The UNIBE Campus within a Sustainable District


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Universidad Iberamericana/UNIBE is located in the geographical center of Santo Domingo, a 4,000,000 inhabitants Caribbean metropolis. UNIBE is expanding its campus by acquiring surrounding properties while trying to maintain some spatial coherence. The growing of our academic community is forcing us to plan ahead for sustainability issues related to transportation, traffic, parking, and adaptability to surrounding neighborhoods. UNIBE is currently ongoing through the process of updating its Strategic Plan for the following six years. R2P2 is an interesting exercise that could help us to adopt resiliency issues into the managing of our campus thus reducing our urban environmental footprint. A cross-disciplinary team was assembled for the first phase. It included graduate and undergraduate students and faculty from the School of Architecture, Research Advisors, the Campus Architect and Administrative Officials. The School of Graduate Studies coordinated the final report.

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The UNIBE Campus within a Sustainable District

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  4. 4. 5 PRO- LOGUE The Universidad Iberoameriana (UNIBE) has pioneered in the development of educational programs in Environmental Sciences in order to develop in our students the knowledge and skills necessary to enable them to contribute to the discovery of solutions and the prevention of environmental problems. Local governments, businesses and higher education institutions face increased risks when operating in inefficient and unsustainable urban environments. Academic institutions have played an important role in shaping their own com- munities. They have also been catalysts for specific policies at local and national level which, at times, have created room for hope. However, institutions still have a crucial role to play in the effort to reduce environmental impacts in urban environ- ments where they settle. Both researchers, administrators and students should be familiar with the risks their campuses impose on climate change and how they affect not only economic development but also their health and safety. Assessing and measuring these risks may provide the opportunity to restructure the institutions of higher education for the 21st Century: 1 Providing them with tools to be resilient in a changing world. 2 Committing them to solve real life problems. 3 Rearranging to provide better education and research needed to create and maintain a sustainable society. The Research to Practice Program is an interesting exercise which challenges the ability of our universities to extend knowledge and fosters an atmosphere of inter-agency cooperation—essential for the development of local policies for urban development and environmental sustainability. We feel proud to participate in this scien- tific innovation model articulated by the Center for Green Schools, and we look to provide the general public and relevant institutions this research project aimed at building a sustainable city model articulated from inclusive space of our family UNIBE. Dr. Julio Amado Castanos Guzman Presidente “Building partnerships is key for the management and development of urban public policies. Partnerships leads us to fulfill the vision of an integrated, sustainable and competitive city. As the government of the City of Santo Domingo, we consider of high importance supporting Universidad Iberoamericana in the research coordinated by the Master of Sustainable Design program on urban sustainable strategies.” Domingo Contreras Secretary General of the Municipality of Santo Domingo
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  6. 6. 7 Intro- ductionUniversidad Iberoameriana is an institution which promotes ecological responsibility and is extremely involved in the continuous growth of its own academic community. For this reason, they have created initiatives within the Strategic Plan of the institution to reduce the carbon impact of its campus. Some of these initiatives include: The Research to Practice Program (R2P2) of the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) has become an opportunity for UNIBE to build on the sustainability initiatives of its Strategic Plan. It has motivated the collection of relevant data required to develop the environmental strategies needed to alleviate the pres- sure on our academic campus in relation to transportation, parking, motility and urban security. Launched in the fall of 2011, the R2P2 attracted many teams of 35 institutions of superior education representing 300 researchers. These teams, with the help of a counselor from the faculty or the staff, gather students of arquitecture, engineering, urbanism, interior design, construction, energy management, environmental psychology, real estate development, historic preservation, politics, economy, physics, environmental science and biology. The ¨Research to Practice Program¨ objectives has been: “To engage the higher education community in investigative green building research through multi- disciplinary student teams working on their campuses and communities to transfer project-based knowledge to practice through the development of tangible tools or resources” We are pleased UNIBE has been selected, together with eleven other universities, to go to the second phase of the research project. Our research concentration, Campus Environment Analysis, is developed in the following pages. For reference, the other selected topics from the various universities range from Assessing Building Occupant Comfort by Hawaii Pacific University, Energy Performance Analysis by Ohio State University and Post-occupancy evaluation by North Carolina State University, among others. Creating a Sustainable Campus Committee Improving energy savings and efficiencies Reducing consumption and waste generation Effectively administrating water consumption Developing internal and external educational campaigns about sustainability 1 2 3 4 5
  7. 7. make it real for the community
  8. 8. 9 Metho- dology The research revealed some impacts which in some cases were easy to identify: insufficient parking spaces, traffic jams, and unsafe environments for pedestrians. Others were less evident because of the lack of official urban data needed to measure and define the situation. In order to cover the operational aspects of the UNIBE campus in relation to its con- text, we used different categories from the USGBC evaluating system “LEED for Neighborhood Development” and the STARS system from the American Associa- tion for Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE). We also used urban data informa- tion from a second source, as well as maps and other documents produced by the team working on of the first phase of the project. (See methodology chart in previous page). All of this data is going to be analyze in order The data collected on Phase I was used to to evaluate the capacity of the university to embark in a planification strategy aimed at developing a plan towards a sustainable and socially responsible future. Once an actionable work plan was defined, the Phase II team used the Design Thinking methodology to explore innovative ideas with the purpose of defining tangible solu- tions. The students embarked in a deep un- derstanding of the sustainabillity challenges found within four areas: district, transpor- tation, circulation, and waste management and energy. We chose the Design Thinking methodology for its encouragement in dis- covering insights which embrace real human needs first, and design solutions second. “The perspective of the neighborhood is the best way to connect the impact of one edification or group of edifications with a more broad urban or regional perspective. When the scale of the neighborhood is the focus of the study, we allowed the construction professionals to evaluate the direct impact of their edifications on climate change. “ Green Building and Climate Resiliance, University of Michigan, USGBC. This project has been developed in two phases by two different teams. Phase I consisted of an interdisciplinary team composed by undergra- duate students from the architecture department, research counselors, campus architects, and administrative officials. They handled the task of elaborating and gathering relevant campus data on the subject of sustainability. Phase II was develop by students of the Sustainable Design Masters Program who were responsable for analyzing the collected data and translating them to specific strategies with potential of becoming actionable solutions.
