• The three major oceans are :
coldest, least salty. 2.__________- second
largest, shallow, warm, salty.
3. _________- intermediate in
depth, temperature, and salinity.
• The _______Ocean near the north pole, and the
____________ Ocean near the south pole contain
vast expanses of sea ice.
Methods of Studying the Ocean
The Topex/Poseidon _____________ orbits 1331 km
above the Earth, gathering information about the
_____________ maps ocean floor topography
by timing how long it takes sound waves to
bounce off the ocean floor.
Underwater vessels called _________________
investigate the deepest ocean trenches.
Sonar (also called echo-sounding)
• Sound waves travel
how fast in seawater?
• How deep is the
water if it takes ten
seconds for the sound
wave to go from ship
to ocean floor and
back to ship? 7,270 m
Calculation: (10 s times 1,454 m/s divided by 2 )
• The picture below is of a _____________.
The amount of salt per unit water is known as salinity.
The most abundant salt in seawater is ________, but there
are many other salts present in the form of ions.
The average salinity of seawater is _____ ppt. Therefore, for
every 1,000 ml water, there are ___ grams of dissolved salts.
Near the equator salinity is __________ than average due to
Near the poles salinity is __________ than average due to
melting sea ice
In the Mediterranean the salinity is __________than
average due to __________.
A. 35 ppt
B. 34 ppt
C. 36 ppt
• What makes the ocean
water in the picture to the
left different colors?
differences in depth
• Why would a shrimp that
appears bright red at the
surface appear black at
greater depths, and why
might this be beneficial?
Longer (red) wavelengths are
absorbed before reaching
deep water. Shrimp can hide
and not become a meal.
Label the three ocean layers in the diagram below.
Label the wave diagram below with the following
terms: wavelength, waveheight, trough, crest
Label the key
with the correct
Topographyterms to their
Match the following
correct letter in the diagram:
Listed below are some of the major surface currents. The force
which generates these currents is ____________.
1. What is the average salinity of seawater?
2. What is the deepest area of the seafloor?
3. What is the largest ocean?
4. Why is the ocean “blue”?
shorter wavelengths not absorbed
5. What is the force responsible for surface currents?
6. What causes density
differences in temperature and
7. What causes tides? gravity of the sun and moon
8. List the 3 tidal patterns.
diurnal, semidiurnal, mixed
9. What is the highest part of a wave called?
10. Name the ocean that borders Virginia.