SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Regulatory Requirements of Solid
Waste Management
Dr. Akepati S. Reddy
Professor,School of Energy &
Environment
Thapar University, Patiala
Waste Management Rules
• Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016; G.S.R. 320 (E) [18-
03-2016]
• e-waste (Management) Rules, 2016; G.S.R. 338 (E) [23-03-
2016]
• Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016; G.S.R. 343(E).
[28-03-2016]
• Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules,
2016; G.S.R. 317(E). [29-03-2016]
• Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and
Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016; G.S.R No. 395
(E)[04-04-2016]
• Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016; S.O. 1357(E) [08-04-
2016]
Regulatory Requirements
• Management plan and system components and
arrangements – how the waste shall be managed?
• Procedures and technologies for the management
• Organizational setup and duties and responsibilities of
the personnel, organizations, departments, etc.
Involved
• Requirements and standards against which the
management system performance is monitored and
evaluated
• Dos and don’ts
Solid Waste and Management
Solid waste
• Solid or semi-solid domestic waste and sanitary waste
• Commercial waste, Institutional waste, and Catering & market waste
• Street sweepings, and Silt removed or collected from surface drains
• Horticulture waste and Agriculture and dairy waste
Handling and Management
• Segregation and storage (and secondary storage)
• Collection (loading and unloading) and transportation
• Processing (shredding, crushing and baling) and treatment
• Sorting, recovery and recycling
• Disposal
Waste hierarchy: order of priority in which solid waste should be
managed
prevention ← reduction ← reuse ← recycling ← recovery ← disposal
Solid waste management rules, 2016
4. Duties of Waste Generators
15. Duties and responsibilities of local authorities and village panchayats
of census towns and urban agglomerations – Solid waste
management plan
20. Criteria and actions to be taken for solid waste management in hilly
areas
11. Duties of the secretary-in-charge, urban development in the states
and union territories
13. Duties of the secretary in charge of village panchayats or rural
development department in the state and union territory
23. State level advisory body
6. Duties of Ministry of Urban Development
16. Duties of state pollution control board or pollution control
committee
14. Duties of central pollution control board
5. Duties of Ministry of environment, forest and climate change –
Central monitoring committee
Solid waste management rules, 2016
18. Duties of industrial units located within one hundred km from the
refuse derived fuel and waste to energy plants based on solid
waste
17. Duty of manufacturer or brand owners of disposable products and
sanitary napkins and diapers
12. Duties of District Magistrate or District Collector or Deputy
Commissioner
7. Duties of Department of Fertilizers, Ministry of Chemicals and
Fertilizers
9. Duties of Ministry of Power
10. Duties of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources
8. Duties of Ministry of Agriculture
Solid waste management rules, 2016
19. Criteria for duties regarding setting-up solid waste processing and
treatment facility
21. Criteria for waste to energy process
24. Annual report
25. Accident reporting
22. Time frame for implementation
1. Short title and commencement
2. Application
3. Definitions
Biodegradable
waste
Non-biodegradable
waste
Segregation and storage (by Residential generators, Organizers of
events and gatherings, Street vendors, Resident welfare and
market associations, Gated communities, Institutions of >5000
m2 area, and Hotels and restaurants)
Domestic
hazardous waste
Sanitary
waste
Construction and
demolition waste
Horticultural and
garden waste
Street sweeping and
silt removal from surface
drains
Street sweepings
Silt removed from surface drains
Garden/park waste and horticulture waste
Secondary storage and
Material recovery facilities
Sorted out recyclable materials
Biodegradable waste in bins painted green
Other wastes in bins painted black
Recyclable waste in bins painted white
Biodegradable waste processing
(composting, vermi-composting,
bio-methanation, anaerobic
digestion, etc.)
Pre-processing rejects
Residues from waste processing
Compost
Biogas
Non-biodegradable waste
processing (waste to energy
processes)
Refuse derived fuels
Feed stock to solid waste based
power plants and/or ciment kilns
Pre-processing rejects
Residues from waste processing
Segregation Biodegradable waste
Sanitary waste
Non-biodegradable waste
Street sweepings
Silt from surface drains
Domestic hazardous waste
Horticultural, park and
garden waste
Construction and demolition
waste
Residential generators
Organizers of events and gatherings
Street vendors
Resident welfare and market associations
Gated communities
Institutions of >5000 m2 area
Hotels and restaurants
Local bodies
Storage Primary storage
Secondary storage
Suitable bins at the generator.
Centers for collection, segregation and storage
of wastes incorporated in the building plans.
Secondary storage for street sweepings and
for silt from surface drains.
Material recovery or secondary storage
facilities with space for sorting, with easy
access to waste pickers and recyclers, and with
colour codes for containers.
Waste deposition centers for domestic
hazardous waste.
Processin
g
Generator level
Community level
Local body level
Home composting
Decentralized processing of waste at
community level
Decentralized composting and
biomethanation plants within market
premises.
Horticulture waste, and parks and
garden waste processing within
parks/garden premises.
Solid waste processing facilities .
Disposal Sanitary landfills
Dump sites
Allow non-usable, non-recyclable, non-
biodegradable, non-combustible and non-
reactive inert waste in the landfills.
Allow only pre-processing rejects and
residues from waste processing in the
landfills.
Bio-mine or bio-remediate the dump sites
Scientifically cap the dump site.
Collection Handover
Collection
Deposition
Handing over to waste pickers and
waste collectors by generators and by
the organizers of events and gatherings.
Collection from the door steps of
generators
Collection from the building collection
centers
Street vendors depositing wastes with
the waste storage deposits
Generators depositing domestic
hazardous waste with the waste
deposition centers
Transportation Biodegradable waste
Non-biodegradable waste
Domestic hazardous waste
Non-usable, non-
recyclable, non-
biodegradable, non-
combustible and non-
reactive inert waste.
Pre-processing rejects and
residues from waste
processing.
Transport of biodegradable waste to
processing facilities
Non-biodegradable waste to processing
facility/recovery facility or secondary
storage facility
Transport of domestic hazardous waste
from the waste deposition centers to the
disposal facility (as per SPCB/PCC
directions.
Handling and Management of Waste
• Segregation: sorting and separate storage of various components of
solid waste
– Biodegradable waste (including agricultural and dairy waste)
– Non-biodegradable waste (including recyclable waste, Non-recyclable
combustible waste, sanitary waste and non-recyclable inert waste)
– Domestic hazardous waste
– Construction and demolition waste
Sorting: separation of various components and categories of recyclables
to facilitate recycling
• Collection: collection of solid waste from
– Door steps of households, commercial establishments, offices,
institutional and any other non-residential premises
– Entry gate or designated location (on the ground floor) in a housing
society, multistoried building or apartments, large residential,
commercial or institutional complex or premises
• Primary collection: collection, lifting and removal of segregated
solid waste from the source of its generation
• Secondary storage: temporary containment of the collected solid
waste at storage depots, or MRFs (material recovery facilities) or
bins, for onward transportation of the waste
Waste Handling and Management
• Transportation: conveyance of solid waste (treated, partly treated
or untreated) in an environmentally sound manner
– Specially designed and covered transport system is used to prevent
foul odours, littering and unsightly conditions
• Treatment: method/technique/process designed
– to modify physical, chemical or biological characteristics or
composition of solid waste
– to reduce volume and potential to cause harm
• Processing: scientific processes by which segregated solid waste is
handled for the purpose of reuse, recycling, or transformation
• Recycling: Transforming the segregated non-biodegradable solid
waste into new material or product, or use of the waste as raw
material for producing new products
• Incineration: engineered process involving burning or combustion
of solid waste for thermal degradation at high temperature
• Stabilizing: Decomposition of biodegradable waste to a stable state
