Timeline of Art
Rebecca Olympia Millán
ARTS 1304.V02
December 6, 2013
Late Medieval Italy
13thc. – 14thc.
Humanism developed
during the 14th century and
was instrumental during
the 15th and 16...
Late Medieval and Early
Renaissance Northern
Europe and Spain
Burgundy and Flanders
1385-1500

Customarily, works during t...
Late Medieval and Early
Renaissance Northern
Europe and Spain
France
1385-1500

One important development
during the Late ...
Late Medieval and Early
Renaissance Northern
Europe and Spain
Holy Roman Empire
1385-1500

The development of graphic
arts...
The Renaissance in
Quarttrocento Italy
Florence
1400-1500

Frequently works developed
during the Renaissance in
quarttroce...
The Renaissance in
Quarttrocento Italy
The Princely Courts
1400-1500
The princely courts of
Rome, Urbino, and Mantua were
...
High and Late
Renaissance
1495-1600

Encompassing classical
culture, perspective,
proportion, and human
anatomy, the art d...
Mannerism in
Cinquecento Italy

Mannerism is a style
developed during the
Renaissance.
Characterized by
imbalanced
composi...
High Renaissance and
Mannerism in Northern
Europe and Spain
Holy Roman Empire
1500-1600

The religious crises of The Holy
...
High Renaissance and
Mannerism in Northern
Europe and Spain
France
1500-1600

The political power of French was often
conv...
High Renaissance and
Mannerism in Northern
Europe and Spain
The Netherlands
1500-1600

Prosperity brought the
communicatio...
High Renaissance and
Mannerism in Northern
Europe and Spain
Spain
1500-1600
Spain also experienced an
assent to power.
Sup...
The Baroque
in Italy and Spain
Italy
1600-1700
Possibly named for the Portuguese
word barroco meaning an
irregularly shape...
The Baroque
in Italy and Spain
Spain
1600-1700

Complex use of real space,
mirrored space, and picture
space caused intere...
The Baroque in Northern Europe
Flanders
1600-1700

More innovative
developments
continued in Flanders
during the Baroque
p...
The Baroque in Northern
Europe
Dutch Republic
1600-1700

Middle class patrons
continued to demand works
depicting their li...
The Baroque in Northern
Europe
France
1600-1700
The use of art as propaganda
was common during the
Baroque period in Franc...
Rococo to Neoclassicism
Rococo
1700-1750

Artists used pastel colors, a haze of
color, and soft light in works during
the ...
Rococo to Neoclassicism
The Enlightenment
1750-1800

As a challenge to Rococo,
the Enlightenment was
brought on by revolut...
Rococo to Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
Late 18thc. to mid 19thc.

A renewed interest in
classical antiquity
increased the r...
Romanticism, Realism,
Photography
1800-1870
Art Under Napoleon

Artists in France conveyed
Napoleon’s mythic status, which...
Romanticism, Realism,
Photography
1800-1870
Romanticism

Paintings in the Romantic
period are often dreamy and
imaginary.
...
Romanticism, Realism,
Photography
1800-1870
Romanticism—Spain

Often, an artist’s state of
mind, including the feeling of ...
Romanticism, Realism, Photography
1800-1870
Romanticism—France

A natural progression in
French works during
Romanticism w...
Romanticism, Realism, Photography
1800-1870
Romanticism—Landscape

Previously, landscape
paining failed to be
seen as an
i...
Romanticism, Realism, Photography, 1800-1870
Realism—France

Realism brought the
rejection of the
imagination and
subjecti...
Romanticism, Realism,
Photography, 1800-1870
Realism—Germany

Depicting the sacred and profane, along
with the brutal real...
Romanticism, Realism,
Photography, 1800-1870
Realism—United States

The human experience
became an important subject
matte...
Romanticism, Realism, Photography, 1800-1870
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Even though strong in
many
countries, Realistic
se...
Romanticism, Realism, Photography, 1800-1870
Photography

A new medium for art
surfaced during this time
period.
Photograp...
Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Symbolism: Europe and America, 18701900
Impressionism

Impressionism intended to
captur...
Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Symbolism: Europe and America, 18701900
Post-Impressionism
Continuing with the
use of d...
Impressionism, PostImpressionism, Symbolism:
Europe and America, 18701900
Symbolism

