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Cite Your Sources: Techniques to Avoid Plagiarism and Properly Cite Quotations and Ideas in Research Papers

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Cite Your Sources: Techniques to Avoid Plagiarism and Properly Cite Quotations and Ideas in Research Papers

  1. 1. CITE YOUR SOURCES Techniques to Avoid Plagiarism and Properly Cite Quotations and Ideas in Research Papers By Rebecca Buerkett MLIS Student, Syracuse University Intern, Lake Placid Middle/High School April 2009
  2. 2. Direct Quotes See NoodleTools Knowledge Base for Instructions: http://www.noodletools.com/helpdesk/index.php?action=kb&article=53 Use quotation marks to denote the quotation or key phrase(s). Example: “ Affliction is enamour'd of thy parts, And thou art wedded to calamity” (Shakespeare 139). Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet . New York: Washington Square Press,1992.
  3. 3. Direct Quotes If the quote is more than a sentence long, indent the passage from the rest of the text, and you don’t need quotation marks. Example: In the Prologue of Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare states: Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. (Shakespeare 7) Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet . New York: Washington Square Press,1992.
  4. 4. Direct Quotes: Book vs. Complete Works of Shakespeare Online “ Romeo and Juliet.” The Complete Works of William Shakespeare . Web. 27 Apr 2009. < http://shakespeare.mit.edu/romeo_juliet/index.html > Book Citation In the Prologue of Act 2, it is made clear that Romeo and Juliet can’t deny their passion for one another, or their desire for a meeting: “But passion lends them power, time means, to meet/Tempering extremities with extreme sweet” (65). Web Citation As illustrated in The Complete Works of Shakespeare Online , in the Prologue of Act 2 of Romeo and Juliet , it is made clear that Romeo and Juliet can’t deny their passion for one another, or their desire for a meeting: “But passion lends them power, time means, to meet/Tempering extremities with extreme sweet.” Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet . New York: Washington Square Press,1992.
  5. 5. Writing About Another's Ideas Even if it isn’t a direct quote, if it is someone else’s idea, you have to cite it using a parenthetical citation. Example: According to “Romeo and Juliet” in Shakespearean Criticism , modern-day directors have found that themes in Romeo and Juliet are easy for contemporary audiences to relate to, in terms of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic issues (208). &quot;Romeo and Juliet.&quot; Shakespearean Criticism . Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 118. Detroit: Gale, Cengage Learning, 2009. 207-313. Literature Resource Center . Gale. Lake Placid Middle/High School Lib., Lake Placid, NY. 27 Apr. 2009 <http://access.gale.com/k12trial/go/?key=12860_186151>.
  6. 6. If you need to clarify a word or context in a quote, use brackets [] Example: Original: Because the play has always been popular with audiences, some scholars have refused to take Romeo and Juliet too seriously. They sometimes dismiss it as Shakespeare’s trashy blockbuster, not complicated enough to be &quot;high art.“ Quote: According to the Romeo and Juliet article in Shmoop.com, “[Scholars] sometimes dismiss it as Shakespeare’s trashy blockbuster, not complicated enough to be ‘high art.’” But be sure to avoid changing the context of the passage. Example: OK: Kozol claims there are &quot;savage inequalities&quot; in our educational system, which is obvious (240). WRONG: Kozol claims there are &quot;[obvious] savage inequalities&quot; in our educational system (240).
  7. 7. If you need to shorten a quote or just use part of it, use ellipsis points (...) to indicate omitted text. Example: “ Orchestra was written in 1594, probably before Romeo and Juliet …” so it is unlikely that Romeo and Juliet influenced its writing (“Romeo and Juliet” in Shakespearean Criticism 209). &quot;Romeo and Juliet.&quot; Shakespearean Criticism . Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 118. Detroit: Gale, Cengage Learning, 2009. 207-313. Literature Resource Center . Gale. Lake Placid Middle/High School Lib., Lake Placid, NY. 27 Apr. 2009 <http://access.gale.com/k12trial/go/?key=12860_186151>.
