Grading system (education)


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Grading system (education)

  1. 1. Power Point Presentation
  2. 2. Prepared by: Re d b u t t s
  3. 3. Educational System (education)
  4. 4. G rading in education is the process of applying standardized measurements of varying levels of achievement in a course.
  5. 5. G rades can be assigned in letters (for example, A, B, C, D, or F), as a range (for example 1 to 6), as a percentage of a total number correct, as a number out of a possible total (for example out of 20 or 100), or as descriptors (excellent, great, satisfactory, needs improvement).
  6. 6. In some countries, all grades from all current classes are averaged to create a grade point average (GPA) for the marking period. The GPA is calculated by taking the number of grade points a student earned in a given period of time divided by the total number of credits taken.
  7. 7. The GPA can be used by potential employers or educational institutions to assess and compare applicants. A Cumulative Grade Point Average is a calculation of the average of all of a student's grades for all courses completed so far.
  8. 8. History of grading
  9. 9. Yale University historian George W. Pierson writes "According to tradition the first grades issued at Yale (and possibly the first in the country) were given out in the year 1785, when President Ezra Stiles, after examining 58 Seniors, recorded in his diary that there were 'Twenty Optimi, sixteen second Optimi, twelve Inferiores (Boni), ten Pejores.'"
  10. 10. Keith Hoskin argues that the concept of grading students' work quantitatively was developed by a tutor named William Farish and first implemented by the University of Cambridge in 1792.
  11. 11. Hoskin's assertion has been questioned by Christopher Stray, who finds the evidence for Farish as the inventor of the numerical mark to be unpersuasive. Stray's article elucidates the complex relationship between the mode of examination (testing), in this case oral or written, and the varying philosophies of education these modes imply, both to teacher and student. As a technology, grading both shapes and reflects many fundamental areas of educational theory and practice.
  12. 12. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Most nations have individual grading systems unique to their own schools. However, several international standards for grading have arisen recently. g r
  13. 13. Academic grading in the Philippines
  14. 14. T he educational system of the Philippines was patterned both from the educational systems of Spain and the United States. However, after the liberation of the Philippines in 1946, the system changed radically.
  15. 15. Example of Grading Basis
  16. 16. Grading System
  17. 17. The Department of Education (or DepEd) administers the entire educational system, especially the curriculum, along with the utilization of given funds for school services, equipment, recruitment of teachers (for public schools only), etc.
  18. 18. The former educational system of the Philippines was composed of 6 years of elementary education starting at the age of 6, and 4 years of high school education starting at the age of 12. With this system, compulsory education is not enforced.
  19. 19. However, 2011 signaled the start of the implementation of a new educational system, which is the K-12 educational system, which includes the new curricula for all schools (see 2010s and the K-12 program). With this system, education will be now compulsory.
  20. 20. All public and private schools in the Philippines must start classes from a date mandated by the Department of Education (usually every first Monday of June for public schools only), and must end after each school completes the mandated 200-day school calendar of DepEd (usually around the third week of March to the second week of April).
  21. 21. PHILOSOPHY The purpose of any system of reporting to parents is to strengthen the home-school partnership and to inform parents concerning student progress. The degree to which parents are informed of the philosophy of the school system, its programs, and the assessment of students’ strengths and weaknesses is important in establishing a positive attitude toward school and a cooperative relationship between school and home. Assessments should be straightforward with teacher judgments based on objective data.
  22. 22. The K-6 progress reports reflect the instructional level of students. Progress reports should be communicated in terms understood by those involved. The main objective of an elementary progress report is to communicate to parents what students know and are able to do. Fairfax County Public Schools takes this mission very seriously, and is committed to providing the best possible information to parents. Research shows that student success is highly correlated with parent involvement in school progress. Further, FCPS believes that assessment and reporting of student.
  23. 23. Elementary school
  24. 24. Elementary school, sometimes called primary school or grade school (Filipino: paaralang elementarya, sometimes mababang paaralan), is the first part of the educational system, and it includes the first six years of compulsory education (grades 16). These grades are further grouped (informally) accordingly into: primary level, which includes the first three grades (grades 1-3), and intermediate level, which includes the last three grades (grades 4-6).