  9. 9. 10 CON- TEXT Dominican Republic is located in the Greater Antilles in the Hispaniola island. It shares its territory with Haiti and occupies an area of 48,442 km2 . Santo Domingo is the capital city. It is si- tuated south of the island overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Its located at the mouth of the Ozama River and is known for being the first American city founded by Spanish Colonizers. The most recent census con- ducted by the National Statistics Office in the Dominican Republic reported a popu- lation of 9,445,281 inhabitants, of which 3,339,410 live in the territory of Greater Santo Domingo. THe Dominican Republic
  10. 10. 11 Dominican Republic has has forty-four superior Education Institutions recognized by the state. Thirty-one of them are universities. By the year 2010 the student population increased in about 72.5% going from 02,069 in 1990, to 372, 433 in 2009 according to the General Statistic in Superior Education from 2006-2009. Only in the city of Santo Domingo there are 231,730 students in comparison to the 62% that exists nationally. In the National District of the city of Santo Domingo there are twenty-four Superior Educational Centers. In less than a 3km2 there is a concentrated of 202, 667 students representing 54% of the national university population. 2 345 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 111 M A R C A R I B E 0 2 km. 4 km. 6 km. 8 km. 10 km. 12 km. 14 km. 16 km. 18 km. 20 km. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 UNIBE - Universidad Iberoamericana UNAPEC - Universidad APEC UTESA - Universidad tecnológica de Santiago UCSD - Universidad Católica de Santo Domingo UASD - Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo PUCMM - Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra O&M - Universidad Dominicana O&M UNICARIBE - Universidad del Caribe INTEC - Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo UNPHU - Universidad Nacional Pedro Henríquez Ureña MESCyT - Ministerio de Educación Superior Ciencia y Tecnología UNICDA - Universidad Cultural Dominico Americano 13 Santo Domingo Road Network Protected areas Green Belt Green spaces KEY UAPA - Universidad Abierta para Adultos UNIVERSITY STUDENT CONCENTRATION IN SANTO DOMINGO 8,025 Students 202, 667 Students 13,917 Students TOTAL 224,663 Students Dominican Republic & THE Superior Education System
  11. 11. UNIBE is located in the National District, the geographical center of Greater Santo Domingo. The National District is the most populated city, with up to 965,040 inhabitants. UNIBE shares the area with eight other colleges located within less than 3km2 . As a whole they accumulate a university student population of over two hundred thousand enrolled students. Unlike other campuses located further south of the city, UNIBE converges in some of the most important vehicular arteries for transportation in the city. Maximo Gomez Avenue, February 27th Avenue and John F. Kennedy Avenue are all part of the Duarte Corridor stretching across the city. This is the most congested transit network in the country. In addition, recently the Santo Domingo Metro opened its first intersection no more than one mile away, making this segment the most important transportation node of the city within the Dominican Republic. UNIVERSITY DISTRICT LAND USE THE Campus DistricT OF UNIVERSIDAD IBERAMERICANA 12
  12. 12. 13 UNIVERSITY DISTRICT TRANSPORTATION NODES UNIVERSITY DISTRICT METRO STATIONS UNIBE is also located near some of the most important civic centers of the city of Santo Domingo. The Plaza de la Cultura, the Juan Pablo Duarte Olympic Center, as well as some of the most important State offices and government agencies are located are within less than a mile. Also in close proximity is UNAPEC, which is one of the oldest universities in the country and shares the same problems UNIBE due to its location. Furthermore, nearby are some of the head- quarters of various banks, two hospitals, a private inter-city transportation node, as well as important commercial streets and residential areas with historical value. This institutional and commercial activity has has led to one of the most important findings of the investigation: in just one square kilome- ter around the UNIBE campus there are 22.1 acres of surface parking, most of which are only used until 4:00 PM in the afternoon. This reveals an insight which defines the reality of the academic environment: institutions in the area devote more space for parking than to productive activities. In the case of UNIBE alone, 41% of the total area of ​​the campus is dedicated to parking—this is more than what is dedicated to classrooms, workshops and laboratories together. These challenges make evident the need to understand the limits of the study area at the scale of an University District. For this reason, we have chosen the principles of LEED for Neighborhood Development, which establishes a range of miles or fifteen minute walk to define the boundaries of an urban area that is apprehensible to its users.
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  16. 16. 17 Re- VIEW We have supported our work plan using as a background document prepared jointly by the USGBC and the AASHE “Roadmap to Green Campus”. The strategies will be arranged in a first stage by a specialized team, who must draw specific actions in the areas of public transportation, parking, pedestrian networks and urban security. In a second phase, issues of efficiency and electricity savings, and waste management, would be addressed, all which are directly related to the operations of the campus. This work plan would be the application of methodologies for sustainability at two scales: 1 Scale University District Defined by a radius of 1/4 mile walk from UNIBE or UNAPEC. 2 Scale University Campus Property boundaries defined by the University. The strategy would aim to develop a plan for an actionable pilot in UNIBE University campus and its immediate surroundings. This pilot will be used as an example for the implementation of more ambitious initiatives involving other institutions in the proposed University District. DEFINING THE STRATEGIC PLAN First: Create a Steering Committee of the Sustainable University District, who shall: 1 Establish goals and objectives of the strategies defined in the Plan. 2 Categorize nearby institutions which could interact with the pilot for the University Campus. 3 Create an actionable framework which will ensure sustainability objectives are integrated into formal institutional planning, as well as in the approval process of operations, actions and policies maintenance. 4 Review existing plans in order to identify sustainable strategies that have already been taken into account by the municipality or the institutions in the sector. 5 Assess efforts by public and private institutions which could contribute to the development of the sustainability goals on the campus. This would help us understand the challenges and successes of similar institutions that have made the effort to create sustainable urban strategies. 6 Involve the entire university community (faculty and staff, employees, students, merchants on campus) to raise awareness about campus sustainability. 7 Coordinate the implementation of a sustainability program with a commitment to renewable energy and efficient results that could be measured in the short, medium and long term. The sustainable urban strategies plan must build consensus among institutions within the UNIBE sector. To accomplish this objective, we need to form the figure of the University District, which does not exist in our current legislation. Stakeholders from the public and private sectors need to be involved in the various actions and measures defined. It also important to include students in this dialogue, encouraging them to take responsibilities related to their educational process. PHASE 1
