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Long term effects of the ketogenic diet


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Long term effects of the ketogenic diet

  1. 1. Long term effects of the ketogenic diet
  2. 2. Insulin resistance  After going on a ketogenic diet for some time, if you try to reintroduce carbs back into your system, you will experience insulin resistance. The body would probably have adjusted to a fat burning metabolism and would need to take time before it can go back to a glucose fueled metabolism
  3. 3. Appetite suppression  Usually after a short fast, most people find a general decrease in their appetite for food. In the past, it was always assumed that ketones were the cause of the appetite suppression, since it was a by-product of continued fasting. This assumption has been contradicted by a few studies.
  4. 4. Researchers found that 1. the high fat intake of the keto diet slowed down digestion, which in turn would provide a sense of fullness since that food stays in the stomach longer.
  5. 5. They also found that  (2) protein has the same effect, since it releases an appetite suppressant hormone called cholecystokinin (CCK).
  6. 6. Cholesterol levels  Since the keto diet has such a high fat intake, there are concerns that it could increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Studies conducted show that there is an increase in blood lipid levels in the short term. While in the long term, subjects do not develop heart disease as quickly as subjects in other diets.  Researchers make that assertion that if you don’t lose weight on a keto diet, then your cholesterol levels tend to go up, but if you do lose weight while on the diet, then your cholesterol levels will probably go down.
  7. 7. Low energy levels  Carbohydrates burn more efficiently than fats, which is probably why they are the preferred fuel when they are available. The low carb nature of the ketogenic diet raises concerns over drops in energy levels. However, there are studies that established that weakness and low energy levels can be avoided by consuming enough minerals, with sodium being the most important. Consuming 4 – 5 grams of sodium per day helps maintain normal blood pressure.
  8. 8. Exercise  Ketogenic diet are not appropriate for individuals who wish to maintain high intensity exercise routines, because of the low carb nature. Low intensity exercise like walking is encouraged.
  9. 9. Effects on the brain  While on the ketogenic diet,the brain shifts from a glucose based fuel to a ketone based fuel, where researchers estimate that it gets up to 75% fuel from ketones. Some people report that they concentrate and think better in ketosis, while others report total fatigue. Based on research, there appears to be no negative effects on long term cognitive function.
  10. 10. Uric acid levels  A protein based metabolism causes uric acid to be produced when it is excreted through the kidneys. A build up of uric acid in the blood stream causes problems like gout. The ketogenic diet, has been shown to sometimes increase uric acid levels. This is because, when the kidneys remove excess ketones from the bloodstream, the removal of uric acid decreases and a build up occurs.  Introducing a small amount of carbohydrates in your diet can help reduce this build up. Include carbohydrates amounting to about 5% of your total caloric intake. This is where vegetables can help, because vegetables have the added benefit
  11. 11. Kidney stones and kidney damage  Many people assume that the kidneys might be affected because of the increase in their workload, by having to filter ketones, urea and ammonia.There is no evidence that supports this notion that the kidneys might be affected because of the increase in workload.  Dehydration(which is linked to kidney damage) has also been noted as a possible problem, Sufficient water intake is recommended to counteract this.
  12. 12. Liver damage  There is a study that was done that has determined that there wasn’t any liver damage within the 4 week range. We don’t know the effects beyond the four week range.
  13. 13. Constipation  The keto diet has been shown to cause constipation because of the overall lack of fiber and an increase in gastrointestinal absorption of foods. It is recommended that you either take supplements or you include vegetables in your diet to combat this.
  14. 14. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies  The caloric restriction of this diet has been shown to cause problems because of the lack of enough vitamins and minerals. Again, including vegetables in your diet has an added benefit of vitamins and minerals. Fruits however, should be limited because of their high glucose nature.
  15. 15. Electrolyte excretion/death  Since ketosis has been shown to cause dehydration, this leads to the excretion of three electrolytes: sodium,potassium and magnesium.  Supplements are sometimes recommended to counteract this. Amounts varying from 1. Sodium : 3-5 grams 2. Potassium : 1 gram 3. Magnesium : 300 mg
  16. 16.  Please note: an excessive intake of any single mineral is very dangerous, please consult with a doctor before you take any of these supplements. Medical supervision is advised
  17. 17. Calcium loss/osteoporosis  A calcium supplement may be necessary for some people, but again medical supervision may be needed.
  18. 18. Weight regain  It is estimated that less than 10% of people who diet will maintain in the long term. The rest will gain it back. Therefore the keto diet should be thought of as a lifestyle change, rather than a short term diet.
  19. 19. Immune system  The ketogenic diet affects people differently, some have reported a decrease in ailments while others have been more susceptible to minor sicknesses. There haven’t been enough studies to diagnose the exact reason for some of these effects.
  20. 20. Optic neuropathy  A few cases of the dysfunction of the optic nerve has been observed in some individuals. In all cases, the individuals had not been receiving enough calcium or vitamin supplements for periods up to a year.
  21. 21. Hair loss  The total fasting has shown to cause hair loss in some individuals.
  22. 22. refrences  On my website
  23. 23.  ketogenic-diet-part-1/  ketogenic-diet-part-2/