where it generates no leachate and no offensive odours and it
becomes fit for application to farm land soil erosion control or soil
remediation
Waste Handling and Management
• Anaerobic digestion: controlled microbial decomposiion of organic
matter in the absence of oxygen
• Biomethanation: Controlled enzymatic decomposition of organic
matter by microrganisms to produce methane rich biogas
• Composting: controlled microbial decomposition of organic matter
• Vermi composting: a process of conversion of biodegradable waste
into compost using earthworms
• Disposal: final and safe disposal on land of post processed residual
solid waste and inert street sweepings and silt from surface drains
• Sanitary land filling: final and safe disposal of residual solid waste
and inert waste on land in a facility designed with protective
measures against
– pollution of groundwater, surface water and ambient air
(including GHG emissions and persistent organic pollutants, dust
and windblown litter)
– Fire hazards, bad odours, animal & bird menace, pests & rodents
– Slope instability and erosion
Persons engaged in solid waste management
• Waste generator:
– Every person or group of persons generating slid waste
– Every residential premises and non-residential establishments
including indian railways, defense establishments generating
solid waste
• Bulk waste generator:
– Establishments with average waste generation rates > 100
kg/day
– Buildings occupied by government departments or
undertakings, local bodies, public sector undertakings or private
sector companies
– Hospitals, nursing homes; schools, colleges, universities, and
other educational institutions; stadia and sports complexes;
hostels and hotels; commercial establishments; markets; and
places of worship
• Street vendor: any person engaged in vending of articles, goods and
merchandise, to public, in streets and public places, from
temporary built up structures, or by moving
Persons engaged in solid waste management
• Waste picker: person or group of persons informally engaged in
collection and recovery of reusable and recyclable solid waste from
waste generation sources, street bins, material recovery facilities,
waste processing facilities, and waste disposal faciltiies for sale to
recyclers either directly or indirectly
• Informal waste collector: individuals, associations or waste traders
involved in sorting, sale and purchase of recyclable materials
• Local body:
– Includes municipalcorporation, nagar nigam, municipal council,
nagarpalika, nagar palika parisad, municipal board, nagar panchayat,
town panchayat
– Census towns, notified areas and notified industrial townships with
whatever name they are called
• Operator of a facility: person or entity onwing or operating a facility
for handling solid waste (local body or any other entity or agency
appointed by local body)
• Service provider: an authority providing public utility services like
water, sewerage, electricity, telephone, roads, drainage, etc.
• Brand owner: a person or company selling commodities under a
registered brand label
Facilities for solid waste management
• Buffer zone: zone of no development maintained around solid
waste processing and disposal facility of >5 TPD capacity
– This area will be maintained within the total area allotted for the solid
waste processing and disposal facility
• Dump sites: land utilized by local body for disposal of solid waste
without following the principles of sanitary land filling
• Facility: any establishment wherein the solid waste management
processes (segregation, recovery, storage, collection, recycling,
processing, treatment, or safe disposal) are carried out
• Materials recovery facility: a facility where non-compostable solid
waste can be temporarily stored
– To facilitate segregation, sorting and recovery of recyclables by
authorized informal sector of waste pickers, informal recyclers or any
other work force
• Transfer station: facility created to receive solid waste from
collection areas and transport in bulk in covered vehicles or
containers to waste processing and disposal facilities
15. Duties and responsibilities of local
authorities and village panchayats
• Facilitate construction, operation and maintenance of solid waste
processing facilities and associated infrastructure
– This can be by own, or with the private sector participation or through
any agency
– Preference shall be given to decentralized processing in order to
minimize transportation costs and environmental impacts
• Undertake construction, operation and maintenance of sanitary
landfills and associated infrastructure for residual wastes disposal
– This can be on their own or through any other agency
Rule 19 and 21, and schedule-1 of SWM rules, 2016 are sufficiently
relevant
19. Criteria for duties regarding setting-up solid
waste processing and treatment facility
• Operator of the facility shall design and setup the solid waste
processing and treatment facility as per the
– Guidelines issued by the CPCB
– Manual of solid waste management by the Ministry of Urban
Development
• Operator of the facility shall obtain necessary approvals from the
SPCB/PCC – Authorization from SPCB/PCC!
• Operator of the facility shall be responsible for the safe and
environmentally sound operations as per the guidelines of the CPCB
and as per the manual of MSW management by the Ministry of
Urban Development
• The SPCB/PCC shall monitor the environmental standards of the
operation of the facility
• Operator of the facility shall submit annual report in Form-3 by 30th
April to the SPCB/PCC and to the concerned local body
21. Criteria for waste to energy process
• Non-recyclable waste with calorific value >1500 Kcal/kg shall not
be disposed in landfills – it shall only be utilized for generating
energy (using as feed stock for preparing refuse derived fuels)
• High calorific value waste shall be used for co-processing in
cement plants and thermal power plants
• The local body (or the operator or an agency designated by the
local body), proposing to set up a waste to energy plant of >5
ton/day waste processing capacity, shall submit an application in
Form-1 to the SPCB/PCC for authorization
• SPCB/PCC, on receiving the application, shall examine the
application and grant authorization within 60 days
Schedule-1: Specifications for Sanitary
Landfills
• Criteria for site selection
• Criteria for development of facilities at the sanitary landfills
• Criteria for specifications for land filling operations and closure on
completion of land filling
• Criteria for pollution prevention
• Criteria for water quality monitoring
• Criteria for ambient air quality monitoring
• Criteria for plantation at land fill site
• Criteria for post-care of landfill site
• Criteria for special provisions for hill areas
• Closure and rehabilitation of old dumps
Specifications for sanitary landfills
• Sanitary landfill site shall be planned, designed and developed with
proper documentation of construction plan as well as a closure plan
– If the site is planned adjoining to an already existing landfill site, then
closure plan of the existing landfill should form part of the proposal of
the new landfill
• Landfill site shall be setup as per the guidelines of the Ministry of
Urban Development and CPCB
– Existing landfill site in use for > 5 years shall be improved as per the
specifications of Schedule-1, SWM rules, 2016
• The landfill site shall be 100 m away from river, 200 m away from
ponds, highways, human habitations, public parks, water supply
wells, and 20 km away from airports and air bases
– It shall not be permitted within the flood plains (as recorded in the last
100 years), within the zones of coastal regulation, within wetlands,
within critical habitat areas, and within sensitive eco-fragile areas
– If no objection certificate is obtained from the civil aviation ministry/
air force, the landfill site can be within 10 to 20 km distance from an
airport/ airbase
Specifications for sanitary landfills
• The site for a landfill shall be incorporated in the land-use plans of
the town planning department
• A buffer zone of no development shall be maintained around land
fill site (if installed capacity is >5 TPD) within the site’s total area
– The buffer zone shall be prescribed on a case by case basis by the local
body in consultation with the SPCB
• The landfill site shall be fenced/hedged and provided with proper
gate (to monitor vehicles movement and to prevent entry of stray
animals and unauthorized persons )
• Waste processing facility can also be planned as an integral part of
the landfill site
• The landfill site shall have a temporary storage facility for the solid
waste (to accommodate for non-operation of the facility and for
emergencies and natural calamities
• The landfill site shall be large enough to last for 20-25 years
• The landfill cells shall be developed in phased manner (to avoid
water logging and misuse)
Specifications for sanitary landfills
• The approach and internal roads shall be designed (to ensure free
movement of vehicles and other machinery) and they shall be