  17. 17. 18 Second: Start with a pilot project containing different levels of implementation. We understanding change is difficult, specially in public policy issues and large institutions. For this reason, we propose starting various small pilot programs which work together to define a more effective strategy. Concepts and ideas for the focus of these small pilot programs will be explo- red using the Design Thinking methodolo- gy. Through design thinking we will look to discover opportunity areas which speak to the findings of our research. Three: Define the roles and responsibili- ties of institutional managers to create the Sustainable University District. Many are responsible for guiding the sustainable development of the Academy: Teachers: Make changes in their programs, assignments or exercises to relate to the processes of change in campus. Public Servants: Establish urban and legal standards that make possible the implementation of the Plan. Planners and design professionals: Translate needs in space requirements. Facility Managers: Establish operating policies, procedures and maintenance of facilities. Professionals in Finance: Determine capital investment budgets and look for financing options. Campus Administrators: Promote the vision of sustainability in the maintenance of the campus. University Student Body: Determine with their active participation the results of green initiatives on campus. Four: Disseminating and integrating the financing plan. The integration of sustainability initiatives involves large capital investments in areas such as development of vehicular and pedestrian traffic, illumination systems, remodeling and improvement of efficiencies. Some of these investments should be the responsability of the municipality since the area extends the boundaries of the campus. The investment would also require external funding or a public-private initiative. Fifth: Establish processes for measuring and reporting. Evaluate constantly the status of the campus as a way of measuring the progress of the strategy and reducing CO2 emissions. These measures should be based on recognized methods in order to make comparisons with other similar institutions. The reports should be distributed across the campus and to senior officials of various public and private stakeholders. GREEN AREAS AND PARKING SURFACES WITHIN THE DISTRICT PARKING AREAS UNIBE CAMPUS
  18. 18. 19 ACTIONABLE ITEMS We identified four priority areas of action for the second phase of the study: URBAN SAFETY Issues related to public safety involve society as a whole, because it directly affects the quality of life of all people. It is essential to establish coordinated action and ongoing interaction between organizations and state institutions responsible for ensuring a preservation of public safety in the community. Without urban safety the State efforts to provi- de public mass transportation systems become useless. People are not able access transportation stations from their work or home locations if they feel threaten by their environement. PARKING In recent years, parking problems have skyrocketed specially in our country, in which the rate of car ownership has increa- sed dramatically. As universities are faced with the problem of needing to provide enough parking spaces, the growing number of civil servants, teachers and students, together with the lack of reliable public transportation, has increased the rate of motorization. It has created a capacity crisis for the campuses who are not able to provide adequate space for parking. As a consequence, those who fail to get ade- quate parking leave their vehicles in the peripheral places, many of which prohibit parking and are located off campus. PEDESTRIAN-NETWORKS Public space has been subjected to modifi- cations due to the changes in land use consequence of a growing metropolis. Pedestrian networks have become insuffi- cient and inadequate, unable to serve the high densities or change of use generated in our urban centers. The sidewalks are uncomfortable, narrow and in many cases in very poor condition. Cars often invade the pedestrians areas, turning them into parking space. They disrupt the a walkway creating a space full of obtacles for the pedestrians. There are no clear and consistent signage systems defining speed and street priority. The speed in some sections is inadequate and poses a risk exposure to pedestrians. This situation makes evident the need of viable alternatives. PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION The inefficiency of public transportation means: An increase in travel times of dri- vers, passengers and pedestrians; growing air pollution due to the use of obsolete units for public transportation; An increase in visual and noise pollution; A dependency on citizens to solve their own transportation problem by acquiring private vehicles; neglect of pedestrian networks which serve as public urban transportation. Despite these facts, most of the urban population in Santo Domingo continues to use public transportation. According to a poll made in UNAPEC and UNIBE, 34% of students, faculty and staff uses public transportation. PARKING AREAS BUILDINGS GREEN AREAS AND PARKING SURFACES WITHIN THE CAMPUS
  20. 20. 21 A HOLISTIC STRATEGY PHASE 2 The definition of actionable items in Phase I allowed the research to transition from data gathering to the discovery of potential small pilots. The Phase II team used the Design Thinking methodology to discover possible solutions to the challenges encountered. The team focused on four areas: District, Transportation, Circulation, and Waste Management and Energy. The focus on these complementary and interrelated set of challenges allowed for a sytems perspective which in turn defined a holistic strategy. For this part of the research we chose the Design Thinking method for its transdisciplinary collaborative approach. Design Thinking provides an effective way to solve problems which accelerates the discovery of innovation opportunities. It is based on the following principles: • Empathy • Imagination • Experimentation • Rapid Prototyping • Synthesis • LEARNING BY DOING Design thinking has been adapted worldwide in educational institutions, corporations and government organiza- tions for its ability to facilitate the generation of ideas which places the needs of people at the heart of the investigation. The students started the process with observations and finalized them through rapid prototypes, which became representations of their concepts for a sustainable University District. The process took place in the following stages: Interviews / Observations Students idenfied relevant users and stakeholders within their areas of focus. They interviewed these participants in their homes or areas work. They also engaged in field research, observing the context of their users and their resulting behaviors. Storytelling Following the interviews, they exchanged stories on what they heard and observed, in order to share their different experiences and help to all group members empathize with users and understand the main pain points for people. Synthesis: Making Sense At this stage, the different focus teams identified patterns within their interviews which became areas opportunity areas for deeper research. The main takeaways became insights statements which helped further define the problem area. Brainstorming The teams used brainstorming to establish a challenge question that would serve as a driving force in the search solutions. They also used it to explore ideas that would later become potential strategies. Rapid Prototyping The selected ideas where transformed into visual and physical models intended to help represent and evaluate concepts. Through rapid-prototyping the students were able to request feedback from their users and validate their concepts.