Symbolists wanted to see things to a
...
Impressionism, PostImpressionism,
Symbolism: Europe and
America, 1870-1900
Fin-de-Siècle

The end of the century brought a...
Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945
Fauvism

Shockingly colorful,
Fauvism is characterized
as a style which is
inte...
Modernism in Europe and
America, 1900-1945
German Expressionism

Focusing more on the
emotion of color rather the
the real...
Modernism in Europe
and America, 19001945
Primitivism

“Primitive” cultures became inspiration
in the search of finding ne...
Modernism in Europe and
America, 1900-1945
Cubism—Analytical

Cubism was the rejection of a
naturalistic depiction of prio...
Modernism in Europe and
America, 1900-1945
Orphic Cubism

So named for its connection to
Orpheus, the Greek god of music,
...
Modernism in Europe and
America, 1900-1945
Cubism—Synthetic

Because forms are dissected,
Synthetic Cubism paintings
and d...
Modernism in Europe and
America, 1900-1945
Futurism

A socio-political agenda began to
surface during Futurism.
Beginning ...
Modernism in Europe and
America, 1900-1945
Dada
Convention and tradition were
rejected in Dadaism as notions and
assumptio...
Modernism in Europe and
America, 1900-1945
Suprematism
The pessimistic outlook of
Dadaism was eliminated in
Suprematism.
P...
Modernism in Europe and
America, 1900-1945
Constructivism

Constructivism examined the
relationship between space and
time...
Modernism in Europe and
America, 1900-1945
Precisionist

Distinctly an American movement,
Precisionism looked to a machine...
Modernism in Europe and
America, 1900-1945
New Objectivity

After a number of years in
turmoil, New Objectivity took a
lon...
Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945
Surrealism

Although perceived as
nonsense and ridiculous,
Surrealistic art con...
Modernism in Europe and
America, 1900-1945
De Stijl

De Stijl fused the utopian
spirit and ideals of
Suprematists and
Cons...
Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945
United States 1930-1945

The Depression left
the United States with
a sense of ...
Modernism and Postmodernism
in Europe and America, 19451980
Postwar Expressionism in Europe
Postwar Expressionism in Europ...
Modernism and Postmodernism in Europe and America, 1945-1980
Abstract Expressionism—Gestural Abstraction
A major avant-gar...
Modernism and Postmodernism
in Europe and America, 19451980
Abstract Expressionism
Chromatic Abstraction

Chromatic abstra...
Modernism and
Postmodernism in Europe
and America, 1945-1980
Post-Painterly Abstraction

Post-Painterly Abstraction is all...
Modernism and
Postmodernism in Europe
and America, 1945-1980
Color-Field Painting

The focus of Color-field painting
was a...
Modernism and
Postmodernism in Europe
and America, 1945-1980
Op Art

Op Art examined the optical
effects of placement to c...
Modernism and
Postmodernism in Europe
and America, 1945-1980
Pop Art

Originating in England, Pop
Art focuses on subjects ...
Modernism and
Postmodernism in Europe
and America, 1945-1980
Superrealism

Superrealism is an attempt to
continue the acce...
Contemporary Art
Social Art: Gender and
Sexuality
Contemporary art is currently
seen as a rejection of
modernism.
Boundari...
Contemporary Art
Social Art: Race, Ethnicity, and National Identity

Establishing one’s
race, ethnicity, and
national iden...
Contemporary Art
Political Art
Political art can bring
forth a specific event or
one which is symbolic
of a condition.
Con...
Last Thoughts
Contemporary art has often been viewed as
controversial. However, in the history of art,
one will discover t...
Bibliography
Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner’s Art through the
Ages: A Global History. 14th edition.
Volume II. Boston: Wadsworth...
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R Millan Timeline_ARTS 1304

