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A2 Media StudiesAUDIENCE THEORY Learning Objectives: To understand the key types of audience theory To apply audience theo...
AFL ProgressWhere would you place yourself on athermometer of understanding about          AUDIENCE?
Audience Theory Three questions:1) Why do audiences choose to consume certain texts?2) How do they consume texts?3) What ...
WHY?
Condense these theories onto paper/post-it Summarise the key points of each theory You will be using these notes to appl...
Audience Theory There are three theories of audience that we  can apply to help us come to a better  understanding about ...
The Effects ModelThe Effects Model The consumption of media texts has an  effect or influence upon the audience It is n...
The Effects Model This model is also called:The Hypodermic Model Here, the messages in media texts are injected  into t...
The Effects Model Key evidence for the Effects Model1.   The Frankfurt School theorised in the 1920s and     30s that the...
The Effects ModelThe Bobo Doll Experiment This was conducted in 1961 by Albert Bandura
The Effects Model In the experiment: Children watched a video where an adult violently  attacked a clown toy called a Bo...
The Effects Model         What are                                          the flaws of                                  ...
The Effects Model The Effects Model contributes to Moral  Panics whereby: The media produce inactivity, make us into  st...
The Uses and Gratifications Model The Uses and Gratifications Model is  the opposite of the Effects Model The audience i...
The Uses and Gratifications Model Here, power lies with the audience NOT the producers This theory emphasises what audie...
The Uses and Gratifications Model Audiences therefore use media texts to gratify needs    for:   Diversion              ...
Maslow’sHierarchy ofNeeds (1943)
The Uses and Gratifications Model The audience is in control and consumption of the    media helps people with issues suc...
The Uses and Gratifications Model Controversially the theory suggests the  consumption of violent images can be helpful  ...
Reception Theory Given that the Effects model and the Uses and Gratifications have their problems and limitations a diffe...
Reception Theory The theory suggests that: When a producer constructs a text it is encoded  with a meaning or message th...
Reception Theory Stuart Hall identified three types of audience readings (or decoding) of the text:1. Dominant or preferr...
Reception Theory1. Dominant Where the audience decodes the  message as the producer wants them  to do and broadly agrees ...
Reception Theory2. Negotiated Where the audience accepts, rejects or  refines elements of the text in light of  previousl...
Reception Theory3. Oppositional Where the dominant meaning is  recognised but rejected for  cultural, political or ideolo...
Reception Theory                Audience Decodes Meaning/Message                Dominant or preferredProducerEncodes      ...
Watch the video Individually- make notes on   What reasons are there for an audience watching the video?     Who is the...
As your practical group:Feedback and share your findings withanother groupThen be prepared to share your findingswith the ...
AFL Progress AT THE END OF THE LESSON Where would you place yourself now on a  thermometer of understanding about         ...
A2 Media Studies Audience theory
A2 Media Studies Audience theory
A2 Media Studies Audience theory
A2 Media Studies Audience theory
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A2 Media Studies Audience theory

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A2 Media Studies Audience theory