  21. 21. 22 EMPATHY FOCUS OBSERVATIONS ASK & LISTEN SYNTHESIS DEFINE CHALLENGE RESEARCH Look beneath the surface: Question / Inquiry Understand and frame:
  22. 22. 23 GENERATE IDEAS BRAINSTORM ANALIZE & CHOOSE FEEDBACK RAPID-PROTOTYPING Prototype CYCLE ACTUALIZE Make it real for the community Create opportunities for intervention: Build and test your ideas: Iterate
  23. 23. 24 DIS- TRICT The field research within the University District was focused on the findings of the first phase study were we identified challenges in the public space in relation to the shortage of pedestrian networks, and the lack of definition and signalization in the district. To further our investigation we identified several profiles of people who are an integral part of the area. We talked to students, area residents and influential officials. We also engaged with formal and informal employees who work in the area. Using qualitative interviews we heard stories that reflect the everyday lives of these users. Which areas do they frequent? What hours are considered more or less dangerous? How is their daily work within the District? The intention was to have a direct perception of how and who is being affected by the existing urban problems. Through our research we discovered addressing the issue of public safety is one of the most important aspects in the creation of a sustainable University District. The feeling of security influences the relationship people have with space and how they decide to interact with it. For example, citizens are often forced to use private transportation, even when public stations are in the vicinity of their places of study or work. They find themselves are unable to easily walk in the area because of the poor conditions of pavements and streets. The lack of security is also affected by the changes in the flow of people at different times during the day. Some are areas during certain times of day are overly busy and in the evenings become dark and desolate; these areas tend to be prone to theft and robbery, in many cases due to dark streets and pedestrian zones. The University District has an area of approximately 200 hectares and is one of the most developed areas in the city in terms of infrastructure, urban planning, economic activity and urbanization. Within this urban area we can find different public and private institutions together with a mixed land use (residential and commercial) and several universities. UNIBE, our principal study focus is located in the center at a distance of a ¼ mile radius.
  25. 25. 26 “If we walk in groups or if there is traffic around, I feel safe.” Cynthia Gomez, Student at UNAPEC “Any solutions should involve all public institutions of the area and the community at large”  Ada Prestol, Instution Employee “I don’t walk through areas that are not illuminated” Jeimy Avila, Student at UNAPEC “The owners of Ave. Francia are the parking attendants” Batista Family, District Residents
  26. 26. 27 INSIGHT 1 There is a direct relationship between feeling safe, the level of illumination and pedestrian flow. Due to the diversity of institutions in the area there is a drastic difference between daytime and nighttime in relation to the flow of people, illumination and the perception of security. Public institutions during the day have a high flow of people, yet at night their environments become desolate. The residential areas nearly empty during the day, but in the night the presence of people raise the sense of security. INSIGHT 2 The involvement of the community is necessary in the search of solutions within the District. Only the collaboration of the institutions within the district with the constituencies of the community will result in an integra- ted in solutions that all make all parties accountable for the care of the district. INSIGHT 3 The street vendors take over the urban space. The parking attendants take over public spaces, transforming it at their will. Interviewees, specially permanent residents expressed concern with the situation as this informal trade happens near residences, and creates a feeling of insecurity in residential neighborhoods. RESEARCH INSIGHTS SAFE VERSUS UNSAFE AREAS DAY TIME NIGHT TIME
  27. 27. 28 prOtOtype lOcatiOnS The following diagram shows the location of the defined meeting points redefined the pedestrian network streamling the pedestrian’s path. In this graph we have also mapped the proposed locations for communty walls and bus station prototypes. The images protray the of the current state of these locations, which were selected for the characteristic of space, among other conditions. 
  28. 28. 29 CHALLENGE & PROPOSALS OVERVIEW How might we create a safe college district with the collaboration of all institutions? The involvement and participation of responsible and committed community members, universities, public institutions, as well as formal and informal vendors is intrinsic to the creation of a safe college district. Through our research we discovered that in order to accomplish an integration of the community towards a safer district we needed to: • Create a district identity • Identify zones by colors • Encourage the integrated flow of people • Safety circuits • CREATE Community walls WHICH reflect the voice of all citizens • ESTABLISH Ephemeral ExhibitIONs • START A “WALK WITH ME” PROGRAM Another requirements is the restoration of confidence in the security forces of the city. Currently citizens of the District distrust even the country’s police authorities. OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVE 1 Create a more permanent flow of people to decrease the perception of insecurity in the University District. OBJECTIVE 2 Utilize the existing urban area and encourage the participation of institutions to consolidate the feeling of belonging and security in the University District. OBJECTIVE 3 Empowering the community so that it can come together with the University District an take responsibilities for the environment. ACTION ITEMS 1 Establish a University District brand. 2 To delimit the space that makes up the district, to promote a sense of belonging. 3 Provide public furniture placement and appropriate signage. 4 Regularize informal vendors. 5 Provide public illumination systems which use clean energy. 6 Identify unsafe areas that can pose a threat to citizens life. 7 Creation of new bus stops stations. 8 Establish meeting places for citizens to meet before walking to the public transportation stops or stations. 9 Establish bicycle renting systems at strategic points within the district. 10 Creating community walls in selected areas which serve as artistic enjoyment throughout the District. 12 Use plazas or open spaces for temporary exhibitions. 13 Use daytime parking at night for a reduction in vehicle within the district. 14 Expand the radio monitoring coverage done by institutions and communities, turning it into a means of collaboration.
  29. 29. 30 [60]UNIVERSITYDISTRICT THE DISTRICT BRAND The analysis of our research resulted in a the primary action item: the integration of the community with a focus on the institutions who belong to the District. As a first step to this integration we have defined a district called “[60]: University District” This name represents the 60 blocks around approximately 200 hectares. To represent the integration, we used the symbol “[]” to become a methaphor of the collaboration and integration of the community. 60-Web The 60-Web will be a platform hosting District activities. Institu- tions can publish news, as well as achievements. Visitors to the district will have access to an agenda of cultural activities offered in the community. Finally, there will be a directory of businesses and institutions within the district. Information gathered by different sensors and applications around the District will be hosted on this website, creating database of what actually happens in the District. This will also help improve the management of infrastructure services. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT Color CODING OF STREETS & AVENUES Avenues and major streets will be identified by colors, in this way users can quickly identify their location, since many of the problems in regards to the perception of safety is related to the lack of street signs. BUS STOPS & community walls Bus stops will be established through out the University District. They will be made of environmentally sensitive materials and have a digital display promoting district activities. Security sensors and an integrated safety circuit will be another important feature. The “Community Wall” will be come the voice of the District. Here citizens can express their concerns and needs in this way allowing for an understanding of users and better management.