  1. 1. Timeline of Art Rebecca Olympia Millán ARTS 1304.V02 December 6, 2013
  2. 2. Late Medieval Italy 13thc. – 14thc. Humanism developed during the 14th century and was instrumental during the 15th and 16th centuries. Not only a code of conduct, humanism became a theory of education, whereby a new way of approaching art included believing that art could possess rules for the purpose of teaching. GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Lamentation,1305-6 Fresco, 6' 5” x 6’, Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel, Padua
  3. 3. Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Northern Europe and Spain Burgundy and Flanders 1385-1500 Customarily, works during this time period were a celebration of humans, thus portraiture, an important Flemish art form, became fashionable. Whereas realistic depictions of individuals was important, some portraits contained highly symbolic representations of important qualities of the individuals. Also important is the use of light and shadowing the development of perspective. JAN VAN EYCK, Man in a Red Turban, 1433. Oil on wood, 1’ 1 1/8” X 10 1/4". National Gallery, London.
  4. 4. Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Northern Europe and Spain France 1385-1500 One important development during the Late Medieval and Early Renaissance is manuscript painting. Often part of one’s personal effects, manuscripts merged religious and secular art for patrons. LIMBOURG BROTHERS, January, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry 1413-1416. Colors and ink on Vellum, 8’ 7/8” x 5’ 3/8” Musée Condé, Chantilly
  5. 5. Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Northern Europe and Spain Holy Roman Empire 1385-1500 The development of graphic arts became another important artistic technological advancement during the Late Medieval and Early Renaissance. More specifically, woodcuts and engravings had the capacity to bring art to the people. MARTIN SCHONGAUER, Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons, ca.1480-1490 Engraving, 1’ ¼” x 9”. FondazioneMagnaniRocca, Corte diMamiano.
  6. 6. The Renaissance in Quarttrocento Italy Florence 1400-1500 Frequently works developed during the Renaissance in quarttrocento Italy brought about a number of characteristics in vogue at the time Tuscan dialect caused a sharing of literature, bringing a more mythological approach to art. SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Birth of Venus, c. 1484–86. Tempera and gold on canvas. 5‘8⅞“ X 9’ 1⅞”, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  7. 7. The Renaissance in Quarttrocento Italy The Princely Courts 1400-1500 The princely courts of Rome, Urbino, and Mantua were also instrumental in nurturing Renaissance art because of the lack of a single sovereign ruling all of Italy. As lord of a territory, a prince often used art to preserve his power and status through the commission of artworks and buildings. Oftentimes, the prince bestowed the title of “court artist,” which proved beneficial to the increase of artistic works. LUCA SIGNORELLI, The Damned Cast into Hell, c. 1499–1504. Fresco. 23’ wide. San Brizio chapel, Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy
  8. 8. High and Late Renaissance 1495-1600 Encompassing classical culture, perspective, proportion, and human anatomy, the art during the High and Late Renaissance brought about greater artistic achievements through theoretical and formal development. An artist’s disegno, or design, was the combination of an artist’s conceptualization and intention. LEONARDO DA VINCI, Madonna of the Rocks, 1483. Oil on Wood. 6’ 6 ½” x 4’. Musée du Louvre, Paris
  9. 9. Mannerism in Cinquecento Italy Mannerism is a style developed during the Renaissance. Characterized by imbalanced compositions, figures are often elongated and disproportioned. JACOPO DA PONTORMO, Entombment of Christ, Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicità, Florence, Italy, 1525–1528. Oil on wood, 10’ 3”x 6’ 4”.
  10. 10. High Renaissance and Mannerism in Northern Europe and Spain Holy Roman Empire 1500-1600 The religious crises of The Holy Roman Empire created change in artistic styles. This artistic period Catholic and Protestant viewpoints created very different art. Whereas Catholics embraced art and church decoration as a means of communicating with God, Protestant concerns over religious imagery brought about iconoclasm, or the objection to religious imagery, to lead to the destruction of art. HANS BALDUNG GRIEN, Witches’ Sabbath, 1510. Chiaroscuro woodcut, 1’ 2 ⅞” x 10 ¼” British Museum, London.
