The Rock Cycle and Rocks


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Rock types and the Rock Cycle

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The Rock Cycle and Rocks

  1. 1. Rocks<br />All You Need To Know<br />
  2. 2. Rock Types<br />Three Main Types of Rocks:<br />Igneous<br />Sedimentary<br />Metamorphic<br />
  3. 3. Igneous Rocks<br />Formed from magma (molten rock below earth’s surface) or lava (molten rock above earth’s surface).<br />When molten rock crystallizes (cools/hardens), Two types of Igneous Rocks can Form:<br />Intrusive: cool slowly inside earth’s crust allowing for large crystals to grow<br />Extrusive: cool quickly above earth’s surface not allowing for any crystals to grow or allowing for very small crystals to grow<br />Examples include:<br />Granite and gabbro (intrusive) and basalt and obsidian (extrusive)<br />
  4. 4. Sedimentary Rocks<br />Formed from pieces of other rocks (sand, shells, pebbles etc…)  i.e. sediment that gets glued and compacted together.<br />Different Types Include:<br />Clastic – made from other pieces<br />Examples  sandstone, conglomerate, shale<br />Chemical – precipitates or evaporates<br />Example  rock salt (halite)<br />Organic – formed from once living things<br />Examples  coal, limestone<br />Fossils are found in sedimentary rocks. <br />
  5. 5. Metamorphic Rocks<br />Formed from intense heat and pressure.<br />Two Types:<br />Foliated: ribbonlike/banded layers<br />Examples  slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss<br />Non-foliated: crystals (no banding)<br />Examples  quartzite, marble<br />May have shiny crystals as well as the minerals in the rock change due to the intense heat and pressure.<br />
  6. 6. Key Identifying Characteristics<br />Igneous Rocks:<br />Gas bubbles holes created from trapped gas<br />Glassy surface  shiny smooth surface from quick cooling rocks<br />Crystals  small, flat surfaces that are shiny or sparkly<br />Sedimentary Rocks:<br />Sand or pebbles  individual stones, pebbles, or sand grains visible in the rock<br />FossilsI imprints of shells, insects, leaves etc…<br />Metamorphic Rocks:<br />Ribbonlike layers wavy or straight stripes/bands of different colors in the rock<br />
  7. 7. Different Rocks<br />
  8. 8. Click the Picture Below<br />
  9. 9. How Rocks Change<br />Rocks change due to various processes.<br />Processes Include:<br />Heat and Pressure<br />Melting and Cooling<br />Weathering and Erosion<br />Compacting and Cementing<br />
  10. 10. Heat and Pressure<br />Heat from the earth’s interior can melt rock and pressure from overlying rock can also morph (change) rocks from one type to another.<br />Heat increases dramatically the deeper a rock gets pulled under the earth’s surface – prior to melting a rock can change chemically to become another rock.<br />Pressure from overlying rock also can change a rock chemically into another type of rock.<br />Heat and pressure work together and this is known as metamorphism  thus creating metamorphic rocks.<br />
  11. 11. Click Below and Press Start<br />
  12. 12. Melting and Cooling<br />Melting:<br />Temperatures between 600 and 1300 degrees Celsius (1100 – 2400 degrees Fahrenheit) melt rock and turn it into magma<br />Cooling:<br />any rock that forms from cooling magma is an igneous rock<br />Two Types of Igneous Rock:<br />Intrusive  form from slowly cooling magma inside earth<br />Extrusive  form from quickly cooling lava above/on earth’s crust<br />
  13. 13. Click Below and View Each Animation<br />
  14. 14. Weathering and Erosion<br />Weathering:<br />the breaking apart or wearing down of rock due to water, wind, gravity, temperatures, and other elements at the earth’s surface.<br />Creates sediments.<br />Erosion:<br />Transportation of weathered material via water, wind, or gravity.<br />
  15. 15. Compacting and Cementing<br />Compacting:<br />Sediment formed from weathering and erosion accumulates (is deposited/left behind) in oceans, lakes, and valleys  this allows for layers of sediment to build up<br />Each layer presses down on the layer below it, thus compacting (pushing down on) bottom layers.<br />Cementing:<br />When water passes through spaces in between particles of sediment  this helps cement the particles together forming sedimentary rock<br />
  16. 16. Click Below and View Each Animation<br />
  17. 17. Test Your Knowledge  Click and Complete<br />
  18. 18. The Rock Cycle<br />James Hutton (1726-1797) is attributed with the concept of the rock cycle.<br />Main Idea of Rock Cycle:<br />Rocks are continually changing from one type to another and back again<br />Elements that make up rock aren’t destroyed or created, they are just being recycled<br />
  19. 19. Click and Explore the Rock Cycle by Rolling Your Mouse Over It<br />
  20. 20. Click and Test Your Rock Cycle Knowledge<br />
  21. 21. Click Below and Test Your Rock Skills<br />