concreted/paved (to avoid generation of dust)
• The landfill site shall have a waste inspection facility, an office
facility for record keeping, and shelters for equipment and
machinery including pollution monitoring equipment
• Provisions like weigh bridge, fire protection equipment and others
shall be provided
• Provisions for parking, cleaning, washing of transport vehicles
carrying solid waste shall be made
• Utilities such as drinking water and sanitary facilities and lighting
facilities shall be provided
• Wastewater generated from various activities shall be treated to
meet the prescribed standards
• Safety provisions including health inspections of workers shall be
made at the site
• Operator of the facility shall maintain a record of waste received,
processed and disposed
Specifications for sanitary landfills
• Stop land filling or dumping of mixed waste, and allow only non-
usable, non-recyclable, non-biodegradable, non-combustible and
non-reactive inert waste and pre-processing rejects and residues
from waste processing facilities to the sanitary landfills
– No biomedical waste, no hazardous waste and no e-waste is disposed
in the sanitary landfills
– Till the time the waste processing facilities (composting or recycling or
energy recovery) are setup, mixed solid waste can be sent to the
sanitary landfill
• Landfilled waste shall be compacted in thin layers using heavy
compactors
– The landfill cell shall be covered at the end of each working day with
>10 cm soil/inert debris/construction material
– Prior to the commencement of monsoon, an intermediate cover of 40-
65 cm of soil (with proper compaction and grading) shall be placed on
the land fill (to prevent infiltration during monsoon)
Specifications for sanitary landfills
• Non-permeable lining system at the base and walls of the landfill
– Liner of composite barrier of 1.5 mm thick HDPE (geo membrane or
geosynthetic liner) or equivalent
– 90 cm thick layer of clay or amended soil with permeability coefficient
of <1 x 10 -7 over the liner
• The highest level of water table shall be >2 m below the clay or
amended soil barrier layer
• After completion of landfilling, a final cover to the landfill shall be
designed (to minimize infiltration and erosion) - It shall have
– a 45 cm thick barrier layer clay or amended soil (with permeability
coefficient <1 x 10-7
– A 15 cm thick drainage layer on the top of the barrier layer
– A 45 cm thick vegetative layer on the top of the drainage layer to
support plant growth and to minimize erosion
Specifications for sanitary landfills
• Provisions for the management (collection and treatment to meet
the standards specified in schedule-2 of SWM rules, 2016) of
leachate shall be made
– Leachate shall not be released into open environment
– Treated leachate shall be recycled or utilized as permitted or it shall be
released into the sewer line
– Arrangements shall be made to prevent leachate runoff into any drain,
stream, river, lake or pond
– If the runoff water mixes with the leachate or solid waste, the entire
mixed water shall be treated
• Proper drainage shall be constructed to divert away run off from
the active cells of the landfill
• Storm water drains shall be designed and constructed
– To divert the surface runoff from the landfill site and to avoid mixing of
the leachates with the surface runoff water
– To minimize leachate generation and to prevent pollution of surface
water
– To avoid flooding and creation of marshy conditions
Specifications for sanitary landfills
• Before establishing a landfill site, baseline data on ground water
quality shall be collected and kept in record for future reference
• Groundwater quality within 50 m from the periphery of the landfill
site shall be periodically (covering different seasons) monitored
• Use of groundwater around a landfill site shall be considered only
after ensuring its quality
– For monitoring purposes, drinking water quality specifications are
given in schedule-1 SWM rules, 2016 (taken from IS 10500-2012)
• Landfill gas control system (including the gas collection system) shall
be established (to minimize odour, to prevent migration of gases
off-site, and to protect the vegetation planted)
– For enhancing the landfill gas recovery, use geo-membranes in the
cover system and gas collection wells
• Methane concentration in the land fill gases shall not exceed 25% of
the lower explosive limit (LEL)
• Escape of landfill gases directly into the atmosphere and illegal
tapping of landfill gas shall not be allowed
– The landfill gas shall be utilized either for direct thermal applications
or for power generation or it shall be burnt or flared
– In case of non-utilization or flaring, passive venting shall be allowed
Specifications for sanitary landfills
• Ambient air quality at the landfill site and in the vicinity shall be
regularly monitored
– Standards prescribed by the CPCB for industrial area shall be met
• Vegetation cover shall be provided over the completed landfill
– Locally adopted non-edible perennial plants resistant to draught and
extreme temperatures shall be planted
– The plants selected shall have the ability to thrive on low nutrient soils
– The plant roots should not penetrate beyond 30 cm
– Plantation density should be sufficient enough to minimize soil erosion
• Green belt shall be developed all around the boundary of the
landfill in consultation with the SPCB/PCC
Specifications for sanitary landfills
• Post-closure care of landfill site shall conducted for at least 15 years
• The long term monitoring or care plan shall include
– Maintaining integrity and effectiveness of final cover, making repairs
and preventing run-on and runoff from eroding/damaging final cover
– Monitoring the leachate collection
– Monitoring the groundwater
– Maintaining and operating the landfill gas collection system
• A closed landfill site after 15 years of closure can be considered for
human settlement, after ensuring that the gaseous emissions and
the leachate quality complies with the specified standards, and
after ensuring the soil stability
• Hills shall have location specific methods for the final disposal of
solid waste and these methods shall have the approval of SPCB/PCC
– Inert and non-biodegradable waste shall be used for building roads or
for the filling up of appropriate areas
– In case of constraints for using the waste in road building or filling up,
the waste shall be deposited in the regional landfills in plain areas
Specifications for sanitary landfills
• The solid waste dumps that reached the capacity and the dumps
that will not receive any additional waste should be closed and
rehabilitated by examining the following options
– Reduction of waste by bio-mining and waste processing followed by
placing the residues in new landfills
– Capping the solid waste cover or the solid waste cover enhanced with
geo-membrane (to enable collection and utilization/flaring of
greenhouse gases)
• In case of alluvial and coarse grain soils, additional measures such
as cut-off walls and extraction wells shall be provided for pumping
and treating the contaminated groundwater
• Examining other suitable methods for reducing environmental
impacts to acceptable level
16. Duties of SPCBs and PCCs
Authorization
• SPCB, after the receipt of an application from the local body (or
from any agency authorized by the local body), shall examine the
proposal for authorization (made in Form-1) and make inquiries
– Examination of the proposal for authorization shall take the following
into consideration:
• Requirement of consents under different enactments
• Views of the following agencies
– state urban development department, town and country planning
department, district planning committee or municipal area planning
committee, Air port or air base authority, Groundwater board,
railways, Power distribution companies, Highway department , and
Other relevant agencies
The agencies shall be given 4 weeks time for giving their views
• The authorization shall be issued within 60 days in Form-2
– Compliance criteria and environmental standards and other conditions
shall be stipulated in the authorization issued
– Validity of the authorization shall be synchronized with that of the
consents
16. Duties of SPCBs and PCCs
• On receipt, the application for the authorization renewal shall be
examined on merit, and the authorization shall be renewed for 5
years subject to the condition that the operator/local body has
fulfilled all the provisions of the rules, standards or conditions
specified in the authorization, consents or environmental clearance
• SPCB can suspend or cancel an authorization issued if the local
body or operator of the facility fails to operate the facility as per
the stipulated conditions
– Without giving notice to local body or operator no authorization
can be suspended or cancelled
• SPCB, after giving reasonable opportunity of being heard to the
applicant, and after recording the reasons in writing, can refuse an
authorization or renewal of an authorization