  11. 11. High Renaissance and Mannerism in Northern Europe and Spain France 1500-1600 The political power of French was often conveyed in the works during the High Renaissance. As the French gained a stronghold in Milan, Francis I became an important patron of culture and religion. Consequently to assert authority, portraits were commissioned. JEAN CLOUET, Francis I, ca. 1525–1530. Tempera and oil on wood, approx. 3’ 2” x 2’ 5”. Louvre, Paris.
  12. 12. High Renaissance and Mannerism in Northern Europe and Spain The Netherlands 1500-1600 Prosperity brought the communication of the values and mores deemed important in the Netherlands possible through artwork. Often the double meaning of items included in paintings brought reminders of professional conduct and the expectations needed to be met in order to be judged as being worthy for Heaven QUINTEN MASSYS, Money-Changer and His Wife, 1514. Oil on wood, 2’ 3 3/4”x 2’ 2 3/8”. Louvre, Paris.
  13. 13. High Renaissance and Mannerism in Northern Europe and Spain Spain 1500-1600 Spain also experienced an assent to power. Supporting exploration, Isabel and Ferdinand’s reign brought a fusion of artistic styles as the mobility of artists increased. This fusion eliminated the focus of one style to allow artists the ability to adopt a personal style. EL GRECO, View of Toledo, c. 1610 Oil on canvas 47 ¾ X 42¾”
  14. 14. The Baroque in Italy and Spain Italy 1600-1700 Possibly named for the Portuguese word barroco meaning an irregularly shaped pearl, the Baroque brought dynamic works which exuded theatricality and elaborate ornamentation. Creating a unique style and rejecting the classical masters was common during the Baroque. More specifically, depicting religious events in commonplace settings created an interesting contrast, much like the use of stark light and dark elements. CARAVAGGIO, Calling of Saint Matthew, ca. 1597–1601. Oil on canvas, 11’ 1”x 11’ 5”. Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi deiFrancesi, Rome
  15. 15. The Baroque in Italy and Spain Spain 1600-1700 Complex use of real space, mirrored space, and picture space caused interesting developments in works, particularly with the use of visual and narrative complexity. Portraits told a more developed narrative of the individuals in the portraits, including the development of the artist as part of that narrative. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656. Oil on canvas, approx. 10’ 5”x 9’. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  16. 16. The Baroque in Northern Europe Flanders 1600-1700 More innovative developments continued in Flanders during the Baroque period. Particularly important is the use of art as part of the narrative against war through visual commentaries. PETER PAUL RUBENS, Consequences of War, 1638-1639. Oil on canvas, 6” 9” x 11’ 3 7/8”. Palazzo Pitti, Florence
  17. 17. The Baroque in Northern Europe Dutch Republic 1600-1700 Middle class patrons continued to demand works depicting their lives. Even so, the understanding of light and dark as a way to convey balance and a way to convey the feeling of peering into inside from the outside. JOHANNES VERMEER, Girl with a Pearl Earring, 1665. Oil on canvas 17.5” x 15” Mauritshuis, The Hague
  18. 18. The Baroque in Northern Europe France 1600-1700 The use of art as propaganda was common during the Baroque period in France. Louis XIV embraced classicism which brought back the importance of subject-matter or theme, thought, structure, and style. NICOLAS POUSSIN, Et in Arcadia Ego, ca. 1655. Oil on Canvas, 2’ 10” x 4’. Musée du Louvre, Paris.
  19. 19. Rococo to Neoclassicism Rococo 1700-1750 Artists used pastel colors, a haze of color, and soft light in works during the Rococo period. Also, works possessed an ornate and playful style and often served as a display of wealth and the outdoor amusements of French upper-class society. JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD, The Swing, 1766. Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 11” x 2’ 8”.
  20. 20. Rococo to Neoclassicism The Enlightenment 1750-1800 As a challenge to Rococo, the Enlightenment was brought on by revolutions in France and America, among other factors. The acquisition of knowledge based on empirical observation and scientific experimentation gained importance. JOSEPH WRIGHT OF DERBY. Experiment on a Bird, 1768.
  21. 21. Rococo to Neoclassicism Neoclassicism Late 18thc. to mid 19thc. A renewed interest in classical antiquity increased the resurgence of art with of Greek and Roman classicism characteristics. Subject matter became darker and figures were often posed in a drapery of fabrics. ANGELICA KAUFFMANN, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures, or Mother of the Gracchi, ca. 1785. Oil on canvas, 3’ 4” x 4’ 2”. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond
  22. 22. Romanticism, Realism, Photography 1800-1870 Art Under Napoleon Artists in France conveyed Napoleon’s mythic status, which included bringing a connection between Napoleon and the elements of classicism as Napoleon saw himself akin to a Roman ruler with his vast titled. More important, art under Napoleon allowed Napoleon to place an emphasis on his power by constructing a public image. JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard Pass, 1800–1801. Oil on canvas, 8’ 11" X 7’ 11”
  23. 23. Romanticism, Realism, Photography 1800-1870 Romanticism Paintings in the Romantic period are often dreamy and imaginary. Artists attempted to appeal to the emotions of trepidation and awe through nightmarish narratives and awe inspiring natural shots. The human subconscious was elevated as intuition became important. HENRY FUSELI, The Nightmare, 1781 Oil on canvas 3’ 4 3/4” x 4’ 1 1/2”.
  24. 24. Romanticism, Realism, Photography 1800-1870 Romanticism—Spain Often, an artist’s state of mind, including the feeling of despair and a sense of wildness, boldness, and brutality were depicted art. FRANCISCO GOYA, Saturn Devouring One of His Children, 1819–1823. Detached fresco mounted on canvas, 4’ 9 1/8” x 2’ 8 5/8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid
  25. 25. Romanticism, Realism, Photography 1800-1870 Romanticism—France A natural progression in French works during Romanticism was to balance history and poetic allegory. No longer focused solely on Napoleon, art became the means of unifying people of all social statuses as the effects of revolution impacted all of society. EUGÈNE DELACROIX, Liberty Leading the People, 1830. Oil on canvas, 8’ 6” x 10’ 8”. Louvre, Paris.
  26. 26. Romanticism, Realism, Photography 1800-1870 Romanticism—Landscape Previously, landscape paining failed to be seen as an independent genre. Even so, searching for the picturesque was important during the Romantic period. Man was seen in harmony with nature and the soul could be unified with nature. CASPAR DAVID FRIEDRICH, Abbey in the Oak Forest, 1810. Oil on canvas, 3' 7 1/2" X 5' 7 1/4". Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museenzu Berlin, Berlin.
  27. 27. Romanticism, Realism, Photography, 1800-1870 Realism—France Realism brought the rejection of the imagination and subjectivism of Romanticism. Instead, artists began to focus on accurate observation of the ordinary world and of everyday people in everyday settings. EDOUARD MANET, Le Dejeuner surl’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass). 1863. Oil on canvas.
  28. 28. Romanticism, Realism, Photography, 1800-1870 Realism—Germany Depicting the sacred and profane, along with the brutal reality people faced, Realism was also prevalent in Germany and in other places. Wilhelm Leibl, Three Women in a Village Church, 1878-1882, Oil on canvas 2’5” X 2’1”
  29. 29. Romanticism, Realism, Photography, 1800-1870 Realism—United States The human experience became an important subject matter in all of its realities. In many ways, modern people (for the time) were recorded in modern contexts so that one moment could be captured for all eternity, which can be seen as a precursor to photography. THOMAS EAKINS, The Gross Clinic, 1875 Oil on canvas. 8' X 6'5”, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia
  30. 30. Romanticism, Realism, Photography, 1800-1870 Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Even though strong in many countries, Realistic sentiments were rebelled against. Rooted in fictional, historical, an d fanciful subjects, the preRaphaelites chose to intertwine the literary with artistic endeavors to show a distaste for materialism and the contemporary industrialized world. JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS, Ophelia, 1852. Oil on canvas, 2’ 6” x 3’ 8”. Tate Gallery, London.
  31. 31. Romanticism, Realism, Photography, 1800-1870 Photography A new medium for art surfaced during this time period. Photography afforded the means of using the principles of art. As a natural progression from Realism, photography began a debate as to what is real and how to represent that very aspect of realness in art. Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre. The Artist’s Studio, 1837. Daguerreotype.
  32. 32. Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Symbolism: Europe and America, 18701900 Impressionism Impressionism intended to capture a specific moment in time, but in a manner differing Realism. Characterized by small, but visible brush strokes, Impressionistic works included open compositions and real life subject matter in an almost sketch-like quality but with brilliant effects in the interplay of color and light. CLAUDE MONET, Impression: Sunrise, 1872. Oil on canvas, 1’ 7 1/2” x 2’ 1 1/2”.