  30. 30. 31 REGULATION & IDENTIFICATION OF INFORMAL VENDORS The distric will create a vendors union to help identify and organize the informal vendors in the area. The vendors will be given a district ID that allows for residents, students and community members to recoginize who does and does not belong to the network. Meeting points Meeting point will be a pleasant and easily identifiable place in the environ- ment which facilitates the flow to the meeting point to a bus or station. ¨WALK with me” App This software application is for the students, employees and residents of the district. The objective is to facilitate meetings and coordination between groups, who want to feel safer by walking with someone to a transporta- tion stop. The app will facilitate the use of meeting points. It will works as follows: Each user will register in a secure district category system, once inside the application people can summon a group to perform a specific route schedule. Through the app they will establishing a meeting point and destination. People can join different groups according to their schedule and needs. The system members with have access to users where they can get to know a little more about the people taking their chosen pedestrian path. The application will include be a forum and a map showing the locations of the predetermined assembly points. SECURITY CLUSTERS: District security management sections will be defined to encourage the collec- tive monitoring of the district. Sectors will be composed of one member from each institution and active community. Each section team will be responsable needs and activities for their sector.
  31. 31. 32 TRANS- PORTATION The vehicle fleet of the Dominican Republic went from 1, 611,023 in 2002 to 2,734,740 in 2010, an increase of 69.75% in 8 years. These extreme growth of private vehicle fleet has become a major source of air pollution in the city of Santo Domingo Besides these these conditions, there are other spatial attributes that do not contribute to certain pedestrian standards requirements to be met. Even though there is a large amount of parking lot surfaces, the high amount of vehicles leads to the misuse of public spaces. Sidewalks and prohibited areas are used for the purpose of parking vehicles. This is still the case even when most of the parking surfaces are only used until 4:00 pm when the numerous banks and public offices work schedule is over. Public transport in the city of Santo Domingo does not meet the parameters of comfort, safety, speed, and overall efficiency people expect. The units are not enouh to meet the high demand for public transportation. This situation forces people to solve their transportation problems by acquiring a personal vehicles. Consequently, major traffic congestion take place during peak hours and which causes a shortage in parking spaces. During the night, although the parking spaces ex- ceeding the needs of the university these space are not accessible to the public or otherwise unsafe. Another aspect of this situation is the incessant noise of horns, vehicle ignition engines, and general chaos which is unsustainable. UNIBE sits within one of the most important transit route nodes in the city of Santo Domingo. This node allows vehicles to safe time and costs. Yet, even with these infrastructure in place public transportation tends to be very poor. Transportation unions are not heavily regulated. The different transportation sources: private, public and independent drivers, offer uncordinated routes routes across the metropolitan area. All this results in frustrated citizens who prefers not to use public transportation to get around the city.
  32. 32. 33 “The public bus takes longer, many stops, it is not easy because there are no conditions, one is always tight (little room), very largar routes to reach their final destination” Amelia Rodriguez, Ing. Civil “The street elevations and tunnels have been made, but the vehicle fleet has grown, so we’re more or less in the same situation “ David Morera, Topographer “Before it was more comfortable, there was congestion and now gasoline is more expensive and there is more risk of accidents” Nicolas Fermin, Attorney
  33. 33. 34 RESEARCH INSIGHTS INSIGHT 1 Traffic congestion is a stress factor for users of all modes of transportation. INSIGHT 2 The UNIBE student is predisposed to public transport because it means belonging to another social class. INSIGHT 3 The pedestrian considers having a vehicle luxury, which many times can not afford. INSIGHT 4 Public transportation is the last option for users because of its insecurity, inefficiency and lack of comfort. INSIGHT 5 There is a scarcity of parking spaces even with the current amount of parking surfaces and colleges hard having a hard time coping. STRATEGIES How might we build alternative methods of transportation to the various institutions within the University District? Users travel long distances from all areas of the city of Santo Domingo to arrive at the University District. This influx of people into this the area, specially during peak hours, are the main source of traffic congestion and all its consequences. The identification of the sources of increase flow of users to the University District allowed us to establish a comprehensive strategy connecting the many the transpor- tation modes, such as the Santo Domingo Metro, and in this way creating an efficient mass transit system. For this strategy to be implemented we need a partnership between the private and public sectors in order to achieve significant reduc- tion of vehicles. Among these measures is the choice of “carpooling” and advertising campaigns encouraging the priority use of alternative transportation.
  34. 34. 35 OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVE 1 To significantly reduce private vehicle traffic on the main streets that make up the University District. OBJECTIVE 2 Encourage the use of the Santo Domingo Metro. OBJECTIVE 3 To reduce parking spaces and make its use more efficient for the universities in the area. OBJECTIVE 4 Raise awareness on how different our modes of trans- portation have a negative impact on the environment.
  35. 35. 36 CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT Bus Agency The proposed solution to minimize the use of private transportation is to create an bus agency interconnecting the different zones within the city with the Santo Domingo Metro. The agency would be responsable of providing vehicles in well conditions and comfortable ame- nities. The intention is to generate an increase in mass transit users, supported by the incentive to utilize the Santo Domingo Metro. To achieve this we propose defining bus sectors, which cover specific areas where students live. Students will be granted access to the bus with their student IDs. The bus will pick them up in their sector and transport them to the nearest Metro station which will take them directly to the university district. Map of bus agency sectors
  37. 37. 38 CARPOOLING PROGRAM We propose an inter-university campaign to raise awareness of “carpooling” within the various institutions within the district. UNIBE would be a pilot project which will serve as an example for reducing the use of private vehicles individually, encouraging students who shre similar schedules and live in close residential areas to share a vehicle. A carpooling software applications will help manage schedules, routes, and profiles of peers. It will be available through mobile and web compotents. Awareness campaigns will incentives the carpooling practice. BUS -metro system JOURNEY
  38. 38. 39 CARPOOLING NETWORK And after completing the various campaigns and incentives for the spread of this trend, we propose to create an electronic application system where students can access a private social network. The intention is to let users control who they share their car with within the institution. The also should be able to access carpooling times and confirm venues. The system will integran an electronic dashboard which tracks all services used within the district through the student ID card. The institutions will be able to keep track of students enrolled in the carpool program, and grant them points for their efforts. The goal is to achieve in the first stage of the project, a reduction of 30% of directed traffic to the University District at peak times. student JOURNEY TO DISTRICT FIND PEOPLE IN YOUR DEPARTMENT
  39. 39. 40 CIRCU- LATION Entering the campus one can observe pedestrian entrances which are not properly identified. The visible signage is aimed at vehicles drivers. Pedestrians enter and circulate through the street entrances designated for vehicles, creating conflicts of use. The campus parking is congested at peak hours causing the vehicles to park in prohibited areas or spend a long time trying to find parking space. Vehicles find themselves circulating from one place to place in search of availability. During peak hours, pedestrian also experience congestion issues. This happens specifically in the elevator areas where people wait in line for their turn due to over crowded elevators. Even though escalators are available, students neglect their use. The growth of the student population in the last decade of the Universidad Iberoamericana has influenced a campus expansion ad-hoc, which has created problems that affect sustainability. One of the most evident issues is the competition between pedestrian and vehicular circulation. The vehicle presence, represented by the parking surfaces reserved for vehicles, propose a threat to the vision of a sustainable campus which supports of productive activities. As the university is subjected to acquire more land, primarily to meet parking needs, we should consider: Should an educational institution dedicated more surface space to parking lots than classrooms, workshops, laboratories and offices together?
