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Medium of instruction: an unceasing debate

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Medium of instruction: an unceasing debate

  1. 1. Issues inMedium of Instruction -Rebat Kumar Dhakal 28 Sept. 2010 Kathmandu University
  2. 2. • Medium of instruction as an issue• Arguments for MT• Arguments for national / international language• How it has been addressed (SSRP)
  3. 3. Language is contentious, and the debate between nationallanguages and mother tongues more soso. - MARK TURIN As an issue☯ Should local language or official language or international. language be the medium of instruction (MOI)?☯ Should we use language as a subject of study or an MOI?.☯ What is the appropriate level to shift from MT- NL-IL?.☯ When and for how long should the MT be used as an MOI. and taught as a subject? d h bj ?☯ When and how should English be introduced as a subject and as an MOI?
  4. 4. ☯ What about the right of ethnic minorities to have primary education in their own mother tongue?.☯ Sh ld it be th mother t Should b the th tongue of th majority of students f the j it f t d t whereby it would not be fair to some of the students whose mother tongue is different; or should it be g Nepali the lingua franca and the national language; or should it be English?
  5. 5. @)^% ;fnsf]] P]]gिशक्षा tyf v]n]nsb ;DaGwL s]]xL g]]kfn P]]g ;++zf]]wg ug{ ag]sf] P]g-^_ bkmf & sf] pkbkmf -@_ sf] v08 -s_ sf] ;66f b]xfosf] v08 -s_/flvPsf] 5M æcfwf/et tx;Ddsf] िशक्षा dft efiffdf lbg ;lsg5 . (k]h #)/flvPsf æcfwf/e"t tx;Ddsf dft[ ;lsg]5 (kh A trilingual model for Nepali primary education: 1. Mother tongue 2. Nepali as the national or second language of education 3. English as the international language.
  6. 6. Why Mother Tongue ? It promotes access, equity, self-esteem, faster acquisition of basic literacy and contributes to higher academic achievement (CDC 2005, p.11) achievement. (CDC. 2005 11) There are significant human and linguistic resources in the regions that can be built upon to support mother tongue as MOI throughout primary schooling and teacher training.
  7. 7. Why International Language ?CanC MT educated students compete in the d t d t d t t i th global market?Can MT education be equivalent to International language education? g g <coverage, competitiveness and ………>
  8. 8. SSRPChapter 2 Early Childhood Education and Development With a view to promoting a child friendly environment in ECED centre and to ensure children s children’s rights to learn in their own mother tongue, children’s mother tongue will be employed as the medium of instruction. ECED facilitators will be recruited locally. (p.9) ( 9)
  9. 9. SSRP Chapter 3 Basic and Secondary EducationBasic educationPolicy direction < Quality and relevance (p. 13)> Introducing mother tongue as a medium of instructionKey results (p.14) (p 14) 95 learning facilitation materials produced in different languages Multilingual education implemented in 7,500 schoolsSecondary educationPolicy direction < Quality and relevance (p. 22 )> Adopting the NCF as the basis for core curricula and local curricula.
  10. 10. SSRP Chapter 4 Literacy and Lifelong LearningImplementation arrangement <Delivery mechanism ( 31)> (p. ) Mother tongue medium literacy programmes will be emphasized. emphasizedImplementation matrix<Activity (what?) (p. 32)> Introduce and expand mother tongue literacy courses in local languages.
  11. 11. SSRP Annex 3-2: Anne 3 2 Quality Ed cation Q alit EducationInstructional provisions<Medium of instruction (p.81)> Children’s right to basic education through mother tonguewill be guaranteed in at least the first three grades. The choice of MOI in school will be determined by the SMCin consultation with the local government. English will be taught as a subject from grade one onwards onwards. The MOI in Gumbas/Vihars, Madrasas and Gurukuls will bedetermined by their respective management in consultatoinwith the DEO.
  12. 12. SSRPAnnex 3-2:Anne 3 2 Instructional pro isions Instr ctional provisionsTo ensure that children learn in their MT at least in the early grades up to three, SMC can determine the language(s) of instruction in consultation with the local body. Grades four and five can follow a body transition from the mother tongue MOI to Nepali.From grade six to eight, the MOI can be fully in Nepali. g g , y pEnglish will be taught as a subject from grade one onwards. (p. 82)
  13. 13. NCF• Provision of mother tongues as a medium of instruction and learning from grade 1 to 5 and language transition at grade 6. (p. 42)• C i l Curriculum will give opportunity t l ill i t it to learn i mother l in th language i in early grades in line with the child-development approach to learning, the language of instruction will be the Mother g g g tongue in early grades i.e. Pre-primary to grade 5. There will be provision for language transition from the mother tongue to Nepali and/or English from grade 4 (p 22) 4. (p.
  14. 14. Indigenous languages as medium of education only in a few cases: g g g y • Newari (one school in the Kathmandu valley), • Some of the Kirati languages, namely Bantawa, • Limbu (formal education) and education), • Khaling (adult literacy, non-formal education).• Textbooks in a number of languages of Nepal have been produced but they are f the most part not distributed due to the lack of teachers. for th t t t di t ib t d d t th l k f t h• Because of the continued use of Nepali as the medium of instruction, there is a high dropout rate in village schools. ( Toba & Rai, 2005, p. 19) g g
  15. 15. 4 M d l of Education Models f Ed ti• Theassimilation model: Starting in the mother tongue, and continuing to national language immersion• The pluralistic model: Recognises the importance of the language spoken at home; thus, first language teaching is not restricted only p ; , g g g y to the early grades• The immersion model: Initial instruction is given in the national language with oral discussion and instruction permitted in the local language p g g• The national language model: Sole instruction in the national language, with no teaching in the mother tongue (UNESCO, (UNESCO Bankok 2007 p 63) 2007,p.
  16. 16. Challenges for Implementing MT as MOI• Practical only in homogenous communities communities.• No teacher recruitment and training modalities have been developed yet. (CDC, 2005, p.12)• As a result of external funding, the Text Book Production Centre has prepared some basic elementary readers in nine different ethnic languages, but it is hard to ascertain to what extent these primers are in use.• Current political unrest makes it difficult to implement changes in local contexts contexts. (Advocacy Kit, p 6) Kit p.6)
  17. 17. ReferencesAdvocacy kit for promoting multilingual education: Including the excluded. Language in Education P li and P ti i A i and th P ifi R t i Ed ti Policy d Practice in Asia d the Pacific. Retrieved f d from http://www2.unescobkk.org/elib/publications/110/Booklet%202%20- %20Language%20and%20Education%20Policies.pdfCDC. 2005. National curriculum framework for school education (pre-primary-12) in Nepal. (p p y ) p Bhaktapur: Author.Toba, S.I. & Rai, N.K. (2005). Diversity and endangerment of languages in Nepal. UNESCO Kathmandu Series of Monographs and Working Papers, 7. Kathmandu: UNESCO.UNESCO. 2005. First language first: Community-based literacy programmes for minority language contexts in Asia. Bangkok. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001402/140280e.pdf2065 salko ain Retrieved from http://planipolis iiep unesco org/upload/Nepal/ ain. http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Nepal/ Nepal_%20Education_law_2065_Draft.pdf
  18. 18. Unceasing Debate ’

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