  1. 1. A2 Media StudiesAUDIENCE THEORY Learning Objectives: To understand the key types of audience theory To apply audience theory to an example music video
  2. 2. AFL ProgressWhere would you place yourself on athermometer of understanding about AUDIENCE?
  3. 3. Audience Theory Three questions:1) Why do audiences choose to consume certain texts?2) How do they consume texts?3) What happens when they consume texts?
  4. 4. WHY?
  5. 5. Condense these theories onto paper/post-it Summarise the key points of each theory You will be using these notes to apply the theories to a music video in your practical groups
  6. 6. Audience Theory There are three theories of audience that we can apply to help us come to a better understanding about the relationship between texts and audience.1. The Effects Model or the Hypodermic Model2. The Uses and Gratifications Model3. Reception Theory
  7. 7. The Effects ModelThe Effects Model The consumption of media texts has an effect or influence upon the audience It is normally considered that this effect is negative Audiences are passive and powerless to prevent the influence The power lies with the message of the text
  8. 8. The Effects Model This model is also called:The Hypodermic Model Here, the messages in media texts are injected into the audience by the powerful, syringe- like, media The audience is powerless to resist Therefore, the media works like a drug and the audience is drugged, addicted, doped or duped.
  9. 9. The Effects Model Key evidence for the Effects Model1. The Frankfurt School theorised in the 1920s and 30s that the mass media acted to restrict and control audiences to the benefit of corporate capitalism and governments2. The Bobo Doll experiment This is a very controversial piece of research that apparently proved that children copy violent behaviour
  10. 10. The Effects ModelThe Bobo Doll Experiment This was conducted in 1961 by Albert Bandura
  11. 11. The Effects Model In the experiment: Children watched a video where an adult violently attacked a clown toy called a Bobo Doll The children were then taken to a room with attractive toys that they were not permitted to touch The children were then led to another room with Bobo Dolls 88% of the children imitated the violent behaviour that they had earlier viewed. 8 months later 40% of the children reproduced the same violent behaviour
  12. 12. The Effects Model What are the flaws of this theory? Key examples sited as causing or being contributory factors are: The film Child’s Play 3 in the murder of James Bulger in 1993 The game Manhunt in the murder of Stefan Pakeerah in 2004 by his friend Warren LeBlanc The film A Clockwork Orange (1971) in a number of rapes and violent attacks The film Severance (2006) in the murder of Simon Everitt
  13. 13. The Effects Model The Effects Model contributes to Moral Panics whereby: The media produce inactivity, make us into students who won’t pass their exams or ‘couch potatoes’ who make no effort to get a job The media produces violent ‘copycat’ behaviour or mindless shopping in response to advertisements
  14. 14. The Uses and Gratifications Model The Uses and Gratifications Model is the opposite of the Effects Model The audience is active The audience uses the text & is NOT used by it The audience uses the text for its own gratification or pleasure
  15. 15. The Uses and Gratifications Model Here, power lies with the audience NOT the producers This theory emphasises what audiences do with media texts – how and why they use them Far from being duped by the media , the audience is free to reject, use or play with media meanings as they see fit
  16. 16. The Uses and Gratifications Model Audiences therefore use media texts to gratify needs for: Diversion Think about your initial Escapism responses in the starter Information activity: where any the same as these ‘needs’? Pleasure Comparing relationships and lifestyles with one’s own Sexual stimulation
  17. 17. Maslow’sHierarchy ofNeeds (1943)
  18. 18. The Uses and Gratifications Model The audience is in control and consumption of the media helps people with issues such as: Learning Emotional satisfaction Relaxation Help with issues of personal identity Help with issues of social identity Help with issues of aggression and violence
  19. 19. The Uses and Gratifications Model Controversially the theory suggests the consumption of violent images can be helpful rather than harmful The theory suggests that audiences act out their violent impulses through the consumption of media violence The audience’s inclination towards violence is therefore sublimated, and they are less likely to commit violent acts
  20. 20. Reception Theory Given that the Effects model and the Uses and Gratifications have their problems and limitations a different approach to audiences was developed by the academic Stuart Hall at Birmingham University in the 1970s This considered how texts were encoded with meaning by producers and then decoded (understood) by audiences
  21. 21. Reception Theory The theory suggests that: When a producer constructs a text it is encoded with a meaning or message that the producer wishes to convey to the audience In some instances audiences will correctly decode the message or meaning and understand what the producer was trying to say In some instances the audience will either reject or fail to correctly understand the message
  22. 22. Reception Theory Stuart Hall identified three types of audience readings (or decoding) of the text:1. Dominant or preferred2. Negotiated3. Oppositional
  23. 23. Reception Theory1. Dominant Where the audience decodes the message as the producer wants them to do and broadly agrees with it E.g. Watching a political speech and agreeing with it
  24. 24. Reception Theory2. Negotiated Where the audience accepts, rejects or refines elements of the text in light of previously held views E.g. Neither agreeing or disagreeing with the political speech or being disinterested
  25. 25. Reception Theory3. Oppositional Where the dominant meaning is recognised but rejected for cultural, political or ideological reasons E.g. Total rejection of the political speech and active opposition
  26. 26. Reception Theory Audience Decodes Meaning/Message Dominant or preferredProducerEncodes NegotiatedMeaning Oppositional
  27. 27. Watch the video Individually- make notes on  What reasons are there for an audience watching the video?  Who is the intended audience? How do you know?  How are the following things used to engage /attract an audience?  Mise-en-scene  Camera  Sound  Editing
  28. 28. As your practical group:Feedback and share your findings withanother groupThen be prepared to share your findingswith the whole class
  29. 29. AFL Progress AT THE END OF THE LESSON Where would you place yourself now on a thermometer of understanding about AUDIENCE?

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