More Related Content

What's hot

on site storage techniques
on site storage techniqueson site storage techniques
on site storage techniques
srija juluru
 
Landfill leachate treatment
Landfill leachate treatmentLandfill leachate treatment
Landfill leachate treatment
John Pravin
 

What's hot (20)

Solid waste part-i
Solid waste part-iSolid waste part-i
Solid waste part-i
 
Solid Waste Generation and Handling
Solid Waste Generation and HandlingSolid Waste Generation and Handling
Solid Waste Generation and Handling
 
Solid Waste Management (Unit-V)
Solid Waste Management (Unit-V)Solid Waste Management (Unit-V)
Solid Waste Management (Unit-V)
 
Municipal Solid Waste Management Process
Municipal Solid Waste Management ProcessMunicipal Solid Waste Management Process
Municipal Solid Waste Management Process
 
Remediation of solide waste landfill
Remediation of solide waste landfillRemediation of solide waste landfill
Remediation of solide waste landfill
 
Solid waste management
Solid waste managementSolid waste management
Solid waste management
 
Solid waste-management
Solid waste-managementSolid waste-management
Solid waste-management
 
waste collection and transportation present
waste collection and transportation presentwaste collection and transportation present
waste collection and transportation present
 
Municipal Solid waste Management in INDIA
Municipal Solid waste Management in INDIAMunicipal Solid waste Management in INDIA
Municipal Solid waste Management in INDIA
 
Solid waste management
Solid waste managementSolid waste management
Solid waste management
 
On-site handling methods - Municipal Solid Wastes
On-site handling methods - Municipal Solid WastesOn-site handling methods - Municipal Solid Wastes
On-site handling methods - Municipal Solid Wastes
 
Solid waste management ppt
Solid waste management pptSolid waste management ppt
Solid waste management ppt
 
Sampling Protocols - Municipal Solid Wastes
Sampling Protocols - Municipal Solid WastesSampling Protocols - Municipal Solid Wastes
Sampling Protocols - Municipal Solid Wastes
 
Material separation and processing techniques in waste management (1)
Material separation and processing techniques in waste management (1)Material separation and processing techniques in waste management (1)
Material separation and processing techniques in waste management (1)
 
Material Recovery Facility
Material Recovery FacilityMaterial Recovery Facility
Material Recovery Facility
 
on site storage techniques
on site storage techniqueson site storage techniques
on site storage techniques
 
Introduction to municipal solid waste
Introduction to municipal solid wasteIntroduction to municipal solid waste
Introduction to municipal solid waste
 
Hazardous Waste Management
Hazardous Waste ManagementHazardous Waste Management
Hazardous Waste Management
 
Integrated solid waste management
Integrated solid waste managementIntegrated solid waste management
Integrated solid waste management
 
Landfill leachate treatment
Landfill leachate treatmentLandfill leachate treatment
Landfill leachate treatment
 

Viewers also liked

Solid Waste Management
Solid Waste ManagementSolid Waste Management
Solid Waste Management
Farhana Citra
 
Waste management (EoH) ebadullah ppt
Waste management (EoH) ebadullah pptWaste management (EoH) ebadullah ppt
Waste management (EoH) ebadullah ppt
Ebadullah Hedayat
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Atmospheric Water
Atmospheric WaterAtmospheric Water
Atmospheric Water
 
Solid waste biomethanation plants
Solid waste biomethanation plantsSolid waste biomethanation plants
Solid waste biomethanation plants
 
Atmospheric Pressure and Winds
Atmospheric Pressure and WindsAtmospheric Pressure and Winds
Atmospheric Pressure and Winds
 
Scrubbing Systems
Scrubbing SystemsScrubbing Systems
Scrubbing Systems
 
Atmosphere: Composition and Strucutre
Atmosphere: Composition and StrucutreAtmosphere: Composition and Strucutre
Atmosphere: Composition and Strucutre
 
Solid Waste Management
Solid Waste ManagementSolid Waste Management
Solid Waste Management
 
Solid waste management
Solid waste managementSolid waste management
Solid waste management
 
Solid waste management ppt
Solid waste management pptSolid waste management ppt
Solid waste management ppt
 
Waste to energy
Waste to energyWaste to energy
Waste to energy
 
Waste management (EoH) ebadullah ppt
Waste management (EoH) ebadullah pptWaste management (EoH) ebadullah ppt
Waste management (EoH) ebadullah ppt
 
Solid waste management (my ppt)
Solid waste management (my ppt)Solid waste management (my ppt)
Solid waste management (my ppt)
 
Waste minimisation environmental imperatives
Waste minimisation   environmental imperativesWaste minimisation   environmental imperatives
Waste minimisation environmental imperatives
 
Waste free indore
Waste free indoreWaste free indore
Waste free indore
 
Solid Waste Management
Solid Waste ManagementSolid Waste Management
Solid Waste Management
 
Microbial growth kinetcs
Microbial growth kinetcsMicrobial growth kinetcs
Microbial growth kinetcs
 
Introduction of Solid waste management
Introduction of Solid waste managementIntroduction of Solid waste management
Introduction of Solid waste management
 
Radiation and atmospheric temperature
Radiation and atmospheric temperatureRadiation and atmospheric temperature
Radiation and atmospheric temperature
 
De-mineralization of Water
De-mineralization of WaterDe-mineralization of Water
De-mineralization of Water
 
Sewer Appurtenances
Sewer AppurtenancesSewer Appurtenances
Sewer Appurtenances
 
Aerobic attached growth systems
Aerobic attached growth systemsAerobic attached growth systems
Aerobic attached growth systems
 

Similar to Regulatory Requirements of Solid Waste Management, Indian Context

Solid wast mangement
Solid wast mangementSolid wast mangement
Solid wast mangement
Vijay Krishna
 
solid waste management
solid waste managementsolid waste management
solid waste management
Imran Akram
 
Ce 105 81 solid waste management - vcs
Ce 105 81 solid waste management - vcsCe 105 81 solid waste management - vcs
Ce 105 81 solid waste management - vcs
Gaurav Pahuja
 
Solid Waste Management_Atul Kulkarni
Solid Waste Management_Atul KulkarniSolid Waste Management_Atul Kulkarni
Solid Waste Management_Atul Kulkarni
Atul Kulkarni
 
Feniks Waste To Energy plant
Feniks Waste To Energy plantFeniks Waste To Energy plant
Feniks Waste To Energy plant
feniks_usa
 

Similar to Regulatory Requirements of Solid Waste Management, Indian Context (20)

Zero Waste Residences through Resource Recovery & Circular Economy
Zero Waste Residences through Resource Recovery & Circular EconomyZero Waste Residences through Resource Recovery & Circular Economy
Zero Waste Residences through Resource Recovery & Circular Economy
 
Solid wast management
Solid wast management Solid wast management
Solid wast management
 
Solid wast mangement
Solid wast mangementSolid wast mangement
Solid wast mangement
 
Separate technical-ppt web
Separate technical-ppt webSeparate technical-ppt web
Separate technical-ppt web
 
solid waste management
solid waste managementsolid waste management
solid waste management
 
waste minimization techniques
waste minimization techniqueswaste minimization techniques
waste minimization techniques
 
disposal of solid waste
disposal of solid waste disposal of solid waste
disposal of solid waste
 
A monograph on sw&m
A monograph on sw&mA monograph on sw&m
A monograph on sw&m
 
Waste management.pptx
Waste management.pptxWaste management.pptx
Waste management.pptx
 
Solid waste management by Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14
Solid waste management by Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14Solid waste management by Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14
Solid waste management by Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14
 