  25. 25. The elementary school education covers a smaller but wider than the junior and senior high school because of the spiral approach educational technique. In public schools, the core/major subjects that is introduced starting grade 1 include mathematics, Filipino, and Makabayan (until grade 3, this subject is synonymous to social studies, but also incorporate values education and the fundamentals of political science).
  26. 26. English is only introduced after the 2nd semester of grade 1. Science is only introduced starting grade 3. Heograpiya (geography), kasaysayan (history), andsibika (civics) (abbreviated as HEKASI), is only introduced starting grade 4 (similar also to social studies but focuses more on the subjects earlier stated). Minor subjects then include music, arts, physical education, and health (abbreviated as MAPEH).
  27. 27. In private schools, subjects in public schools also include those of the public schools, with the additional subjects including: computer education and HELE (stands for homeeconomics and livelihood education; while in Christian schools or in Catholic schools, religious education. International schools also have their own subjects in their own language and culture.
  28. 28. 05.00
  29. 29. F rom grades 1-3, students will be taught using their mother tongue, meaning the regional languages of the Philippines will be used in some subjects (except Filipino and English) as a medium of instruction. It may be incorporated as a separate subject. But from grade 4, Filipino and English as a medium of instruction will then be used.
  30. 30. On December 2007, Philippine president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo announced that Spanish is to make a return as a mandatory subject in all Filipino schools starting in 2008 but it didn't come into effect. DECS Bilingual Policy is for the medium of instruction to be Filipino for: Filipino, Araling Panlipunan, Edukasyong Pangkatawan, Kalusugan at Musika; and English for: English, Science and Technology, Home Economics and Livelihood Education.Article XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Philippine constitution mandates that regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein
  31. 31. As a result, the language actually used in teaching is often a polyglot of Filipino and English with the regional language as the foundation, or rarely the local language. Filipino is based on Tagalog, so in Tagalog areas (including Manila), Filipino is the foundational language used. Philippine regional languages are used in the provinces in the teaching of Makabayan. International English language schools use English as the foundational language. Chinese schools add two language subjects, such as Min Nan Chinese and Mandarin Chinese and may use English or Chinese as the foundational language. The constitution mandates that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. Following on this, a few private schools mainly catering to the elite include Spanish in their curriculum. Arabic is taught in Islamic schools
  32. 32. Until 2004, primary students traditionally sat for the National Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT) administered by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS). It was intended as a measure of a school's competence, and not as a predictor of student aptitude or success in Secondary school. Hence, the scores obtained by students in the NEAT were not used as a basis for their admission into Secondary school.
  33. 33. During 2004, when DECS was officially converted into the Department of Education (DepEd), and also, as a result of some reorganization, the NEAT was changed to National Achievement Test (NAT) by the Department of Education (DepEd). Both the public and private elementary schools take this exam to measure a school's competency. As of 2006, only private schools have entrance examinations for Secondary school.
  34. 34. The DepEd expects over 13.1 million elementary students to be enrolled in public elementary schools for school year 2009–2010.
  35. 35. Though elementary schooling is compulsory, latest official figures show 27.82% of Filipino elementary-aged children either never attend or never complete elementary schooling, usually due to the absence of any school in their area, education being offered in a language that is foreign to them, or financial distress.
  36. 36. In July 2009 DepEd acted to overcome the foreign language problem by ordering all elementary schools to move towards mothertongue based learning initially. The order allows two alternative three-year bridging plans. Depending on the bridging plan adopted, the Filipino and English languages are to be phased in as the language of instruction for other subjects beginning in the third and fourth grades.
  37. 37. The lowest degree of Education is not about illiteracy… Bu t b e i n g l i t e r a t e l y i n c l i n e d y e t wi t h a n “A t t i t u d e ” o f Author: Redbutts a n u n c i v iAsh i z e d l
  38. 38. Knowledge is acquired through perseverance, that the mere sacrifices and hardships that get through when learning were striven to achieve the ultimate goal – Success. It seizes the fact that poverty is not a hindrance, but just an another inspiration to go on with the objectives. L et me tell that I may not achieve the pedestals yet; but surely I acquired great learning with Education. -- Redbutts
  39. 39. The End