  40. 40. 41 “The campus signage should be more visible” Luis Reyes “The pedestrian enters through the same place as the vehicles” Indira Santana “The elevators are not sufficient. At peak traffic hours problem the city spread to the campus” Indira Santana
  41. 41. 42 57% of the campus area is dedicated to cars. VEHICLE VERSUS PEDESTRIAN SPACES The comparison of the real estate dedicated to pedestrians versus vehicles paint a clear picture of the infrastructure priorities of the institution. One of the most importantant takesways was identifying that within the area of the campus, there where only two small entries dedicated to pedestrian in comparison to the various parking lot entrances enabled for vehicles.  PEDESTRIAN AREAS PEDESTRIAN ENTRIES VEHICLE ENTRIES VEHICLE AREAS
  42. 42. 43 INSIGHT 1 The UNIBE campus isdesigned for cars. Were located on maps access and pedes- trian and vehicular movement on campus today and the car takes over the campus, whereas 57% of the land of the campus is dedicated to vehicle access, roads and parking lots. INSIGHT 2 At peak hours the caos of the city reflects in the campus The campus as well as the transport of the city of Santo Domingo suffers from blockages in both vehicular and pedestrian. Become congested access, vehicular circu- lation, parking can not cope and elevator cores agglomerate a group of people, to the point that people like solution only say “we need more parking.” INSIGHT 3 Users need signage to find their way in the campus. Among the surveyed profiles, highlighted that although there are signs on campus did not know people had to be located and ask where a certain area. INSIGHT 4 Pedestrians are not motiva- ted to use the stairs On campus there is an overuse of the lifts and this is given because the user for con- venience and disorientation prefer to use the elevators to the stairs because they do not have to tell signaling can direct you. RESEARCH INSIGHTS STRATEGIES How might we reorganize pedestrian and vehicular circulation to create the neccesary balance for a sustainable campus? To reorganize and streamline the flow of UNIBE we need to take into account the access, signage aimed at pedestrians, vertical circulation and parking in order to achieve a campus where users can move smoothly without problems of spatial orientation and conflicts with vehicles. The proposal includes solutions that work at virtual and physical. Within the physical space is proposed: • Encourage the use of stairs. • Discourage the use of campus parking BY encouragING The use of alternative means of transport. • Implement A smart parking system. • A virtual level arises for mobile application indicating the availability of parking on campus and help guide you in the same on the premises. OBJECTIVE 1 Prioritize pedestrian access OBJECTIVE 2 Encourage the use of stairs OBJECTIVE 3 More efficient parking by discoura- ging the use of the vehicle OBJECTIVE 4 Optimize campus signage OBJECTIVES
  43. 43. 44 ACCESS 1 Prioritize pedestrian access (Ave. February 27, North and France, south) 2 Create a new pedestrian access (from the parking at the west entrance) 3 Integrate pedestrian circulation within the campus and leave the vehicle in the vicinity. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT 1 2 4 Allocate 28% of the land area of campus for green spaces versus 14% today.
  45. 45. 46 PARKING SENSORS & SIGNAGE We will make parking lots more efficient by utilizing a system of wireless sensors that indicate the availability of parking spot. The entrance to each parking area should have a digital sign indicating the availability of parking spots in that area. This technology will reduce of CO2 pollution in campus, by reducing roaming vehicles. It will be complimented with an “smartphones” app which would notify users of the availability of parking spots increaing vehicular traffic flow on campus. PARKING STATUS APP Develop a mobile application in order to optimize the parking lots. The app will report on the availability of parking spaces in different areas by showing the amount of open parking spaces. Vehicles will be charged by the use for parking per hour, a timer in the app will indicating for how long the user has been parked. Timed parking to be charged once exiting the campus. Colores coded parking lots Parking notifications synced to class schedule and enabled by location
  46. 46. 47 OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS Implement the Smart Lift system to avoid congestion at rush hour in the vertical circulation cores. This action reduces the waiting time and increases between 25% and 40% travel time avoiding the crowds. Change the start and end times of clas- ses and / or activities at peak time in 20 or 30 minutes to avoid crowds and congestion of parking lots. Thus achie- ving greater fluidity in the circulation of the campus. Locate an area as VIP parking for cam- pus users who have cooperated with more sustainability. STAIRS SIGNAGE Place signage at all levels of the stairs, giving basic guidance and promoting these activities to make them more attractive to use. GREEN BONUS Discourage the use of the parking lots using incentives for people who come to campus for alternative methods of transport. This applies to students, faculty and staff of UNIBE. smartfloors Incentive to use the stairs by installing Smartfloor system which when steping on the step on the step your trace glows. The steps also generates clean energy and sends waves to wireless devices at a range of 50 to 500 meters.
  47. 47. 48 WASTE MANAGE- MENT & ENERGY Through a photographic survey carried out in all campus facilities we observed an excessive energy consumption at different times of our journey. It was common to find classrooms fully illuminated and the airconditioner on despite being in the total absence of users. We could a witnessed poor management of waste, in part due to the lack of of collection points in public areas which caused to excessive waste in the classroom. We discovered some people are motivated to save energy and control their waste production because they understand its impact on the environment and respect regulations. Others, however, are solely motivated by the monetary savings from reducing energy consumption. Our qualitative research process focused on understanding the reality of the challenges people face when making environmentally concious decisions. We wanted to see what we could learn from the various sustainability plans already in place at the campus. How can we improve these plans? Our main purpose was understanding the reasons that motivate individuals are to lean towards a behavior that benefits the environment, and how can this transcend from campus to their daily lives.