  8. 8. A few reminders: <ul><li>Make sure the author’s name or parenthetical citation is in the same sentence as the quote. </li></ul><ul><li>If you use more than one idea or quote from the same source, you have to cite EACH ONE. Don’t assume the reader will know that they came from the same place. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Remember… <ul><li>Avoid quoting too much; use only what you need to illustrate your point. </li></ul><ul><li>A paper that is all quotes or paraphrases and no original work is plagiarized. As long as you analyze your thesis and include insights in your own words, and cite all of your sources, you will be okay!!! </li></ul><ul><li>When in doubt, CITE IT!!! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tips to Avoid Plagiarism <ul><li>Take precise notes, keeping track of direct quotes. Use the notecard feature of NoodleTools to help you. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use a thesaurus. Put aside the source and paraphrase in your own words rather than changing words. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use the same phrases or wording as the original – check your work! </li></ul><ul><li>CITE YOUR SOURCES! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Welcome To The Do You Know Your Plagiarism Quiz Show! Do you think you know how to cite your quotes? How to avoid the Big P? Come one, come all and test your knowledge!
  12. 12. Which of these is right? <ul><li>“ I doubt it not; and all these woes shall serve For sweet discourses in our time to come.” (Shakespeare 159) </li></ul><ul><li>“ I doubt it not; and all these woes shall serve For sweet discourses in our time to come” (Shakespeare 159). </li></ul><ul><li>“ I doubt it not; and all these woes shall serve For sweet discourses in our time to come” (Shakespeare 1992). </li></ul>Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet . New York: Washington Square Press,1992.
  13. 13. How would you fix this? In the play, when Capulet said of Juliet, Let two more summers wither in their pride, Ere we may think her ripe to be a bride, he meant that he did not wish his daughter to marry before she turned sixteen. Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet . New York: Washington Square Press,1992.
  14. 14. How would you fix this? In the play, when Capulet said of Juliet, “Let two more summers wither in their pride, Ere we may think her ripe to be a bride” (27) he meant that he did not wish his daughter to marry before she turned sixteen. Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet . New York: Washington Square Press,1992.
  15. 15. How would you fix this? I agree with “Romeo and Juliet” in Shakespearean Criticism that Romeo and Juliet is more than simply a lesson in prudence. &quot;Romeo and Juliet.&quot; Shakespearean Criticism . Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 118. Detroit: Gale, Cengage Learning, 2009. 207-313. Literature Resource Center . Gale. Lake Placid Middle/High School Lib., Lake Placid, NY. 27 Apr. 2009 <http://access.gale.com/k12trial/go/?key=12860_186151>.
  16. 16. How would you fix this? I agree with “Romeo and Juliet” in Shakespearean Criticism that Romeo and Juliet is more than simply a lesson in prudence (210). &quot;Romeo and Juliet.&quot; Shakespearean Criticism . Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 118. Detroit: Gale, Cengage Learning, 2009. 207-313. Literature Resource Center . Gale. Lake Placid Middle/High School Lib., Lake Placid, NY. 27 Apr. 2009 <http://access.gale.com/k12trial/go/?key=12860_186151>.
  17. 17. How would you fix this? According to “Romeo and Juliet” in Shakespearean Criticism , Shakespeare often uses dancing as a way to end a play on an upbeat note after too much tragedy (211). For example, Much Ado About Nothing and A Midsummer Night’s Dream end in dancing. The opposite can be said for dueling, which is a sign of more solemnity to come. &quot;Romeo and Juliet.&quot; Shakespearean Criticism . Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 118. Detroit: Gale, Cengage Learning, 2009. 207-313. Literature Resource Center . Gale. Lake Placid Middle/High School Lib., Lake Placid, NY. 27 Apr. 2009 <http://access.gale.com/k12trial/go/?key=12860_186151>.
  18. 18. How would you fix this? According to “Romeo and Juliet” in Shakespearean Criticism , Shakespeare often uses dancing as a way to end a play on an upbeat note after too much tragedy (211). For example, Much Ado About Nothing and A Midsummer Night’s Dream end in dancing. The opposite can be said for dueling, which is a sign of more solemnity to come (211). &quot;Romeo and Juliet.&quot; Shakespearean Criticism . Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 118. Detroit: Gale, Cengage Learning, 2009. 207-313. Literature Resource Center . Gale. Lake Placid Middle/High School Lib., Lake Placid, NY. 27 Apr. 2009 <http://access.gale.com/k12trial/go/?key=12860_186151>.
