CONSCIOUS-RAISING APPROACH( SMITH AND RUTHERFORD)
Conscious-raising Approachdeveloped by Smith (1981) and Rutherford (1987)Are approach in pedagogical grammarAlso known by its acronym CRBasically a cognitive approach to grammaticalinstructionDoes not teach grammatical rules and principles asdone in traditional prescriptive grammar rather helpslearners discover for themselves aspects of thegrammatical structure by showing the grammaticalcounterparts of ungrammatical construction.Students are asked to judge sentences and makeconnections on the sentence.
Smith and Rutherford use thisapproach to call the attention of the features of the ergatives.
VERBTRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE ERGATIVE UNERGATIVE WITH TRANSITIVE WITHOUT TRANSITIVE COUNTERPART COUNTERPART
Examples for Ergatives1. A. The heat of the sun melted the ice.(transitive, activevoice) B. The ice was melted by the heat of the sun. (transitive,passive voice) C. The ice melted because of the heat of the sun.(intransitive, ergative)2. A. The burglar broke the window. (transitive, active voice) B. The window was broken by the burglar. (transitive,Passive voice) C. The window broke to pieces. (intransitive, ergative)
ERGATIVE WITH A TRANSITIVE ERGATIVES W/O A TRANSITIVE COUNTERPART COUNTERPART1.A) The water was boiled to A) The water rose tomake it safe for drinking. dangerous levels.B) The water boiled2.A) I accidentally burst the 2. The leaves fell.balloon.B)The balloon burst
ACTIVITYDirection: Write the letter that best describes thegrammaticality of the sentences in the dialogue.A. CLEARLY GOOD ENGLISH( GRAMMATICALENGLISH )B. PROBABLY GOOD ENGLISHC. PROBABLY BAD ENGLISHD. CLEARLY BAD ENGLISH( UNGRAMMATICALENGLISH )
STUDENT A: HI! HOW’S IT GOING?1. STUDENT B: MY GRADES IMPROVED LAST QUARTER2. A: ARE YOUR COURSES VERY TOUGH?3. B: MY COURSES CAN CLASSIFY INTO TWO TYPES 4. SOME COURSES MUST STUDY HARD TO GET APASSING GRADE. 5. SOME COURSES CAN PASS WITHOUT TRYING.A: (POINTING TO THE BROKEN WINDOW) 6. WHAT WAS HAPPENED HERE?7. B: THE WINDOW WAS BROKEN BY THE KIDS NEXTDOOR.8. THEY SHOULD HAVE PUNISHED.
9. A: WHAT ABOUT THE MIRROR?10.B: THE MIRROR SHATTERED DURING THE LASTEARTHQUAKE.11. A: SAY, DO YOU HAVE ANYTHING TO EAT HERE? I’MSTARVED!12. B: THIS PIZZA CAN HEAT UP IN THE OVEN QUICKLY.13. OR TRY THIS ORANGES THEY WERE GROWN BY MYGRANDMOTHER.14. WHEN THEY ARE RIPE, THEY ARE FALLEN DOWNEVERYWHERE.15. A: SHE MUST BE SPENT A LOT OF TIME IN THEGARDEN.
-Subject is the receiver of theaction yet the verb form remainsthe same.- Are class of “ change-of-state intransitive verbs”- Also called unaccusative whichdenotes lack of volationalcontrol.