  33. 33. Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Symbolism: Europe and America, 18701900 Post-Impressionism Continuing with the use of distinguishable brushstrokes, PostImpressionists placed a strong emphasis on light. Important, traditional elements of art were brought back into Post-Impressionistic paintings. Even so, this period was lacked a homogeneous style uniting PostImpressionists. VINCENT VAN GOGH, Starry Night. 1889. Oil on canvas.
  34. 34. Impressionism, PostImpressionism, Symbolism: Europe and America, 18701900 Symbolism Symbolists wanted to see things to a level of significance that was far deeper than any superficial appearance. Therefore, objects and images were converted into meanings beyond themselves whereby ritual significance became symbolic. The use of color, line, and distortion was intended to create a strong emotional response so that the response, itself, was of importance. Edvard Munch. The Scream. 1893. Tempera.
  35. 35. Impressionism, PostImpressionism, Symbolism: Europe and America, 1870-1900 Fin-de-Siècle The end of the century brought a culture of decadence and indulgence. Sexual drives, powers, and perversions were important as were the exploration of the unconscious through an unrestrained and free culture. GUSTAV KLIMT, The Kiss, 1907–1908. Oil on canvas, 5’ 10 3/4” x 5’ 10 3/4”. ÖsterreichischeGalerieBelvedere,Vienna.
  36. 36. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 Fauvism Shockingly colorful, Fauvism is characterized as a style which is intended to produce a reaction in the viewer. Color was explored for its effects on emotion. Portraits, landscapes, still lifes, and nudes were depicted in spontaneous explosions of color. Contrasts of color were important as were sweeping brushstrokes and bold patterns. Henri Matisse. Le Bonheur de Vivre (The Joy of Life) 1905-06. Oil on canvas.
  37. 37. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 German Expressionism Focusing more on the emotion of color rather the the reality of it, sometimes abstract art. The expression of meaning and emotion of an experience was often created by distorting form, outlines, and brushstrokes. Improvisation 28 (second version), 1912. Oil on canvas, 3’ 7 7/8”x 5’ 3 7/8”. Guggenheim Museum, New York
  38. 38. Modernism in Europe and America, 19001945 Primitivism “Primitive” cultures became inspiration in the search of finding new ways to depict form. The use of space also evolved as opportunities to fracture shapes from three-dimensions to two. Pablo Picasso. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. 1907. 8 ft. x 7 ft. 8 in.
  39. 39. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 Cubism—Analytical Cubism was the rejection of a naturalistic depiction of prior movements. Often subdued in color, Cubistic compositions are of shapes and forms used in an abstract way. More specifically, analytical cubism broke down forms into simple geometric shapes. GEORGES BRAQUE, The Portuguese, 1911. Oil on canvas, 3’ 10 1/8”x 2’ 8”. Kunstmuseum, Basel (gift of Raoul La Roche, 1952).
  40. 40. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 Orphic Cubism So named for its connection to Orpheus, the Greek god of music, spatial effects and kaleidoscopic movements and color are characteristic of Orphic Cubism. Music provided a means to connect color with form and subject. ROBERT DELAUNAY, Homage to Blériot, 1914. Oil on canvas., 8’ 2 ½” x 8’ 3”. Kunstmuseum Basel, Basel (Emmanuel Hoffman Foundation).
  41. 41. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 Cubism—Synthetic Because forms are dissected, Synthetic Cubism paintings and drawings are often flat, making mixed media and collage a preferred technique. PABLO PICASSO, Still Life with Chair-Caning, 1912. Oil and oilcloth on canvas, 10 5/8”x 1’ 1 3/4”. Musée Picasso, Paris.
  42. 42. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 Futurism A socio-political agenda began to surface during Futurism. Beginning as a literary movement, indignation over the political and cultural decline, Futurists believed war to be a beneficial means of exterminating the unhygienic and cleansing the past. GINO SEVERINI, Armored Train, 1915. Oil on canvas, 3’ 10”x 2’ 10 1/8”. Collection of Richard S. Zeisler, New York.
  43. 43. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 Dada Convention and tradition were rejected in Dadaism as notions and assumptions of what constituted as art were cast aside. To Dadaists, war, mass destruction, and chaos were the effects of the Enlightenment. Nonsensical and a nihilistic viewpoint of life, in general, and in art, specifically, reigned supreme. MARCEL DUCHAMP, L.H.O.O.Q., 1919. Pencil on paper color reproduction of Leonardo da Vinci’sMona Lisa 7 3/4" X 4 7/8”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia
  44. 44. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 Suprematism The pessimistic outlook of Dadaism was eliminated in Suprematism. Pure feeling, which cannot be attached to a particular object, was viewed as the reason for art. Therefore, nonobjective forms of art are only significant when they bring about feelings. Quite often symbols, pure shapes and color were used. Through Suprematism, traditional artforms were cast aside. KAZIMIR MALEVICH, Supremist Composition: Airplane Flying, 1915. Oil on canvas, 1’ 10 7/8” x 1’ 7”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  45. 45. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 Constructivism Constructivism examined the relationship between space and time. Therefore, a sense of kinetic movement along with mass and space were intended to express the reality of shapes. NAUM GABO, Constructed Head No. 2, 1916. Stainless steel, 70 x 54 1/4 x 48 in. Raymond and Patsy Nasher Collection, Dallas, Texas.
  46. 46. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 Precisionist Distinctly an American movement, Precisionism looked to a machine’s preciseness and the importance of that preciseness in modern life. Images moved beyond using imagery related to machines. Instead, Precisionism merged elements of architecture and synthetic Cubism. GEORGIA O’KEEFFE, New York, Night, 1929. Oil on canvas, 3’ 4 1/8”x 1’ 7 1/8”. Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, Lincoln
  47. 47. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 New Objectivity After a number of years in turmoil, New Objectivity took a long look at the effects of way in a clear, direct, and honest way. The excitement for war was depicted in the harsh realities of those who benefited from war— capitalists and militarists. GEORGE GROSZ, The Eclipse of the Sun, 1926. Oil on canvas, 6’ 9 3/8”x 5’ 11 7/8”. Heckscher Museum of Art, Huntington.
  48. 48. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 Surrealism Although perceived as nonsense and ridiculous, Surrealistic art conveyed dark themes of uncertainty and anxiety. Realistic objects were placed in unrealistic situations to confuse the viewer’s sense of reality, in a dreamlike setting using disturbing visual representations. SALVADOR DALÍ, The Persistence of Memory, 1931. Oil on canvas, 9 1/2” x 1’ 1”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  49. 49. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 De Stijl De Stijl fused the utopian spirit and ideals of Suprematists and Constructivists. Consequently, a balance of individuals with a rebirth of values became important. Often geometric, every obvious reference to objects were eliminated. PIET MONDRIAN, Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow, 1930. Oil on canvas, 1’ 6 1/8”x 1’ 6 1/8”. Kunsthaus, Zürich.
  50. 50. Modernism in Europe and America, 1900-1945 United States 1930-1945 The Depression left the United States with a sense of loneliness and isolation. Contemporary American city and country life were depicted through a thematic approach. EDWARD HOPPER, Nighthawks, 1942. Oil on canvas, 2’ 6” x 4’ 8 11/16”. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago (Friends of American Art Collection).
  51. 51. Modernism and Postmodernism in Europe and America, 19451980 Postwar Expressionism in Europe Postwar Expressionism in Europe was born from the continued pessimism of the war. Existentialism, in its belief that human existence is absurd and that certitude is unattainable, brought a sense of alienation. Also important during this time is the need of healing from the war. By depicting revolting images, humanity is shown to be fragile, isolated, and lacking power. FRANCIS BACON, Painting, 1946. Oil and pastel on linen, 6’ 5 7/8” X 4’ 4”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  52. 52. Modernism and Postmodernism in Europe and America, 1945-1980 Abstract Expressionism—Gestural Abstraction A major avant-garde art movement, Abstract Expressionism began to emphasize the creative process. The intent of Gestural Abstraction is to use an artist’s energy to and gestures to convey feelings. In some ways, Gestural Abstraction is a precursor to Performance art. JACKSON POLLOCK, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950. Oil on canvas, 7’ 3” X 9’ 10”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  53. 53. Modernism and Postmodernism in Europe and America, 19451980 Abstract Expressionism Chromatic Abstraction Chromatic abstractionists attempted to express a color’s emotional resonance to produce compelling visual experiences. MARK ROTHKO, No. 14, 1960. Oil on canvas, 9’ 6” X 8’ 9”. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco
  54. 54. Modernism and Postmodernism in Europe and America, 1945-1980 Post-Painterly Abstraction Post-Painterly Abstraction is all about pictorial control. Hard edges with delineated areas of color are intended to bring about a purity of art. Images are sparse and simplified with no central focus and no expressive elements. FRANK STELLA,MasoMenos, 1964 Metallic powder in acrylic emulsion on canvas, 9’ 10” X 13’ 8 ½”. Musee National d’ArtModerne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.
  55. 55. Modernism and Postmodernism in Europe and America, 1945-1980 Color-Field Painting The focus of Color-field painting was a painting’s basic properties. Often created by diluting paint onto an unprimed canvas, the intent of Color-field painting is to bring abstraction to a new level whereby color and shapes no longer need to represent something specific. HELEN FRANKENTHALER, The Bay, 1963. Acrylic on canvas, 6’ 8 7/8” X 6’ 9 7/8”. Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit.
  56. 56. Modernism and Postmodernism in Europe and America, 1945-1980 Op Art Op Art examined the optical effects of placement to create the illusion of motion and depth through geometric forms. BRIDGET RILEY, Fission, 1963. Tempera on composition board, 2’ 11” X 2’ 10”. Museum of Modern Art, New York
  57. 57. Modernism and Postmodernism in Europe and America, 1945-1980 Pop Art Originating in England, Pop Art focuses on subjects that are not considered as art. Advertisements, comic books, and the depiction of consumerism are common elements in Pop Art. Consequently, Pop art is assessable to the average person. ROY LICHTENSTEIN, Hopeless, 1963. Oil and synthetic polymer paint on canvas, 3’ 8” X 3’ 8”. Kunstmuseum Basel, Estate of Roy Lichtenstein
  58. 58. Modernism and Postmodernism in Europe and America, 1945-1980 Superrealism Superrealism is an attempt to continue the accessibility of art for the general public. Fidelity and accurate depiction of optical facts were important to create realistic depictions of humanity, which include the capturing of emptiness, loneliness, and the sense of the private life. CHUCK CLOSE, Big Self-Portrait, 1967–1968. Acrylic on canvas, 8’ 11” 6’ 11”. Walker Art Center, Minneapolis.
  59. 59. Contemporary Art Social Art: Gender and Sexuality Contemporary art is currently seen as a rejection of modernism. Boundaries are stripped away to establish a truth. The dynamics of power and privilege are examined through issues of gender and sexuality. Although contemporary art has almost developed a reputation as being controversial, so are the themes being challenged. ROBERT MAPPLETHORPE, Self-Portrait, 1980. Gelatin silver print, 7 ¾” X7 ¾”. Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation, New York.
  60. 60. Contemporary Art Social Art: Race, Ethnicity, and National Identity Establishing one’s race, ethnicity, and national identity is also important in a society of multiculturalism. Understanding another’s race, ethnicity and national identity also establishes an understanding of one’s own sense of self. CLIFF WHITING (Te Whanau-A-Apanui), Tawhiri-Matea(God of the Winds), 1984. Oil on wood and fiberboard, 6’ 4 1/8” X 11’ 10 ¾”. Meteorological Service of New Zealand, Wellington.
  61. 61. Contemporary Art Political Art Political art can bring forth a specific event or one which is symbolic of a condition. Contemporary life is filled with the impact of politics and the conditions created out of it. When art can speak for those who cannot, art becomes all the more powerful. HANS HAACKE, MetroMobiltan, 1985, Fiberglass construction, three banners, and photomural, 11’ 8” X 20’ 5”. Musée National d’ArtModerne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.
  62. 62. Last Thoughts Contemporary art has often been viewed as controversial. However, in the history of art, one will discover that the themes and focus of contemporary art are simply part of the historical narrative established with the first works of art. Art attempts to bring about order from chaos, meaning from the unknown or unaccepted, and an understanding of where people have been and where we are going.
  63. 63. Bibliography Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History. 14th edition. Volume II. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2013. Print. Wilder, Jesse Bryant. “Art History For Dummies” Art History for Dummies. 2013. Web. 8 Dec. 2013.

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