SWM - Lecture.pptx
SWM - Lecture.pptxSWM - Lecture.pptx
SWM - Lecture.pptx
 
Solid Waste Management.pptx
Solid Waste Management.pptxSolid Waste Management.pptx
Solid Waste Management.pptx
 
Ce 105 81 solid waste management - vcs
Ce 105 81 solid waste management - vcsCe 105 81 solid waste management - vcs
Ce 105 81 solid waste management - vcs
 
Solid Waste Management_Atul Kulkarni
Solid Waste Management_Atul KulkarniSolid Waste Management_Atul Kulkarni
Solid Waste Management_Atul Kulkarni
 
9. WASTE COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT.pptx
9. WASTE COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT.pptx9. WASTE COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT.pptx
9. WASTE COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT.pptx
 
Solid waste management
Solid waste managementSolid waste management
Solid waste management
 
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES – ITS PROBLEMS AND MANAGEMENT_091303.pptx
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES – ITS PROBLEMS AND MANAGEMENT_091303.pptxMUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES – ITS PROBLEMS AND MANAGEMENT_091303.pptx
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES – ITS PROBLEMS AND MANAGEMENT_091303.pptx
 
Feniks Waste To Energy plant
Feniks Waste To Energy plantFeniks Waste To Energy plant
Feniks Waste To Energy plant
 
Solid waste management
Solid waste managementSolid waste management
Solid waste management
 
Solid waste
Solid wasteSolid waste
Solid waste
 

More from Akepati S. Reddy

More from Akepati S. Reddy (20)

PH,acidity and alkanity
PH,acidity and alkanityPH,acidity and alkanity
PH,acidity and alkanity
 
Td sand tss
Td sand tssTd sand tss
Td sand tss
 
Asr wastewater characteristics
Asr wastewater characteristicsAsr wastewater characteristics
Asr wastewater characteristics
 
Asr flow measurement
Asr  flow measurementAsr  flow measurement
Asr flow measurement
 
Asr= nutrients
Asr= nutrientsAsr= nutrients
Asr= nutrients
 
Asr mp ntest
Asr mp ntestAsr mp ntest
Asr mp ntest
 
02b priliminary treatment
02b priliminary treatment02b priliminary treatment
02b priliminary treatment
 
02d secondary treatment
02d secondary treatment02d secondary treatment
02d secondary treatment
 
Wastewater characteristics
Wastewater characteristicsWastewater characteristics
Wastewater characteristics
 
Chapter2activestudge process
Chapter2activestudge processChapter2activestudge process
Chapter2activestudge process
 
acticated sluge process
acticated sluge processacticated sluge process
acticated sluge process
 
Biological n and p removal
Biological n and p removalBiological n and p removal
Biological n and p removal
 
Biological sludge digestion
Biological sludge digestionBiological sludge digestion
Biological sludge digestion
 
Geothermal energy technologies
Geothermal energy technologiesGeothermal energy technologies
Geothermal energy technologies
 
Primary sedimentation
Primary sedimentationPrimary sedimentation
Primary sedimentation
 
UASB reactors
UASB reactorsUASB reactors
UASB reactors
 
Anaerobic ponds
Anaerobic pondsAnaerobic ponds
Anaerobic ponds
 
Activated sludge process
Activated sludge processActivated sludge process
Activated sludge process
 
biomass gasification
biomass gasificationbiomass gasification
biomass gasification
 
biomass fuels and cook stoves
biomass fuels and cook stovesbiomass fuels and cook stoves
biomass fuels and cook stoves
 

Recently uploaded

一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
pcoow
 
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单
qogbuux
 
Micro RNA genes and their likely influence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) dynamic ...
Micro RNA genes and their likely influence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) dynamic ...Micro RNA genes and their likely influence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) dynamic ...
Micro RNA genes and their likely influence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) dynamic ...
Open Access Research Paper
 
一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单
yegohah
 
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单
tyvaq
 
Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...
Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...
Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...
Open Access Research Paper
 
Climate change Presentation for students who need it
Climate change Presentation for students who need itClimate change Presentation for students who need it
Climate change Presentation for students who need it
maythadar1312
 
A systematic review of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in human resources
A systematic review of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in human resourcesA systematic review of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in human resources
A systematic review of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in human resources
BOHR International Journal of Operations Management Research and Practices
 
一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
exehay
 
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
pcoow
 

Recently uploaded (20)

一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Monash毕业证)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单
 
Powers of State Pollution Control Board - The Water Act 1974
Powers of State Pollution Control Board - The Water Act 1974Powers of State Pollution Control Board - The Water Act 1974
Powers of State Pollution Control Board - The Water Act 1974
 
New Metrics for Sustainable Prosperity: Options for GDP+3 (preliminary study)
New Metrics for Sustainable Prosperity: Options for GDP+3 (preliminary study)New Metrics for Sustainable Prosperity: Options for GDP+3 (preliminary study)
New Metrics for Sustainable Prosperity: Options for GDP+3 (preliminary study)
 
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证成绩单
 
Micro RNA genes and their likely influence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) dynamic ...
Micro RNA genes and their likely influence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) dynamic ...Micro RNA genes and their likely influence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) dynamic ...
Micro RNA genes and their likely influence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) dynamic ...
 
一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Southern Cross毕业证)南十字星大学毕业证成绩单
 
The State Board for Water Pollution - The Water Act 1974 .pptx
The State Board for  Water Pollution - The Water Act 1974  .pptxThe State Board for  Water Pollution - The Water Act 1974  .pptx
The State Board for Water Pollution - The Water Act 1974 .pptx
 
DESERT ECOSYSTEM AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS AND TYPES
DESERT ECOSYSTEM AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS AND TYPESDESERT ECOSYSTEM AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS AND TYPES
DESERT ECOSYSTEM AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS AND TYPES
 
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(Lincoln毕业证)新西兰林肯大学毕业证成绩单
 
Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...
Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...
Use of Raffias’ species (Raphia spp.) and its impact on socioeconomic charact...
 
Powers and Functions of CPCB - The Water Act 1974.pdf
Powers and Functions of CPCB - The Water Act 1974.pdfPowers and Functions of CPCB - The Water Act 1974.pdf
Powers and Functions of CPCB - The Water Act 1974.pdf
 
Climate change Presentation for students who need it
Climate change Presentation for students who need itClimate change Presentation for students who need it
Climate change Presentation for students who need it
 
A systematic review of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in human resources
A systematic review of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in human resourcesA systematic review of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in human resources
A systematic review of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in human resources
 
LANDFILL AND ITS EFFECT(Managing waste).pptx
LANDFILL AND ITS EFFECT(Managing waste).pptxLANDFILL AND ITS EFFECT(Managing waste).pptx
LANDFILL AND ITS EFFECT(Managing waste).pptx
 
一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版EUR毕业证鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
CHLORITE( a phyllosilicate clay mineral)
CHLORITE( a phyllosilicate clay mineral)CHLORITE( a phyllosilicate clay mineral)
CHLORITE( a phyllosilicate clay mineral)
 
WhatsUpp In... Alpine Region concerning Hydrogen Valleys - 16 mai 2024
WhatsUpp In... Alpine Region concerning Hydrogen Valleys - 16 mai 2024WhatsUpp In... Alpine Region concerning Hydrogen Valleys - 16 mai 2024
WhatsUpp In... Alpine Region concerning Hydrogen Valleys - 16 mai 2024
 
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
 
Paper: Man and Environmental relationship
Paper: Man and Environmental relationshipPaper: Man and Environmental relationship
Paper: Man and Environmental relationship
 
