BY USING PAQUALAB 8.2. SCOPE: Checking of the suitability of the water on the basis of the biological parameters testing of the drinking water collected from the different localities of Lahore city. APPARATUS: - Paqualab - Filter papers - Suction pump beaker - Steel paltes - Lauryl sulphate - Hot plate - Water samples Figure 8.2 Total ApparatusFigure 8.6 Paqualab
  • 35. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 35 | P a g e 8.3. RELATED THEORY: 8.4. COLIFORM BACTERIA: Coliform bacteria are commonly found in soil, on vegetation, and in surface water. They also live in the intestines of warm-blooded animals and humans. Some coliform bacteria strains can survive in soil and water for long periods of time. Coliform bacteria will not likely cause illness. However, because coliform bacteria are most commonly associated with sewage or surface waters, the presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water indicates that other disease-causing organisms (pathogens) may be present in the water system. There are main two different groups of coliform bacteria, each has a different level of risk.  Total Coliform  Fecal Coliform 8.4.1. TOTAL COLIFORM: These types of bacteria are commonly found in the environment (e.g. soil or vegetation) and are generally harmless. If only total coliform bacteria are detected in drinking water, the source is probably environmental, and fecal contamination is not likely. However, if environmental contamination can enter the system, there may be a way for other pathogens to enter the system. Therefore, it is important to determine the source and resolve the problem. 8.4.2. FECAL COLIFORM: These types of bacteria are a sub-group of the total coliform group. They appear in great quantities in the intestines and feces of people and animals. The presence of fecal coliform in a drinking water sample often indicates recent fecal contamination, meaning that there is a greater risk that pathogens are present than if only total coliform bacteria are detected. 8.4.3. DETECTION OF COLIFORM IN THE DRINKING WATER: Since bacterial contamination cannot be detected by taste, smell, or sight, all drinking water wells should be tested at least annually for coliform bacteria. A coliform bacteria test is also recommended immediately if: • A sudden change occurs in your water’s taste, appearance or odor. • The water turns cloudy after rainfall or the top of the well was flooded. • Family members are experiencing unexplained flu-like symptoms. Figure 8.3 Water Samples
  • 36. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 36 | P a g e 8.5. PROCEDURE: 1. Take lauryl tryptose sulphate broth of 1.05g for 30 ml of water 2. Boil it for 15 minutes at 121 C 3. Add a few drops of lauryl sulphate to each filter paper 4. Pour 100 ml of water through that paper 5. Using suction pump pull the water towards the beaker 6. The filter paper is collected and kept on the Paqualab for 24 hours 7. The bacteria can be seen the paper 8. The blue colour shows foli coliform and the pink shows coliform TABLE#8.1: Sample No. Sample Location Sample ID Container No. No. of Bacteria Colony WHO/ Remarks 1 Shahdra SH-1 B-2 0 Drinkable 2 Johertwon JT-1 B-6 0 Drinkable 3 Shalimar SH-2 S-4 0 Drinkable 4 Cantt-III C-III B-4 2 Not Drinkable 5 Q-hall UET-5 B-3 0 Drinkable 6 Sabzazar SB-1 B’-3 0 Drinkable 7 Model town MT-1 B-11 0 Drinkable 8 SMG UET-2 S’-1 0 Drinkable 9 L-hall UET-1 S-6 0 Drinkable 10 Vlencia V-1 S-11 0 Drinkable 11 FF-uet UET-4 S-3 0 Drinkable 12 Cant-IV C-IV S-10 0 Drinkable 13 Cant-I C-I B-9 0 Drinkable 14 Cant-II C-II S-1 0 Drinkable
  • 37. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 37 | P a g e BACTERIA COLONY IN CANTT-ΙΙΙ: 8.6. PRECAUTIONS:  Only blue and pink colour should be noted only  The expiry date should be checked on the sulphate before using  The sample should not be kept for than 24 hours 8.7. COMMENTS: The lauryl sulphate used in this lab was expired and hence the results were not accurate. Also the cantt-ΙΙΙ were noted to have bacteria which shows that it is considered to be not drinkable. 8.8. REFRENCES: - https://www.health.ny.gov/environmental/water/drinking/coliform_bacteria.htm - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coliform_bacteria - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fecal_coliform - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11777581 Figure 8.7 Cantt 3 Bacteria
  • 38. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 38 | P a g e LAB#09 9.1. STATEMENT: DIRECTIONS OF GROUND WATER FLOW WITHIN MAPPED AREA 9.2. DATA: Well No. Surface Elevation (ft.) Water Table (ft.) Elevation of water table (ft.) 1 755 55 700 2 740 60 680 3 710 20 690 4 690 10 680 5 690 30 660 6 750 50 700 7 730 70 640 8 780 72 708 9 730 30 700 10 760 60 700 11 780 60 720 12 750 70 680 13 760 35 725 14 750 30 720 15 750 50 700 16 740 25 715 17 725 25 700 18 750 50 700 19 760 65 695 20 680 50 630 21 660 50 610 22 740 60 680 23 700 40 660 24 700 25 675 25 710 30 680 26 720 55 665 A 750 60 690 B 750 100 650
  • 39. Environmental Geology 2011-GE-56 39 | P a g e 9.3. ANSWERS: Ans 10-9: From Well A to Well B Ans 10-10: A) Well B (100 ft.) B) Spring occours when peizometric surface is above or near the surface elevation Ans 10-11: The waste finds its way towards Jones Farm house Ans 10-12: 40 ft. Ans 10-13: 1000 ft. Ans 10-14: i = i= 0.04 Ans 10-15: Q= KiA = 10×0.04×(200×5000) = 400,000 ft3 /day 9.4. COMMENTS: For the complete questions see the page attached with this lab. Also a contour map is being drawn which shows elevation of the same height or depth.