  48. 48. 49 “People show more interest in the electrical problem, not because it has more importance, but because it directly affects their economy” Yabaldy Reyes “You can not make things difficult for users. Programs must be designed so that anyone who wants to cooperate can do so with the least amount of effort.” William Cunningham “You can take everyday items and turn them into beautiful things that last much longer” Ebony Lafountaine “Why should I sort out the garbage? If everything get put together to bring it to the dump!” Jorge Miguel
  49. 49. 50 INSIGHT 1 People save energy for economic reasons. INSIGHT 2 People are not aware of the contribution to the environment by saving energy. INSIGHT 3 People doubt recycling programs work or get executed at all. INSIGHT 4 Most people do not recycle because they do not see any benefit or it doesn’t interest them. INSIGHT 5 The awareness of saving energy, reducing and recycling waste is affected by the level of education of the invidivual and an sense of responsability for the environement. RESEARCH INSIGHTS STRATEGIES How might we create a system where students benefit from reducting their waste production and energy consumption? Our proposal aims to develop a plan to reduce waste and energy consumption by involving the entire university community (faculty, staff and students) in various incentive schemes which motivate behavioral chance and provides a reason to continue saving. OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVE 1 Establish a waste management system with scientifically metrics which allow an effective control program. OBJECTIVE 2 Involving the campus community in reducing energy consumption in a pro-active, competitive and fun manner. OBJECTIVE 3 Engage the whole community by encouraging and stimulating them withpublic recognition for their efforts.
  50. 50. 51 CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT Intelligent garbage can System We proposed the distribution of 288 units of smart trash cans around the campus. This is the quantity that we determined through our research would be necce- sary to meet the existing demands at the waste collection points. They will cover areas not contemplated before, which are a source of considerable volume of wastes currently not collected by janitors. These units will be divided into groups of four which will be to collect: Paper, Cardboard, Glass, Metal and organic matter, in this way facilitated the subse- quent processing. The purpose is to help collectors accelerate classification and streamline the recycling process. These containers will have a calibrated waste measurement system which is directly proportional to the type of waste it will contain. These units will quantify the amount of discarded trash according to their density. As students place their objects inside the container, they will earn points that will be recorded in a general database. These points will be charged to a student user ID card that must be passed through a reader built into each trashcan to collect the points. These points can later be used to acquire none economical benefits or incentives inside the campus. .
  51. 51. 52 Using smart card readers: The intention of using this system in the campus is to limit access and use of ener- gy resources in classrooms are not being used for regular classes. Students or others who need a study space per level will have a classroom capable of doing so. The smart card readers will be located at the entrance to each classroom, and teachers will have full domain of these cards in the form of control so that each classroomuses them at the designated times of their classes. It is projected that these smart cards the hav typical applications such as digital identification of the holder, access control, and storage usage data with their schedules. Card System: Its function will be to re- gulate the power consumption and account recycling on campus. Interesting facts concerning energy saving and waste management will be place, serving both as a means a method of raising public cons- ciousness on the subject matter. This will worked with the same student card that the students currently possesses. Electric consumption With this cards spaces as the on and off Switch in the air conditioning will be independent. The classrooms will be lit 15 minutes before school and after 15 min they will be turn off by the floor manager. REPLACE AIR CONDITIONERS with VRF (inverter) Recycle control: Operating in conjunction with the intelligent containers will serve to account for staff recycling and points asignation. These points can later be exchanged for privileges on campus and it can be a way of recognizing students and teachers with the hig- hest percentage of recycling points MADEOFRECYCLEDPLASTIC Av. Francia #129-Sto. Dgo, R.D. (809) 689 4111 Fax (809)686 5821 Toll l free USA (800)203 3562 Tol l free P.R (888) 288 3042 Tol l free Canadá (800) 265 3266 W w w . Uni .do UNIVERSIDAD IBEROAMERICANA (UNIBE) MADEOFRECYCLEDPLASTIC Lacantidaddesolquellegaala tierraenundíaessuficientepara suplirlanecesidaddeenergía mundialporunaño Av. Francia #129-Sto. Dgo, R.D. (809) 689 4111 Fax (809)686 5821 Toll l free USA (800)203 3562 Tol l free P.R (888) 288 3042 Tol l free Canadá (800) 265 3266 W w w . Uni .do UNIVERSIDAD IBEROAMERICANA (UNIBE)
  52. 52. 53 Electric consumption Installing motion sensors in bathrooms and hallways Point System: This is a system in which savings were counted per person, so it can serve to benefit those who contribute most and also to provide accu- rate information of the goals achieved within a certain amount of time. By using these card is possible to store Information for each student, faculty or staff. Benefits. • VIP Parking spaces. • Company store • Participation in conferences. • Funding of thesis (environmental) • Scholarships • Decreased in semester tuition Display: achievements will be publis- hed on a screen in the square central campus highlighting the actors who have made a greater effort to the contribution of the goal. Screen display operation: Its function will keep the UNIBE (employees, teachers and students) on the power consumption and recycling campus, in real time. Interesting facts concerning energy saving and management of waste are placed on the screen, raising consciousness on this issue. It will Worke with solar energy. Display Update: Your upgrade will be provided by a central base that will keep control by the number of overall scoresof the cards.
  53. 53. 54
  54. 54. 55 48% EnerGY EFFICIENCY 62% WASTE CONTROL EFFICIENCY RESULTS OF MEASURES If all measures in terms of saving energy are applied on campus UNIBE will have a benefit of 56%.