  19. 19. How would you fix this? In Romeo and Juliet , Shakespeare ends the play with the Prince stating, “For never was a story of more woe, Than this of Juliet and her Romeo.” “ Romeo and Juliet.” The Complete Works of William Shakespeare . Web. 27 Apr 2009. < http://shakespeare.mit.edu/romeo_juliet/index.html >
  20. 20. How would you fix this? In Romeo and Juliet , Shakespeare ends the play with the Prince stating, “For never was a story of more woe, Than this of Juliet and her Romeo” (“Romeo and Juliet”, Complete Works ). OR In the online Complete Works of William Shakespeare , Shakespeare ends Romeo and Juliet with the Prince stating, “For never was a story of more woe, Than this of Juliet and her Romeo.” “ Romeo and Juliet.” The Complete Works of William Shakespeare . Web. 27 Apr 2009. < http://shakespeare.mit.edu/romeo_juliet/index.html >
  21. 21. True or False? From: Harris, Robert A. The Plagiarism Handbook. Los Angeles: Pyrczak. 2001. <ul><li>If I plagiarize by accident, it isn’t really plagiarism. </li></ul><ul><li>Because plagiarism involves taking someone else’s words, not their material objects, it isn’t actually stealing. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s okay to submit a paper you used in the past for another course because you can’t plagiarize yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>If a teacher gives an assignment that is way too hard, you are justified in plagiarizing. Serves them right! </li></ul><ul><li>As long as you put another person’s words into your own words, you do not have to cite it. </li></ul>
  22. 22. To Cite or Not to Cite? From: Harris, Robert A. The Plagiarism Handbook. Los Angeles: Pyrczak. 2001. <ul><li>In a book, you find the phrase, “romantic pragmatism.” You decide to use it in your paper. </li></ul><ul><li>You read in several places how popular laptop computers are in schools, offices, and homes. You mention in your paper that laptops are everywhere these days. </li></ul><ul><li>You include a photo of William Shakespeare in your paper that you download from a website. </li></ul><ul><li>You find an article that summarizes exactly what you want to say in your paper. You use the idea, but put it completely into your own words. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Plagiarism or Paraphrasing? An apple a day keeps the doctor away. <ul><li>Each day, eat an apple to avoid having to go to the doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Eating apples keeps you healthy. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Plagiarism vs. Paraphrasing Consider the following example (from Montgomery County Public Schools*) During the next few years the personal computer explodes on the American scene. Microsoft, Apple and many smaller PC related companies form (and some die). By 1977 stores begin to sell PC's. Continuing today, companies strive to reduce the size and price of PC's while increasing capacity. Entering the fray, IBM introduces its PC in 1981 (it's actually IBM's second attempt, but the first failed miserably). Time selects the computer as its Man of the Year in 1982. Tron, a computer-generated special effects extravaganza is released the same year. Montgomery County Public Schools. Plagiarism Activity . 26 Apr 2009 < http://www. montgomeryschoolsmd.org/schools/kingsviewms/arts/plagiarism.htm >
  25. 25. Which is paraphrased and which is plagiarized? Example #1 During the next couple of years, millions of people in America begin to love computers. Apple, Microsoft, and many other smaller companies(most of which fail) hit the scene. In 1977 stores began to sell computers, still today companies strive to reduce the price and size of computers while increasing the capacity. IBM introduced its second attempt at a computer in 1981. Time selected the computer as its Man of the Year in 1982. A computer effects extravaganza, named Tron, is released the same year. Example #2 During the late 70ís and early 80’s computers &quot;explode on the American scene&quot;. Several companies formed and competed to make the computer that was the smallest and least costly, but would have more capabilities. IBM introduced its second computer in 1982. This was the first computer that people would buy, and it sold extremely well. Even Time Magazine recognized the computer’s great accomplishments by awarding the computer with its Man of the Year award in 1982. To show how much computers could already do, a &quot;computer effects extravaganza&quot; is also released that year. Montgomery County Public Schools. Plagiarism Activity . 26 Apr. 2009. < http://www. montgomeryschoolsmd.org/schools/kingsviewms/arts/plagiarism.htm >
  26. 26. Avoiding Plagiarism Links <ul><li>OWL at Purdue: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/03/ </li></ul><ul><li>NoodleTools Knowledge Base: http://www.noodletools.com/helpdesk/index.php?action=kb&article=53 </li></ul><ul><li>Wadsworth-Cengage Learning Plagiarism Prevention Zone: http://college.cengage.com/english/plagiarism_prevention.html </li></ul><ul><li>Paradise Valley Community College Plagiarism Resources: http://www.pvc.maricopa.edu/library/plagiarism </li></ul>Material in this presentation from: Purdue University. “Avoiding Plagiarism: Safe Practices.” The Owl at Purdue . 1995-2009. Web. 26 Apr 2009 < http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/03/ >

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