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African-American History ~ World War Two


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African-American History ~ World War Two

  1. 1. World War Two<br />
  2. 2. The Four Freedoms<br />Franklin Roosevelt sold World War II as a war on behalf of democracy. It was to be a war to guarantee the “Four Freedoms.”<br />Many African Americans supported the concept, if the freedoms applied within the U.S., too.<br />
  3. 3. Military: Same Old Story<br />Once again, African-Americans had to “fight for the right to fight.<br /><ul><li>Military was segregated.
  4. 4. Discrimination common within the military.
  5. 5. Marines barred African-Americans at first.
  6. 6. Navy enlisted blacks in support positions.
  7. 7. Army enlisted blacks, but only in support & logistical positions.
  8. 8. Civilian violence toward black servicemen.
  9. 9. “We were really just stevedores & servants,” recalled one African-American soldier.</li></li></ul><li>Civilian Jobs<br /><ul><li>Job discrimination common in defense jobs.“Whites-only” hiring policies.
  10. 10. Housing segregation in cities.
  11. 11. White hate strikes & violence against black co-workers.</li></li></ul><li>“Double Vee” Campaign<br />Spearheaded by the NAACP, BSCP & the Pittsburgh Courier, called for victory against fascism abroad & at home.Called on Roosevelt to take action against:<br /><ul><li> Segregation within the military
  12. 12. Discrimination by defense contractors
  13. 13. 100,000-man MOWM, planned for Nov. 1941.
  14. 14. Executive Order 8802 issued prior to the march, creating FEPC</li></li></ul><li>Blacks in Military Service<br />African-American community was better organized during WWII than WWI. <br /><ul><li>500,000 African-Americans serve in the war.
  15. 15. The draft was conducted more fairly.
  16. 16. Serve in segregated units & train in segregated camps
  17. 17. Blacks eventually accepted into general service in Navy & Marines (1942).
  18. 18. Navy commissions black officers in 1944.
  19. 19. Army opened officer training schools for blacks.
  20. 20. Army Air Corps creates a black flight school</li></li></ul><li>Tuskegee Airmen<br />
  21. 21. USS Mason<br />A black-run ship . . . except for the commander!<br />
  22. 22. Black Protest<br /><ul><li>Double Vee Campaign
  23. 23. Zoot Suit Riots
  24. 24. Nation of Islam</li></li></ul><li>Black Civil Rights in the 1940s<br />Smith v. Allwright (1944)<br />C.O.R.E. founded (1944)<br />S.C. Progressive Democratic Party (1944)<br />Shelley v. Kraemer (1948)<br />Executive Order 9981<br />U.N. Declaration of Universal Human Rights<br />