  55. 55. 56 CON- CLUSION “We believe that colleges, universities, museums, libraries, historical societies, and other cultural institutions have a central role to play in conceiving and implementing an urban agenda for our twenty-first century communities. Increasingly, these institutions are emerging as the venues around which strong, inclusive, well-functioning modern communities can form. We believe that universities in particular can be the exemplars of a new kind of civic engagement, neither easy nor accidental, but strategic, comprehensive, intense and purposeful” —Judith Rodin Universities in Santo Domingo, should begin collaborating with communities and the municipalities on local policies and urban environmental adaptation providing experti- se, training and organizational capacity. They have the opportunity to serve as meeting points for their communities on adapta- tion issues taking a proactive approach in creating a set of policies for new university districts. The Research to Practice Program has been very effective for such a purpose. In Phase 1 a team of undergraduate students and faculty from UNIBE gathered data, formu- lated metrics, investigated strategies and developed thematic mapping. In Phase II the graduate program engaged in a meaningful educational process of evaluating all data collection, generating ideas, prototyping so- lutions and receiving feedback from the com- munity. Then this methodology is supposed to be disseminated to a variety of audiences thus making it real for the community. A PATH TO SUSTAINABILITY
  56. 56. 57 There are some recommendations that UNIBE could take the community leaders- hip for creating a new sustainable district: • Engage leaders in a dialogue to identify opportunities for the university to provide education, research, and pilot projects on adaptation; and for larger projects that can be pursued in collaboration with other similar institutions to improve the resi- liency of the city’s infrastructure, energy systems, water system and transportation systems. • Collaborate with the municipality of San- to Domingo in establishing urban policies that would protect existing residential neighborhood and promote land use diversity. • Engage with relevant public agencies to promote adaptation research supported on real world urban problems. • Evaluate academic offerings on sustaina- bility to ensure all graduates have suffi- cient understanding of sustainability and how to address them in their professional lives. There are some straightforward actions UNIBE could take from this study, that would greatly improve urban environment and transform car-mentality: • Joining forces with higher education institutions in the area for sharing shuttle buses and creating routes to major trans- portation nodes and big parking lots. • Recreating a future scenario by changing on-site parking mentality. • Evaluating possibilities for outsourcing parking spaces in collaboration with other institutions in the area that underperform their parking lots. • Improving pedestrian safety and security by promoting walkable neighborhoods principles. UNIBE is beginning to embrace these opportunities, recognizing its risks, while working to create more effective systems to deal with the urban problematic it is confronting. However, further efforts need to be done. Adaptation research on sustainability issues and its subsequent implementation will often require collabo- ration across diverse disciplines. This can be challenging within the current structure of most academic institutions that tend to operate autonomously and in isolation to others. UNIBE has gained two crucial and strategic institutional allies: the City Government and the National Environmental Network for Universities; both have agreed to sup- port this initiative and are strongly focused to go forward for the next step. The challenge for this type of civic en- gagement is to make of it a permanent component of the mission and ethos of our universities. Many individuals have recognized this situation and are engaged in research, creative experimentation, and complex policy discussions, thus this path to sustainability has begun and this contri- bution to it is offered.
  57. 57. 58 General Coordination Odile Camilo | Academic Vice-Chancellor Degree in Psychology, from the Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo, has a Masters in Curriculum and Instruction and a Ph.D. in International Education Development from Teachers College, Columbia University. She is the Academic Vice-Chancellor of Universidad Iberoame- ricana. Laura Sartori | Dean of Graduate Studies Degree in Education, holds a Masters Degree in Education Management from Lesley University in Cambridge Massa- chussets. She is a specialist in Academic Coaching and Virtual education environ- ments. Marcos Barinas Uribe | Coordinator, Master of Sustainable Design Graduate studies at Catholic University of America and the Southern California Institute of Architecture under a Fulbright Scholarship. Post graduate studies in International Relationships at the National School of Diplomacy in Santo Domingo and Graduate Diploma on Urban Settle- ments and Environment from Universidad de Chile. He is the coordinator of the graduate program in Sustainable Design at Universidad Iberoamericana. Alex Martínez Suárez | Professor, Master of Sustainable Design Diploma in architecture from Universidad Iberoamericana. Graduate studies at Ber- lage Institute, Rotterdam, NL. Researcher for Erwin Walter Palm Foundation and Dominican DoCoMoMo Chapter. Editorial Collaboration for Arquitexto and AAA Magazine. He is an architecture theory and design studio professor (undergra- duate school) and lead professor at the graduate program in Sustainable Design at Universidad Iberoamericana. Phase 1 Elmer González | Coordinator, School of Architecture Diploma in architecture from Universidad Nacional Pedro Henríquez Ureña. Did gra- duate studies in education at UNIBE. He is the coordinator of the School of architec- ture at Universidad Iberoamericana. Amin Abel | Professor, School of Architecture Diploma in Architecture from Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo. Gradua- te studies in Tropical Architecture from Universidad Nacional Pedro Henríquez Ureña. He is a professor of urban design at Universidad Iberoamericana. Vanessa Espaillat Bonnelly | Lecturer, School of Architecture Diploma in architecture from Universi- dad Iberoamericana. Graduate studies in urbanism from Architectural Association in London. She holds a lecturer position in urbanism at UNIBE. School of Architecture Undergraduate students Sarah Victoria Gómez, Julio Lorenzo, Ana Elisa Mejía, Enmanuel Santos, Pame- la Bournigal, María E. Español, Hector García, Jacob Brockmans, Luis Amarante, Nathalie Caraballo, Julio Bera, María Noceda, Gabriela Ortíz, Zamel Roig & Genesis Acosta Colaborators Higinio Llames, Melisa Vargas. Milagros Rodríguez, Ginia Montes de Oca, Sixto Inchaustegui, Simón Guerrero. Virginia Peguero. CRE- DITS
  58. 58. 59 Phase 2 Indhira Rojas | Visiting Professor, Master of Design Holds a Bachelors in Communication Design from Parsons The School for Design and a Master in Transdisciplinary Design from California College of the Arts. Her practice focuses on highlighting the role of the transdisciplinary designer as strategic thinker and mediator, who has the capacity to not only serve the traditional fields of design, but also areas of public service, policy and social justice. She is currently teaching at California College of the Arts, San Francisco CA. Humberto Cavallín, Phd | Visiting Professor, Master of Sustainable Design Director at the School of Architecture of University of Puerto Rico. Dr. Cavallin work and interest focus on the study of the design process, and the development of design projects through non-collocated collaboration. His research interests also in- clude the studying of thinking and problem solving in architectural design, particularly on the use of models for simulation and problem solving, as well as the study of the impact of tools, communication, and collaboration in the professional practice of Architecture. Teaching Assistant Sarah de la Cruz Researchers [Graduate Students] District Isabel Díaz Bownny Mosquea Paola Fortuna Gil Cáceres Jomarif Fermín Transportation Rosemil Martínez Laura Rodríguez Mariel De Peña Vicente Chacón Waste Management and Energy Carlos Medina Laura Leger Ivan Cordero Erika Arias Francesca De Marchena Pedestrian Circulation Ismabel Sosa Delio García Edna Rivera Jessica Martínez Editing Credits Editors Marcos Barinas Uribe, Alex Martínez Suárez & Indhira Rojas Editing Assistance Isabel Díaz, Paola Fortuna & Edna Rivera Translation Zoilo Pimentel Graphic Design Indhira Rojas & Paolat de la Cruz Published on: June 26, 2012 Santo Domingo,
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