Gender and Climate Change in Viet Nam.pdf
Gender and Climate Change in Viet Nam.pdfGender and Climate Change in Viet Nam.pdf
Gender and Climate Change in Viet Nam.pdf
 

Regulatory Requirements of Solid Waste Management, Indian Context

  • 1. Regulatory Requirements of Solid Waste Management Dr. Akepati S. Reddy Professor,School of Energy & Environment Thapar University, Patiala
  • 2. Waste Management Rules • Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016; G.S.R. 320 (E) [18- 03-2016] • e-waste (Management) Rules, 2016; G.S.R. 338 (E) [23-03- 2016] • Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016; G.S.R. 343(E). [28-03-2016] • Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules, 2016; G.S.R. 317(E). [29-03-2016] • Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016; G.S.R No. 395 (E)[04-04-2016] • Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016; S.O. 1357(E) [08-04- 2016]
  • 3. Regulatory Requirements • Management plan and system components and arrangements – how the waste shall be managed? • Procedures and technologies for the management • Organizational setup and duties and responsibilities of the personnel, organizations, departments, etc. Involved • Requirements and standards against which the management system performance is monitored and evaluated • Dos and don’ts
  • 4. Solid Waste and Management Solid waste • Solid or semi-solid domestic waste and sanitary waste • Commercial waste, Institutional waste, and Catering & market waste • Street sweepings, and Silt removed or collected from surface drains • Horticulture waste and Agriculture and dairy waste Handling and Management • Segregation and storage (and secondary storage) • Collection (loading and unloading) and transportation • Processing (shredding, crushing and baling) and treatment • Sorting, recovery and recycling • Disposal Waste hierarchy: order of priority in which solid waste should be managed prevention ← reduction ← reuse ← recycling ← recovery ← disposal
  • 5. Solid waste management rules, 2016 4. Duties of Waste Generators 15. Duties and responsibilities of local authorities and village panchayats of census towns and urban agglomerations – Solid waste management plan 20. Criteria and actions to be taken for solid waste management in hilly areas 11. Duties of the secretary-in-charge, urban development in the states and union territories 13. Duties of the secretary in charge of village panchayats or rural development department in the state and union territory 23. State level advisory body 6. Duties of Ministry of Urban Development 16. Duties of state pollution control board or pollution control committee 14. Duties of central pollution control board 5. Duties of Ministry of environment, forest and climate change – Central monitoring committee
  • 6. Solid waste management rules, 2016 18. Duties of industrial units located within one hundred km from the refuse derived fuel and waste to energy plants based on solid waste 17. Duty of manufacturer or brand owners of disposable products and sanitary napkins and diapers 12. Duties of District Magistrate or District Collector or Deputy Commissioner 7. Duties of Department of Fertilizers, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers 9. Duties of Ministry of Power 10. Duties of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources 8. Duties of Ministry of Agriculture
  • 7. Solid waste management rules, 2016 19. Criteria for duties regarding setting-up solid waste processing and treatment facility 21. Criteria for waste to energy process 24. Annual report 25. Accident reporting 22. Time frame for implementation 1. Short title and commencement 2. Application 3. Definitions
  • 8. Biodegradable waste Non-biodegradable waste Segregation and storage (by Residential generators, Organizers of events and gatherings, Street vendors, Resident welfare and market associations, Gated communities, Institutions of >5000 m2 area, and Hotels and restaurants) Domestic hazardous waste Sanitary waste Construction and demolition waste Horticultural and garden waste Street sweeping and silt removal from surface drains Street sweepings Silt removed from surface drains Garden/park waste and horticulture waste Secondary storage and Material recovery facilities Sorted out recyclable materials Biodegradable waste in bins painted green Other wastes in bins painted black Recyclable waste in bins painted white
  • 9. Biodegradable waste processing (composting, vermi-composting, bio-methanation, anaerobic digestion, etc.) Pre-processing rejects Residues from waste processing Compost Biogas Non-biodegradable waste processing (waste to energy processes) Refuse derived fuels Feed stock to solid waste based power plants and/or ciment kilns Pre-processing rejects Residues from waste processing
  • 10. Segregation Biodegradable waste Sanitary waste Non-biodegradable waste Street sweepings Silt from surface drains Domestic hazardous waste Horticultural, park and garden waste Construction and demolition waste Residential generators Organizers of events and gatherings Street vendors Resident welfare and market associations Gated communities Institutions of >5000 m2 area Hotels and restaurants Local bodies Storage Primary storage Secondary storage Suitable bins at the generator. Centers for collection, segregation and storage of wastes incorporated in the building plans. Secondary storage for street sweepings and for silt from surface drains. Material recovery or secondary storage facilities with space for sorting, with easy access to waste pickers and recyclers, and with colour codes for containers. Waste deposition centers for domestic hazardous waste.
  • 11. Processin g Generator level Community level Local body level Home composting Decentralized processing of waste at community level Decentralized composting and biomethanation plants within market premises. Horticulture waste, and parks and garden waste processing within parks/garden premises. Solid waste processing facilities . Disposal Sanitary landfills Dump sites Allow non-usable, non-recyclable, non- biodegradable, non-combustible and non- reactive inert waste in the landfills. Allow only pre-processing rejects and residues from waste processing in the landfills. Bio-mine or bio-remediate the dump sites Scientifically cap the dump site.
  • 12. Collection Handover Collection Deposition Handing over to waste pickers and waste collectors by generators and by the organizers of events and gatherings. Collection from the door steps of generators Collection from the building collection centers Street vendors depositing wastes with the waste storage deposits Generators depositing domestic hazardous waste with the waste deposition centers Transportation Biodegradable waste Non-biodegradable waste Domestic hazardous waste Non-usable, non- recyclable, non- biodegradable, non- combustible and non- reactive inert waste. Pre-processing rejects and residues from waste processing. Transport of biodegradable waste to processing facilities Non-biodegradable waste to processing facility/recovery facility or secondary storage facility Transport of domestic hazardous waste from the waste deposition centers to the disposal facility (as per SPCB/PCC directions.
  • 13. Handling and Management of Waste • Segregation: sorting and separate storage of various components of solid waste – Biodegradable waste (including agricultural and dairy waste) – Non-biodegradable waste (including recyclable waste, Non-recyclable combustible waste, sanitary waste and non-recyclable inert waste) – Domestic hazardous waste – Construction and demolition waste Sorting: separation of various components and categories of recyclables to facilitate recycling • Collection: collection of solid waste from – Door steps of households, commercial establishments, offices, institutional and any other non-residential premises – Entry gate or designated location (on the ground floor) in a housing society, multistoried building or apartments, large residential, commercial or institutional complex or premises • Primary collection: collection, lifting and removal of segregated solid waste from the source of its generation • Secondary storage: temporary containment of the collected solid waste at storage depots, or MRFs (material recovery facilities) or bins, for onward transportation of the waste
  • 14. Waste Handling and Management • Transportation: conveyance of solid waste (treated, partly treated or untreated) in an environmentally sound manner – Specially designed and covered transport system is used to prevent foul odours, littering and unsightly conditions • Treatment: method/technique/process designed – to modify physical, chemical or biological characteristics or composition of solid waste – to reduce volume and potential to cause harm • Processing: scientific processes by which segregated solid waste is handled for the purpose of reuse, recycling, or transformation • Recycling: Transforming the segregated non-biodegradable solid waste into new material or product, or use of the waste as raw material for producing new products • Incineration: engineered process involving burning or combustion of solid waste for thermal degradation at high temperature • Stabilizing: Decomposition of biodegradable waste to a stable state where it generates no leachate and no offensive odours and it becomes fit for application to farm land soil erosion control or soil remediation
