Physical Oceanography


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Physical Oceanography

  1. 1. Physical Oceanography
  2. 2. Major Oceans • The three major oceans are : Pacific 1._______-largest, deepest, coldest, least salty. 2.__________- second Atlantic largest, shallow, warm, salty. 3. _________- intermediate in Indian depth, temperature, and salinity. Arcti • The _______Ocean near the north pole, and the c Antarctic ____________ Ocean near the south pole contain vast expanses of sea ice.
  3. 3. Methods of Studying the Ocean The Topex/Poseidon _____________ orbits 1331 km satellite above the Earth, gathering information about the oceans. Sonar _____________ maps ocean floor topography by timing how long it takes sound waves to bounce off the ocean floor. submersibles Underwater vessels called _________________ investigate the deepest ocean trenches.
  4. 4. Sonar (also called echo-sounding) • Sound waves travel how fast in seawater? 1,454 m/s • How deep is the water if it takes ten seconds for the sound wave to go from ship to ocean floor and back to ship? 7,270 m Calculation: (10 s times 1,454 m/s divided by 2 )
  5. 5. submersible • The picture below is of a _____________.
  6. 6. Salinity The amount of salt per unit water is known as salinity. NaC The most abundant salt in seawater is ________, but there are many other salts present in the form of ions. l The average salinity of seawater is _____ ppt. Therefore, for 35 every 1,000 ml water, there are ___ grams of dissolved salts. 35 Near the equator salinity is __________ than average due to lower greater precipitation ___________________. lower Near the poles salinity is __________ than average due to melting sea ice _______________. higher In the Mediterranean the salinity is __________than average due to __________. evaporation
  7. 7. The salinity here would likely be: A. 35 ppt B. 34 ppt C. 36 ppt
  8. 8. Colorful Seawater • What makes the ocean water in the picture to the left different colors? differences in depth • Why would a shrimp that appears bright red at the surface appear black at greater depths, and why might this be beneficial? Longer (red) wavelengths are absorbed before reaching deep water. Shrimp can hide and not become a meal.
  9. 9. Label the three ocean layers in the diagram below. Surface layer Thermocline Bottom layer
  10. 10. Ocean Movements Label the wave diagram below with the following terms: wavelength, waveheight, trough, crest crest trough wavelength waveheight
  11. 11. Tides Label the key with the correct tide cycle names: 30 25 20 Sem idiurnal semidiurnal Mix ed mixed Diurnal diurnal 15 10 5 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24
  12. 12. Seafloor Topographyterms to their Match the following H A correct letter in the diagram: H. Island A. Continental shelf B. Continental slope D. Abyssal plain F. Seamount C. Continental rise G. Trench E. Guyot B F E C D D G
  13. 13. Listed below are some of the major surface currents. The force wind which generates these currents is ____________.
  14. 14. Chapter Review 1. What is the average salinity of seawater? 35 ppt 2. What is the deepest area of the seafloor? trench 3. What is the largest ocean? 4. Why is the ocean “blue”? Pacific shorter wavelengths not absorbed 5. What is the force responsible for surface currents? 6. What causes density wind differences in temperature and currents?salinity 7. What causes tides? gravity of the sun and moon 8. List the 3 tidal patterns. diurnal, semidiurnal, mixed 9. What is the highest part of a wave called? 10. Name the ocean that borders Virginia. crest Atlantic