  • 15. Waste Handling and Management • Anaerobic digestion: controlled microbial decomposiion of organic matter in the absence of oxygen • Biomethanation: Controlled enzymatic decomposition of organic matter by microrganisms to produce methane rich biogas • Composting: controlled microbial decomposition of organic matter • Vermi composting: a process of conversion of biodegradable waste into compost using earthworms • Disposal: final and safe disposal on land of post processed residual solid waste and inert street sweepings and silt from surface drains • Sanitary land filling: final and safe disposal of residual solid waste and inert waste on land in a facility designed with protective measures against – pollution of groundwater, surface water and ambient air (including GHG emissions and persistent organic pollutants, dust and windblown litter) – Fire hazards, bad odours, animal & bird menace, pests & rodents – Slope instability and erosion
  • 16. Persons engaged in solid waste management • Waste generator: – Every person or group of persons generating slid waste – Every residential premises and non-residential establishments including indian railways, defense establishments generating solid waste • Bulk waste generator: – Establishments with average waste generation rates > 100 kg/day – Buildings occupied by government departments or undertakings, local bodies, public sector undertakings or private sector companies – Hospitals, nursing homes; schools, colleges, universities, and other educational institutions; stadia and sports complexes; hostels and hotels; commercial establishments; markets; and places of worship • Street vendor: any person engaged in vending of articles, goods and merchandise, to public, in streets and public places, from temporary built up structures, or by moving
  • 17. Persons engaged in solid waste management • Waste picker: person or group of persons informally engaged in collection and recovery of reusable and recyclable solid waste from waste generation sources, street bins, material recovery facilities, waste processing facilities, and waste disposal faciltiies for sale to recyclers either directly or indirectly • Informal waste collector: individuals, associations or waste traders involved in sorting, sale and purchase of recyclable materials • Local body: – Includes municipalcorporation, nagar nigam, municipal council, nagarpalika, nagar palika parisad, municipal board, nagar panchayat, town panchayat – Census towns, notified areas and notified industrial townships with whatever name they are called • Operator of a facility: person or entity onwing or operating a facility for handling solid waste (local body or any other entity or agency appointed by local body) • Service provider: an authority providing public utility services like water, sewerage, electricity, telephone, roads, drainage, etc. • Brand owner: a person or company selling commodities under a registered brand label
  • 18. Facilities for solid waste management • Buffer zone: zone of no development maintained around solid waste processing and disposal facility of >5 TPD capacity – This area will be maintained within the total area allotted for the solid waste processing and disposal facility • Dump sites: land utilized by local body for disposal of solid waste without following the principles of sanitary land filling • Facility: any establishment wherein the solid waste management processes (segregation, recovery, storage, collection, recycling, processing, treatment, or safe disposal) are carried out • Materials recovery facility: a facility where non-compostable solid waste can be temporarily stored – To facilitate segregation, sorting and recovery of recyclables by authorized informal sector of waste pickers, informal recyclers or any other work force • Transfer station: facility created to receive solid waste from collection areas and transport in bulk in covered vehicles or containers to waste processing and disposal facilities
  • 19. 15. Duties and responsibilities of local authorities and village panchayats • Facilitate construction, operation and maintenance of solid waste processing facilities and associated infrastructure – This can be by own, or with the private sector participation or through any agency – Preference shall be given to decentralized processing in order to minimize transportation costs and environmental impacts • Undertake construction, operation and maintenance of sanitary landfills and associated infrastructure for residual wastes disposal – This can be on their own or through any other agency Rule 19 and 21, and schedule-1 of SWM rules, 2016 are sufficiently relevant
  • 20. 19. Criteria for duties regarding setting-up solid waste processing and treatment facility • Operator of the facility shall design and setup the solid waste processing and treatment facility as per the – Guidelines issued by the CPCB – Manual of solid waste management by the Ministry of Urban Development • Operator of the facility shall obtain necessary approvals from the SPCB/PCC – Authorization from SPCB/PCC! • Operator of the facility shall be responsible for the safe and environmentally sound operations as per the guidelines of the CPCB and as per the manual of MSW management by the Ministry of Urban Development • The SPCB/PCC shall monitor the environmental standards of the operation of the facility • Operator of the facility shall submit annual report in Form-3 by 30th April to the SPCB/PCC and to the concerned local body
  • 21. 21. Criteria for waste to energy process • Non-recyclable waste with calorific value >1500 Kcal/kg shall not be disposed in landfills – it shall only be utilized for generating energy (using as feed stock for preparing refuse derived fuels) • High calorific value waste shall be used for co-processing in cement plants and thermal power plants • The local body (or the operator or an agency designated by the local body), proposing to set up a waste to energy plant of >5 ton/day waste processing capacity, shall submit an application in Form-1 to the SPCB/PCC for authorization • SPCB/PCC, on receiving the application, shall examine the application and grant authorization within 60 days
  • 22. Schedule-1: Specifications for Sanitary Landfills • Criteria for site selection • Criteria for development of facilities at the sanitary landfills • Criteria for specifications for land filling operations and closure on completion of land filling • Criteria for pollution prevention • Criteria for water quality monitoring • Criteria for ambient air quality monitoring • Criteria for plantation at land fill site • Criteria for post-care of landfill site • Criteria for special provisions for hill areas • Closure and rehabilitation of old dumps
  • 23. Specifications for sanitary landfills • Sanitary landfill site shall be planned, designed and developed with proper documentation of construction plan as well as a closure plan – If the site is planned adjoining to an already existing landfill site, then closure plan of the existing landfill should form part of the proposal of the new landfill • Landfill site shall be setup as per the guidelines of the Ministry of Urban Development and CPCB – Existing landfill site in use for > 5 years shall be improved as per the specifications of Schedule-1, SWM rules, 2016 • The landfill site shall be 100 m away from river, 200 m away from ponds, highways, human habitations, public parks, water supply wells, and 20 km away from airports and air bases – It shall not be permitted within the flood plains (as recorded in the last 100 years), within the zones of coastal regulation, within wetlands, within critical habitat areas, and within sensitive eco-fragile areas – If no objection certificate is obtained from the civil aviation ministry/ air force, the landfill site can be within 10 to 20 km distance from an airport/ airbase
  • 24. Specifications for sanitary landfills • The site for a landfill shall be incorporated in the land-use plans of the town planning department • A buffer zone of no development shall be maintained around land fill site (if installed capacity is >5 TPD) within the site’s total area – The buffer zone shall be prescribed on a case by case basis by the local body in consultation with the SPCB • The landfill site shall be fenced/hedged and provided with proper gate (to monitor vehicles movement and to prevent entry of stray animals and unauthorized persons ) • Waste processing facility can also be planned as an integral part of the landfill site • The landfill site shall have a temporary storage facility for the solid waste (to accommodate for non-operation of the facility and for emergencies and natural calamities • The landfill site shall be large enough to last for 20-25 years • The landfill cells shall be developed in phased manner (to avoid water logging and misuse)
  • 25. Specifications for sanitary landfills • The approach and internal roads shall be designed (to ensure free movement of vehicles and other machinery) and they shall be concreted/paved (to avoid generation of dust) • The landfill site shall have a waste inspection facility, an office facility for record keeping, and shelters for equipment and machinery including pollution monitoring equipment • Provisions like weigh bridge, fire protection equipment and others shall be provided • Provisions for parking, cleaning, washing of transport vehicles carrying solid waste shall be made • Utilities such as drinking water and sanitary facilities and lighting facilities shall be provided • Wastewater generated from various activities shall be treated to meet the prescribed standards • Safety provisions including health inspections of workers shall be made at the site • Operator of the facility shall maintain a record of waste received, processed and disposed
  • 26. Specifications for sanitary landfills • Stop land filling or dumping of mixed waste, and allow only non- usable, non-recyclable, non-biodegradable, non-combustible and non-reactive inert waste and pre-processing rejects and residues from waste processing facilities to the sanitary landfills – No biomedical waste, no hazardous waste and no e-waste is disposed in the sanitary landfills – Till the time the waste processing facilities (composting or recycling or energy recovery) are setup, mixed solid waste can be sent to the sanitary landfill • Landfilled waste shall be compacted in thin layers using heavy compactors – The landfill cell shall be covered at the end of each working day with >10 cm soil/inert debris/construction material – Prior to the commencement of monsoon, an intermediate cover of 40- 65 cm of soil (with proper compaction and grading) shall be placed on the land fill (to prevent infiltration during monsoon)
  • 27. Specifications for sanitary landfills • Non-permeable lining system at the base and walls of the landfill – Liner of composite barrier of 1.5 mm thick HDPE (geo membrane or geosynthetic liner) or equivalent – 90 cm thick layer of clay or amended soil with permeability coefficient of <1 x 10 -7 over the liner • The highest level of water table shall be >2 m below the clay or amended soil barrier layer • After completion of landfilling, a final cover to the landfill shall be designed (to minimize infiltration and erosion) - It shall have – a 45 cm thick barrier layer clay or amended soil (with permeability coefficient <1 x 10-7 – A 15 cm thick drainage layer on the top of the barrier layer – A 45 cm thick vegetative layer on the top of the drainage layer to support plant growth and to minimize erosion
  • 28. Specifications for sanitary landfills • Provisions for the management (collection and treatment to meet the standards specified in schedule-2 of SWM rules, 2016) of leachate shall be made – Leachate shall not be released into open environment – Treated leachate shall be recycled or utilized as permitted or it shall be released into the sewer line – Arrangements shall be made to prevent leachate runoff into any drain, stream, river, lake or pond – If the runoff water mixes with the leachate or solid waste, the entire mixed water shall be treated • Proper drainage shall be constructed to divert away run off from the active cells of the landfill • Storm water drains shall be designed and constructed – To divert the surface runoff from the landfill site and to avoid mixing of the leachates with the surface runoff water – To minimize leachate generation and to prevent pollution of surface water – To avoid flooding and creation of marshy conditions
  • 29. Specifications for sanitary landfills • Before establishing a landfill site, baseline data on ground water quality shall be collected and kept in record for future reference • Groundwater quality within 50 m from the periphery of the landfill site shall be periodically (covering different seasons) monitored • Use of groundwater around a landfill site shall be considered only after ensuring its quality – For monitoring purposes, drinking water quality specifications are given in schedule-1 SWM rules, 2016 (taken from IS 10500-2012) • Landfill gas control system (including the gas collection system) shall be established (to minimize odour, to prevent migration of gases off-site, and to protect the vegetation planted) – For enhancing the landfill gas recovery, use geo-membranes in the cover system and gas collection wells • Methane concentration in the land fill gases shall not exceed 25% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) • Escape of landfill gases directly into the atmosphere and illegal tapping of landfill gas shall not be allowed – The landfill gas shall be utilized either for direct thermal applications or for power generation or it shall be burnt or flared – In case of non-utilization or flaring, passive venting shall be allowed
  • 30. Specifications for sanitary landfills • Ambient air quality at the landfill site and in the vicinity shall be regularly monitored – Standards prescribed by the CPCB for industrial area shall be met • Vegetation cover shall be provided over the completed landfill – Locally adopted non-edible perennial plants resistant to draught and extreme temperatures shall be planted – The plants selected shall have the ability to thrive on low nutrient soils – The plant roots should not penetrate beyond 30 cm – Plantation density should be sufficient enough to minimize soil erosion • Green belt shall be developed all around the boundary of the landfill in consultation with the SPCB/PCC
  • 31. Specifications for sanitary landfills • Post-closure care of landfill site shall conducted for at least 15 years • The long term monitoring or care plan shall include – Maintaining integrity and effectiveness of final cover, making repairs and preventing run-on and runoff from eroding/damaging final cover – Monitoring the leachate collection – Monitoring the groundwater – Maintaining and operating the landfill gas collection system • A closed landfill site after 15 years of closure can be considered for human settlement, after ensuring that the gaseous emissions and the leachate quality complies with the specified standards, and after ensuring the soil stability • Hills shall have location specific methods for the final disposal of solid waste and these methods shall have the approval of SPCB/PCC – Inert and non-biodegradable waste shall be used for building roads or for the filling up of appropriate areas – In case of constraints for using the waste in road building or filling up, the waste shall be deposited in the regional landfills in plain areas
  • 32. Specifications for sanitary landfills • The solid waste dumps that reached the capacity and the dumps that will not receive any additional waste should be closed and rehabilitated by examining the following options – Reduction of waste by bio-mining and waste processing followed by placing the residues in new landfills – Capping the solid waste cover or the solid waste cover enhanced with geo-membrane (to enable collection and utilization/flaring of greenhouse gases) • In case of alluvial and coarse grain soils, additional measures such as cut-off walls and extraction wells shall be provided for pumping and treating the contaminated groundwater • Examining other suitable methods for reducing environmental impacts to acceptable level
  • 33. 16. Duties of SPCBs and PCCs Authorization • SPCB, after the receipt of an application from the local body (or from any agency authorized by the local body), shall examine the proposal for authorization (made in Form-1) and make inquiries – Examination of the proposal for authorization shall take the following into consideration: • Requirement of consents under different enactments • Views of the following agencies – state urban development department, town and country planning department, district planning committee or municipal area planning committee, Air port or air base authority, Groundwater board, railways, Power distribution companies, Highway department , and Other relevant agencies The agencies shall be given 4 weeks time for giving their views • The authorization shall be issued within 60 days in Form-2 – Compliance criteria and environmental standards and other conditions shall be stipulated in the authorization issued – Validity of the authorization shall be synchronized with that of the consents
  • 34. 16. Duties of SPCBs and PCCs • On receipt, the application for the authorization renewal shall be examined on merit, and the authorization shall be renewed for 5 years subject to the condition that the operator/local body has fulfilled all the provisions of the rules, standards or conditions specified in the authorization, consents or environmental clearance • SPCB can suspend or cancel an authorization issued if the local body or operator of the facility fails to operate the facility as per the stipulated conditions – Without giving notice to local body or operator no authorization can be suspended or cancelled • SPCB, after giving reasonable opportunity of being heard to the applicant, and after recording the reasons in writing, can refuse an authorization or renewal of an authorization

Editor's Notes

  1. Treated bio-medical waste (excluding industrial waste) Biomedical waste E-waste Battery waste Radioactive waste
  2. Safe disposal: preventing contamination of ground water, surface water, ambient air and attraction of animals or birds
  3. Safe disposal: preventing contamination of ground water, surface water, ambient air and attraction of animals or birds Co-processing: use of non-biodegradable and non-recyclable solid waste with calorific value >1500 Kcal as raw material or as a energy source to replace or supplement natural mineral resources and fossil fuels Decentralized processing: dispersed facilities for the processing of biodegradable waste and recovery of recyclables closer to the surce of generation
  4. Safe disposal: preventing contamination of ground water, surface water, ambient air and attraction of animals or birds
  5. Recyclable waste: paper, plastic, metal, glass, textile, etc..